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tresses, " Pi-Hahiroth, Baal-Zephon, and Migdol? At no point can they be looked for, except at the head of the gulf. At this point there must in the earliest ages have been a call for them. The warlike hordes of Arabia, ever the dreaded scourge of Egypt, turning the head of the gulf, could penetrate to the rich Delta between Mount Gennāfe and the Bitter Lakes, to the neighborhood of Memphis through Wady Agrood, or to the neighborhood of Thebes between Mount Atâkah and the sea. The Tell at Shaloofah Tröbah marks a fortress at the first point, Kulat Agrood at the second, and Tell Kolzum at the third. May not the former be the site of Pi-Hahiroth? If the etymology of the name be Hebrew, it means the mouth of the caverns, or of the country of the Horites; and this derivation of the word the Greek translators seem to favor in Numbers xxxiii. 7, by rendering " before Pi-Hahiroth,” by “int to orolla Eipwa." if the etymology of the word is Egyptian, (which supposition Gesenius favors,) it is "a place where grass or sedge grows ;" and this second characteristic of the position the same Greck translators give in rendering “before Pi-Hahiroth,” in Exodus xiv. 2 and 9, by "årtevarti tñs & rathews,” “ before the stable or sleeping-place of flocks and herds."

The narrow


between the mountain and the bed of the Bitter Lakes at Shaloofah Trobah is pre-eminently the mouth or entrance to the country of the Horites or Desert Arabs. The place is a general camp-ground; the camel-drivers who carry produce to Suez leaving the city on their return in the afternoon, so as to reach at night this point. For, the moisture and winter rains draining from the point of the mountain, have furnished here a slight soil which gives growth to a coarse shrubbery, and makes the place a favorite resort for Arab shepherds and camel-drivers. It is the natural position in every respect for the encampment of the Israelites; for pasturage was plenty, and water could have been obtained from the neighboring fortress Pi-Hahiroth before the Egyptian king's approach in pursuit. The dis tance from their last encampment would have been perhaps thirty miles or a little more,-a long journey indeed, but not an impossible one; for the camel-drivers now call it but two days' journey from Ras el-Wady to Suez.

The position of Migdol has by others been supposed to be at or near Kulat Agrood; and Baal-Zephon has also been referred to the site Tell Kolzum. The general argument urged by Dr. Robinson as to the point at which the Israelites must have crossed the sea, has the confirmation of the tradition recorded by the best Arabian authors, such as Abou el-Feda and Ben-Ayâs. The crowning indication of the locality of that great event, given by Moses, that it was from between the three Egyptian fortresses, is one that can hardly be mistaken.

The map is in the main that of the French engineers of Napoleon.

The following lists, giving the names in the Hebrew, in the Greek or Roman geographers, and the modern names, may aid the reader. The first list is of those unquestioned. Hebrew. Greek Trans.

Noph and MOPH.






Tell Basta




Tell Defenneh


Ruins unnamed. Sin.


Tineh. The second list is of those localities in which one or more of the links of connection must bear a mark of question; having more or less of probability according to the reader's personal convictions. Hebrew. Greek or Roman.

Tohum or Thou.


Terebasseh el-Yehood (1)

Mouqfar. (?)

Bouthan, (Thaubastum. (?)) Near Sh. Henady. (O)
Arsinoë. (?)

Shaloofah Trobah. ()

Kulat Agrood. (0)
BAAL-ZEPHON. (1) Clysma

Tell Kolzum.
Two other localities in Egypt are mentioned in the Old Testament, the positions
of which are unquestioned :-
Greek Trang.

No, Amon, and AMON-No. Thebes. Karnac, Luxor, and Koorneh.

Syene. Assouan. As an illustration of the five cities” mentioned by Isaiah, xix. 18, (though the number five may not be limited) it may be mentioned that these five modern sites bear the general name Tell el-Yehood;" Tell el-Yehood, Tell el-Gerad, Belbeis, Tell el-Habeeb, and Tell Basta. The name el-Gerád signifies the Locust, or De struction; the Arabic being the same in form as the Hebrew.

The following Greek and Roman sites may be considered more or less fixed:-
Greek and Roman.

Greek and Roman.

Old Cairo.

Heroöpolis. Abou Kesheid. Onion.

Tell el-Yehood. Thaubastum. (ruins.)

Serapium. (ruins.)

Cleopatris. (ruins.)


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Lectures on Subjects Connected with Literature and Life. By

E. P. WHIPPLE. Second Edition. Boston: Ticknor,

Reed, & Fields. Representative Men : Seven Lectures. By R. W. EMERSON.

Boston: Phillips, Sampson, & Co.

The popular lecture is a species of literature of comparatively recent origin, and these volumes are among its first fruits. There have not been wanting, doubtless, in all ages, some who have devoted themselves with a truly nurse-like consecration to the business of “pouring the milk of science into the mouths of babes and sucklings ;” but never till of late has this benevolent employment acquired the dignity of a distinct profession, and secured the services of a large corps of practitioners. Knowledge, through a long series of ages, has been undergoing a constant process of disintegration and dilution, till it has reached a fineness of parts and a feebleness of strength suited to the weakest stomachs.

It is no longer, as in days of yore, in huge, crude masses, so that only now and then a famished cub, of human kind, could hope to swallow and digest it; but it has been carefully parcelled out into homoeopathic doses, adapted to the most delicate organs of digestion--whether of men, women, or children.

Nor are we among those who look upon this simplification of knowledge as an evil. It may be regarded as such by those who would make knowledge a species of craft, to be confined to a particular caste. It may tend to diminish the relative pre-eminence of professional scholars, by elevating somewhat in the scale of intelligence the masses around them. It may even enfeeble the general type of scholarship, or rather the general tone of intellectual vigor in scholars, by making their path less rugged, and their task easier. But it is a great blessing after all. Indeed, this very facility of acquisition enables more to enter the lists, and thus introduces the stimulus of rivalry in place of the stimulus of obstacles, which it removes. Besides, it disenthralls knowledge, and leaves it to exert its legitimate influence. If knowledge is capable of simplification, as it undoubtedly is, it certainly should be simplified. It may fairly claim this service of its professors; nay, it is its natural and inevitable tendency. Observation, study, thought, all tend to the more accurate discrimination of parts, the separation of elements, and the clearing up of difficulties. The first survey of any subject is necessarily general and superficial ; but subsequent surveys penetrate deeper and deeper into its nature and essence, till it is resolved into its ultimate elements, and may then be presented in detail to others. Just as a landscape, at first view, presents to the eye only a confused mass of objects, which, on further observation, stand forth in their distinctive character, as hill and dale, tree and fence, earth and water. And the observer, having thus acquired a distinct conception of the elementary features of the scene, may in a few words point them out to others, and thus put them in possession of ideas which cost him repeated and long-continued observation and study. Thus it is with knowledge in general. It is constantly undergoing a series of simplifications under the observation and study of numerous laborers, which are taken up, popularized, and reported to the masses. And can any one reasonably object to this process ? Nay, can any philanthropic mind fail to rejoice that it is ever going on, and, from the necessity of the case, must ever go on? If knowledge is a good, why should it not be diffused as widely as possible ?

But we are more particularly concerned with that mode of simplifying knowledge which is presented in popular lecturing. In the present age the popular lecture occupies a very important sphere, and cannot properly be overlooked in estimating the influences at work in society. It clearly comes within the range of periodical literature, and forms a fitting subject for discussion in a critical and Christian Review. Popular lectures are either scientific or literary, but chiefly the latter. When scientific, their object is simply to report the facts or principles of science, in their most elementary, and often their most diluted form, in familiar language, and with appropriate and striking illustrations; and when literary, to present in a sprightly and attractive style such views of literature and life as are of common or universal interest. In this country they are mostly delivered in the winter season, before voluntary associations organized for the purpose, in nearly all our cities and larger villages, called Lyceums. They have grown up with the age, and are one of the evidences of its progress, since they presuppose the existence of some degree of knowledge in a community, and a commendable desire to acquire more of it.

They presuppose also the existence of a spirit of freedom in a community, and flourish best where thought and its expression are under no restraint. There are probably more lectures annually delivered before promiscuous assemblies in this country than in all the world beside. They disappear, like everything else which is valuable, before the jealous censorship of despotism. Reason and experience both prove that the lecture, like the play, must be free in order to flourish. Perfect liberty alone can impart to it that freshness, variety, and comprehensiveness of topics, which will give it currency and enable it to meet the wants of men. Hired lecturers may be employed by despotism to stupefy the people with the stale nonsense of the divine rights or the hereditary rights of kings; but how different such lectures from the free and racy lectures of our lyceums! Open to all professions and classes of the community, reflecting all shades of ideas, and advocating all interests ; bold in speculation, prying into all subjects, earnest in tone and fresh in spirit, the popular lecture has come to be one of the most effective agencies in forming public opinion. Indeed, the lyceum may almost be considered as one of the institutions of the land; and being such, let us inquire a little more particularly what position it occupies among our institutions.

The principal public institutions for the improvement of men, which have been long established and universally received in civilized society, are the Church and the School. To these the Lyceum has lately been added, though its claims have not yet been fully admitted, nor its relative rank fixed. Its position must be learned from its object. The object of the lyceum is to furnish to the community agreeable instruction, or, at the lowest, improving amusement. The idea of instruction is always predominant, and that of amusement only so far admitted as is necessary, under the circumstances, to make the instruction possible. It is always didactic. It always proposes to communicate some knowledge, to relate something, to describe something, or to discuss something. It always, however, proposes to do this in a popular way, and with such accompaniments of incident, of wit, or pleasantry, as to catch the attention and gain an easy admission for the instruction even to untrained minds. Still it rather proposes to teach everything in general, than anything in particular. It allows the utmost latitude of subjects, and almost every mode of treating them.

No person of sound views will venture, for a moment, to bring the lyceum into comparison with the church, as a beneficent institution to the public. This venerable institution, hoary with age and honors, stands confessedly at the

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