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desires to bring up its children in its own faith. For this purpose in Massachusetts any religious denominations, Jewish or Christian; any sect of Christians Roman Catholics, Baptists, Presbyterian, Methodist, or Episcopal may in perfect security and under the protection of the state establish institutions of education of high grade or low grade, universities, primary schools, or kindergartens for the distinct education of their own children. This, too, is a liberty we would not part with in Massachusetts. Is this liberty wholesome, is it consistent with the general doctrine of freedom which prevails in the American states? There is no more wholesome liberty than this perfect equality and freedom granted to all religious denominations. What results from it in the old state of Massachuseets, the Puritan state, the state founded by an exclusive church, the state founded by that denomination of Christians as they planted their colonies on that wild and desolate shore? The result is that in that original Puritan state the Roman Catholic may hold property securely and firmly for any of the purposes which I have mentioned. Could any religious faith be more opposed to the faith of the Puritan than the Roman Catholic? But any Protestant denomination may do the like. The Episcopal church was hated by the Puritan founders of Massachusetts. It was persecution from that church which had driven them from their mother country. And yet the Episcopal church may found schools, universities, hospitals, or any charitable or educational institution, and hold for such institution property under the protection of the state of Massachusetts. I respectfully commend these Massachusetts liberties to the government of the United States. There is no reason why they should not all be enjoyed in the territories of the United States just as in the full states of the Union. (Applause.)

"I ask, does all this liberty for all religious people work well? I answer that question as one who has been for twenty-three years at the head of a university that receives large numbers of students from all parts of the country, and, of course, from all religious denominations. If there is one thing evident to an experienced educator in the United States it is this: That the variety of institution's of education in our country is thoroughly wholesome. We have three classes of educational institutions. Those supported by the state, the public or municipality, the public school, the state agricultural college, the state mechanical or mining college, and the state university. We have the institutions supported by religious denominations, and we have again the private schools and colleges attached to no denominations. This diversity is one of the most wholesome features of the American system of public education. And with this diversity we are better off by far than if any single one of these three classes had full possession of the field. I hope I will shortly see in this great and beautiful territory all three of these classes of education amply protected. There is room for all, there is work for all, and a competing will accomplish greater good than if working singly. This spirit of liberty, religious and civil, is what our great and beautiful country stands for in this world. Let us love

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these principles. Let us devote ourselves to their propagation, to the building up in this country of the fair fabric of public liberty. (Applause.) Liberty, religious and civil. Liberty for associations and liberty for the individual. It is one of the great functions of universities to teach patriotism. Universities stand for ideals in this world. ideals of learning, ideals of devotion, enthusiam, and high among ideals is that of country. We have not in this republican land that sort of ideal to worship which in former centuries commended the loyalty and devotion of the people. We have not set up the idolized person we call king or queen, but we have another ideal to worship- the personified ideal which we call country.

"When poets wish to bring before us this lovely ideal of our country, so beautiful, so grand, so free, they always speak of it as a woman. The manly character and form do not so well represent this beautiful idea. The facts make our personified ideal of woman.

"It is a great privilege for any American to speak to such a friendly audience as this. I never before spoke, in my life, to so large a gathering, except in open air. Here is one of the great evidences of the great rapidity of your progress, compared with that of the Pilgrim fathers. In forty-five years you have made this possible. It took the Pilgrim and Puritan societies nearly 200 years to learn to sing the 'Halleluiah Chorus' as I have heard it sung tonight. You have done it in a much shorter time; to be sure, you have had steam and electricity to help you; you have had teachers the like of whom the Puritans never saw. It is but an instance of the rapidity of your conquest conquest of the soil, conquest of the wealth of the hills, conquest of the arts and sciences. I wish that words of mine could further the least bit this great undertaking. If I could hope that words of mine could bring about a great unity of feeling among the entire population of this beautiful territory; if I could hope that words of mine could show the way for all classes of this population to unite in seeking the great principles of liberty in the full application which they receive in other parts of the nation, it would be to me a great reward." (Great applause.)

The Martyrdom of Joseph and Hyrum Smith.


On January 29, 1844, Joseph Smith was nominated for the President of the United States. Neither he nor his friends had any hopes of his election, but it gave the citizens of Nauvoo at least a chance to vote for an honest man who was their friend. Men were sent to various parts of the country to make speeches in his favor, and Joseph published his views on how the government should be conducted. One of his ideas was that the govern ment should set the negro slaves free, paying their masters for them. President Abraham Lincoln, twenty years later, also favored this plan.

Meanwhile Nauvoo prospered, and the Church grew. When the

weather would permit, meetings were held in a grove near the temple, there being no room large enough to hold the large crowds of people. Joseph continued to give many glorious truths to the Church about the nature of God, the land of Zion, baptism for the dead, and many other things.

The Prophet's prediction that there was a Judas in their midst soon proved to be too true; and there were more than one. William Law, Joseph's second counselor, William Marks, president of the Nauvoo Stake, with many other leading men, proved themselves false to Joseph and the Church. They even planned with Joseph's enemies to have him killed. They were also proved guilty of other sins, and were soon cut off from the Church.


Carthage Jail.

Joseph's times of peace were not many nor very long. Apostates were his worst enemies, and they were all the time annoying him by having him arrested upon all kinds of charges. These men were very bitter, and howled around him like a pack of wolves, eager to devour him; but Joseph trusted in the Saints, and they in him, for those who were faithful to their duties knew by the Spirit of God that Joseph was not a fallen prophet, as his enemies claimed.

In June, 1844, the enemies of the Saints began to publish a paper in Nauvoo called the Expositor.. Its purpose was to deprive the people of Nauvoo of their rights, so it boldly said. One number was printed, and that was so full of false statements and abuse against the city officials that the city council declared it a nuisance, and had the press, type, etc., destroyed.

This raised great excitement among the enemies of the Church. Joseph and seventeen others were arrested, tried before a court in Nauvoo, and acquitted; but this did not satisfy the mobbers. On the advice of the United States judge for that district, Joseph and his brethren allowed themselves to be arrested again, and they had a trial before Justice Daniel H. Wells, then not a "Mormon." They were again discharged as innocent of any crime.

Mobs began to threaten again, but the Nauvoo Legion was ready to defend the city. As they were drawn up in front of Joseph's house one day it was the 18th of June- he mounted a platform and spoke to the soldiers. That speech was long remembered by those who heard it. It thrilled them through and through, and at the word they would gladly have marched and met the mob in battle; but that was not Joseph's way. He was always willing to have the laws carried out, even if he suffered thereby, so that his enemies could have no just excuse. That was the Prophet Joseph's last public speech.

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During the excitement Governor Ford arrived at Carthage, a town about eighteen miles from Nauvoo, and the county seat of Hancock county. The governor sent word to Nauvoo that he wanted some explanation of the trouble, so Joseph sent some of the brethren to him. The governor treated his callers rudely. Carthage was full of mobs, and the governor seemed to believe all they told him about the "Mormons." He organized the mobs into troops. Joseph asked the governor to come to Nauvoo and investigate the whole matter; but no, Joseph must go to Carthage. The governor said he would protect him if he would come.

It was on the evening of June 22d, and Joseph and Hyrum had called some brethren together. "All they want is Hyrum and myself," said the Prophet. Joseph and Hyrum both seemed certain that if their enemies got them in their power again, they would be killed. Joseph then proposed that he and Hyrum should escape to the Rocky mountains. Preparations for this trip were made, and they were rowed over the river to Iowa, when Joseph's wife sent some of the brethren to plead with him to return. Some brethren also found fault with him for running away to "leave the flock to the wolves."

Joseph replied, "If my life is of no value to my friends, it is of none to myself." So they went back, Joseph saying, "We shall be butchered."

On the morning of June 24th Joseph and eighteen brethren set out for Carthage to be tried again on the old charge. As he rode out, the Prophet made many expressions of good-by to his friends. Four miles from Carthage they met a company of militia going to Nauvoo with an order from the governor that the Nauvoo Legion give up their arms. Joseph rode back to see that this was done. Twice he bade his family farewell. His face was pale, and he was suffering.

"I am going like a lamb to the slaughter," he said, "but I am calm as a summer morning."

At Carthage they were received with oaths and threats by the troops. Apostates and soldiers swore they would never leave Carthage alive.

The next day the governor paraded the brethren before the troops, who insulted them as they passed along. Then they were placed in jail, awaiting their trial.

The day following, the prisoners were marched to the court house, guarded by the troops; but the trial was postponed until the next day, and the prisoners were taken back to jail.

This was on the 26th of June. That night Joseph was lying on the floor of the jail with some of the brethren. Brother Dan Jones was on one side and John S. Fullmer on the other.

"Lay your head on my arm for a pillow, Brother John," said Joseph, and then he talked with him in a low tone. Joseph expressed a desire to see his family again and preach to the Saints once more.

To Brother Jones he whispered, "Are you afraid to die?" When Brother Jones said he was not, Joseph replied, "You will yet see Wales, and fulfill the mission appointed you before you die." (Dan Jones afterward did a wonderful missionary work in Wales.)

The next morning the guards frequently told some of the brethren that if they did not wish to be killed, they had better get away from Joseph. This was told to Governor Ford, but he paid no attention to it.

At 10.30 that day, June 27th, the governor with the most friendly of the troops left for Nauvoo, and the brethren were left to their fate.

In an upper room of Carthage jail, Joseph, Hyrum, John Taylor, and Willard Richards were spending the time in writing letters, singing, talking, and praying. In the afternoon Joseph asked Apostle Taylor to sing the hymn commencing

"A poor wayfaring man of grief,"

and when it was done, he was asked to sing it again. Brother Taylor said he could hardly sing it, he felt so sad, but he sang the hymn again.

About five o'clock in the afternoon a mob of about two hundren men surrounded the jail. They had blacked their faces with powder and mud. Then the firing began. The mob rushed up the stairs, shooting into the room where the four brethren were. The prisoners sprang to the door to close it, but the guns of the mob forced it open. Elders Taylor and Richards tried to push the guns aside with their canes. The bullets flew like hail into the room. One ball came through the door and struck Hyrum in the head. Four others hit him, and he fell back, saying:

"I am a dead man."

Joseph gazed on his brother, and exclaimed: "Oh, dear Brother Hyrum!"

Elder Taylor now tried to jump from the window. A ball struck him, and he was about to fall from the window when another bullet from the outside hit his watch in his vest pocket, and forced him back into the room. Here he was hit by two more balls, and he rolled under the bed.

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