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sight.” The passage is selected as especially interesting in connection with the recent lamented death of the writer :
Thus there was reason sufficient even for Paul, though rejoicing in conflicts for Chri-t's sake and finding therein his glory, still to long after that perfect union with the Lord in the life to come. In earlier years, indeed, we find him constantly referring to the contrast between the earthly life of faith, and the consummation not to be enjoyed till the resurrection. But at a later period, especially from the date of his second epistle to the Corinthians, we remark in him an ever-increasing con-ciousness that, as a necessary result of the inseparable union of believers with their Lord, both in bis sufferings and his exaltation, they also shall on their departure from the earthly existence enter at once on a higher life of vision, into a higher, more undisturbed fellowship with him. Thus, in the 5th chapter of the second epistle to the Corinthians, he, in this view, represents the abiding in the flesh as an absence from the Lord, that is, from the immediate vision of Christ; while the state which follows, entered through death, through the laying off of the earthly life, is a being at home with the Lord. (2 Cor. v. 8) He expresses the same conviction in this epistle to the Philippians Christ is his life. He distinguishes life in this sense from his life in the flesh. Christ is his true life; he has no life except in Him, none apart from Him. In Him that which alone he calls life has its being; it has its root in union with Him. And as Christ, having laid aside human infirmity, having risen and ascended to heaven, now reiyns triumphant in the divine life, living in the power of God a life exalted above the reach of death ; so also is this true of the life of the believer, as being one with His own, yea, one with Himself. And hence Paul concludes, that although even n'w, while abiding in the flesh, he has Christ for his true life; yet death is for him gain, inasmuch as through the laying off of the earthly existence, this true life, which has its being in Christ, shall be freed from the checks, hindrances, and disturbances by which it is still clogged, and shall attain to its complete development; he knows that with his departure from the earthly life, will commence his " being with Christ” in that more perfect sense, his presence with Him as an object of immediate vision. Hence this is the goal of his desires.
But there are two mistakes, against which the example of the apostle warns us, viz.: the declension, on the one hand, of that longing after the blessedness to come, which, as we have seen, is inseparable from the very nature and essence of the Christian life; and on the other, such a one-sided, morbid predominance of this desire, as to weaken the exercise of patient submission to the will of the Lord. As to the first, we remark, that it is not alone in the enjoyment of earthly gratifications, which we should ever remember are in their nature transitory and but a shadow and pledge of those higher, eternal heavenly joys, that the Christian may suffer the loss of this heavenward desire
. Even his activity, in a calling intrusted to him for the promotion of the kingdom of God may likewise so absorb him as to obscure the consciousness that he has here no abiding home, that his native country is in heaven. He labors as if his work upon earth, which is but the beginning of a higher activity destined for eternity, were to be consummated here, as if it were already the work of eternity. Hence the thought that here all remains fragmentary, that nothing reaches completion, nothing attains to its end, withdraws itself from him ; and death surprises him in the midst of his labors, consecrated though they he to God, as an unexpected, unwelcome guest who finds him unprepared. He is called away before he has finished his account; and instead of following joyfully the summons to a release from the sufferings of time, his heart clings fast to that earthly scene of labor which he too reluctantly quits, to those happy results of his labors on which be has set too high a value. Here may be applied the admonition of the Lord: " Rejoice not that the spirits are subject unto you, but rather rejoice that your names are written in heaven!", This heavenward longing is ever the salt of the Christian life, amidst all sorrows, all joys, in every season of repose, in every labor. But on the other hand, this very desire, in itself perfectly right but needing to be restrained by submission to the holy will of God, and by fidelity to the calling appointed us in this earthly life, becomes itself an error when it oversteps these boundaries. Thus arisas a one-sided direction of feeling, an impatient haste for the call, which should be waited for with a steadfast, unfaltering patience. In this undue, all-engrossing longing after the eternal, the importance of the earthly life and of its duties, connected
as they are with the eternal, is forgotten, Earthly joy and earthly labor lose the proper value assigned them in the divine arrangement. That which the goodness of God has given us for the moment, as an earnest and a preparation for the higher joys of the future, is impatiently and unthankfully contemned. The consciousness is wanting, which should be ever present with the Christian, that for the redeemed united in fellowship with Christ, even here below, the earthly of whatever name, whether it cops st in receiving or in doing, whether it be enjoyment or labor, is transformed into the heavenly. The temper of mind, which Paul's words exhibit, holds the just medium between these two extremes. The longing after the life of eternity, after the immediate society of the Lord, continues to be the ground-love of his soul, which no other can overpower. Through all the pressure of his labor in the service of God, this longing after the heavenly rest is not smothered, is not crowded from his heart. But he is far from an over-hasty impatience, which cannot await the end of the earthly conflict ; far also from that more refined selfishness, which cannot endure to strive and labor longer for the salvation of others, and be still deprived of the quiet enjoyment of heavenly blessedness. Though to depart from the earthly life, and to be present with the Lord in a perfect personal union, be the goal of his desires; he is yet ready to deny this desire, the offspring of what is noblest in man, in order to labor still upon the earth and to strive for the salvation of his brethren.
Die Kirchengeschichte des 18 und 19 Jahrhunderts, aus dem Standpunkle des
Evangelischen Protestantismus betrachtet. Von Dr. K. R. HAGENBACH.
Zweite verbesserte Auflage. Leipzig. 1848 and 1849. History of the Church in the Eighteenth and the Nineteenth Centuries, surveyed from the Standprint of Evangelical Protestantism. By Dr. K. R. HAGEN
Second improved edition. Leipzig 1848 and 1849. A combination of very rare qualities is required in a Church historian of our own times. Standing in the midst of the multiform tendencies which he is to portray, still in part undeveloped or seen in their more inmediate results,-his own character and opinions themselves the offspring of these influences,—only great clearness of discrimination and the largest measure of Christian candor can save him from one-sided and partial views. These qualities Hagenbach possesses in an eminent degree. To these be united a brilliancy of imagination and a geniality of feeling which render him one of the most attractive of writers. He is no dry detailer of facts and statistics, but a living man in the midst of a living age. Every striking phenomenon, every leading tendency of the period embraced in his range of view, whether in theology, philosophy, poetry, or practical life, so far as it is an index or a source of religious opinion, claims attention in turn. In this respect we believe he is unique. The great minds in every department of thought or action which have contributed, purposely or not, towards forwarding or retarding the progress of evangelical Protestantism, are here sketched and their influence traced with a master's hand.
We understand that this admirable work is now in process of translation by Mrs. H. C. Conant. It will be a rich accession to our religious literature; and we doubt not it will receive, in this country, the warm welcome which has greeted its appearance in Germany, as an attractive as well as instructive book for cultivated Christian families.
Chronicle of the Conquest of Granada. From the MSS. of Fray Antonio
Agapida. New-York : Geo. P. Putnam. 12mo, pp. 548.
Mr. Putnam has carried forward to the fourteenth volume the Works of Washington Irving; and gives us here that inimitable Chronicle which combines the verities of history with the charms of poetry,--presenting to the eye the scenes and events of the conquest of Granada, so as to give a
just idea of the manners, customs and spirit of both Christian and Moslem, while, at the same time, the imagination of the reader is taken captive by beautiful illustrative fictions which never tire. It is, in one word, the charm of this book, as of Mr. Irving's generally, that it is in the style which suits the theme. No history of the Conquest of Granada, written in sober prose, can give to the reader a just conception of the characters and deeds of those times. The dress of fiction is required by truth itself. In the introduction to this revised edition, Mr. Irving furnishes an interesting statement of the circumstances which led to the preparation of this volume, and attests the pains-taking with which he has sought historical accuracy. The volume, like all the series, is beautifully printed.
Europe, Past and Presen': A Comprehensive Manual of European Geogra
phy and History, with separate Descriptions and Statistics of each Šlate, and a Copious Index, facilitating reference to every Essential Fact in the History and Present State of Europe. By FRANCIS H. UNGEWITTER, LL. D. New-York: G. P. Putnam. 12mo, pp. 671.
The Manual before us is evidently the product of much of that kind of toil which to most men is irksome and repulsive,-the work of collecting and arranging facts. Dr. Ungewitter has performed an acceptable service. He has collected from numerous, and, to most readers, inaccesible sources, the leading and characteristic facts of the history and present condition of the European States, and so arranged them as to make them easy of reference. In the first place, he gives a general view of Europe, and then a chapter upon its social and political history. Its fifty-five States are next given in order, with descriptions, including, first, statements of area and population, surface, soil, natural products, manufactures, commerce, and trade; public finances, forms of government, strength of the army and (with maritime states) of the navy, and the orders of honor; secondly, the history, and thirdly, the topography of the State. An Index, including nearly ten thousand names, enables the reader to find at once any leading fact relating to European geography or history. We have never seen a work of the kind giving us equal satisfaction. It is well priated, and very substantially bound.
Popular Anatomy and Physiology, adapted to the use of Students and General
Readers By T.S. LAMBERT, M. D. New-York: Leavitt & Company. 1850. 12mo, pp. 408.
It is an erroneous opinion, which even now prevails too extensively, that a knowledge of the construction, relations and uses of the various portions of the human organism, is difficult of attainment, and when attained is of but little importance to any but the practitioner of medicine or surgery. One occasion of this opinion is the formidable appearance and minute scientific detail of most works whose object it is to impart such knowledge. Aware of this truth, the author of the work before us has attempted to arrange and set forth the main facts of Anatomy and Physiology in a concise and easy manner, so as to render it at once intelligible and interesting to the general reader, as well as instructive to the practical student. About 150 engravings, among which are five lithographic plates, are interspersed throughout the book, to illustrate the principles advanced, and in almost every instance they are accurate and distinct. For the neat and attractive style in which the work is offered to the public, the publishers are certainly entitled to much credit.
We notice a peculiarity in the author's dedication, which to us is in
exceedingly bad taste. Not content with acknowledging his obligations to some of the most prominent medical men of the Old and New Worlds, he “respectfully dedicates” his duodecimo to “ John and Sir Charles Bell, Cooper, Lawrence, Good, Horne, Richarand, and Lacunee, (who though dead yet live.)" We can account for this extraordinary dedication only on the supposition that the author is a believer in the doctrines of Swedenborg or of Andrew Jackson Davis.
The Berber; or the Mountaineer of the Atlas : A Tale of Morocco. By WILLIAM STARBUCK Mayo, M. D. New-York: Geo. P. Putnam. 12mo, pp. 454.
Dr. Mayo had already given evidence of his remarkable powers in fictitious narrative before the appearance of this volume. His “Kaloolah," though abounding in the most extravagant and improbable incidents, enchained the reader from beginning to end. We could never see, however, any good purpose for which that work was written. Indeed, we could never discover any general purpose in it, good or bad. In the volume before us, there is a narrative not less intensely exciting ; and it has the merit, which that had not, of a basis in historical truth. Besides this, it has an object, to introduce to general readers the Berbers,—& remarkable race of mountaineers in Morocco,—a race of peculiar origin, manners and character, of whom, until lately, little has been known even by the learned. Dr. Mayo has given to the reader such an acquaintance with them as to awaken and stimulate curiosity-hardly enough to satisfy it. It might, however, have diminished the interest of the story to dwell at length on matters of ethnography or history. The story incidentally illustrates other things ; such as Moorish life, and the relations of Christians and Moors in the times when African pirates were in the habit of devastating the seas, and even descending upon the coasts of Spain, and bearing away captives in triumph. It is, certainly, a remarkable and an agreeable book.
Mental Hygiene; or the Examination of the Intellect and Passions, designed
to show how they affect and are affected by the Bodily Functions, and their Influence on Healih and Longevity. By WILLIAM SWEETSER, M. D. New-York: Geo. P. Putnam. 12mo, pp. 390.
This is the second edition, re-written and enlarged, of a work relating to subjects of great practical moment, and evidently the production of an observing and thinking mind. Its leading object, as implied in the title, is “to elucidate the influence of intellect and passion upon health and the endurance of the human organization.” It is impossible to study its pages without being instructed. To an accurate knowledge of our bodily functions, the author adds a clear insight into our mental structure, with powers of analysis of a high order, and a style clear and intelligible. But the work has a most serious blemish. The author seems to us like a man who can walk amid the beauties and fragrance of a garden in full blossom, and be utterly unconscious that there is either beauty in the scene or fragrance in the air. Religion—the author has heard of it, doubtless; for he has allusions to its presence in the world. But the allusions, though complimentary to religion, as he understands it, indicate no very high importance attached to it in his estimation; and as for Christianity, there is little evidence that he has any possible acquaintance with its claims, or character, or results upon the human mind and life. In our opinion, he might extend his studies in this direction with advantage, both for his own sake and the sake of others. He would find that faith works by love, that it purifies the heart, that it enables its possessor to evercome the world, and that thus it puts the intellect and the passions into a frame tending to health and longevity. On the subject of preparation for death, we think he might find better instructions in Paul than in Epicurus.
Life and Letters of Thomas Campbell. Edited by WILLIAM BEATTIE, M. D. In two volumes. New-York: Harper & Brothers. 1850.
For half a century Campbell has been acknowledged to be one of the chief names among the Dii minores of English poetry. At the early age of twenty-two he published the “ Pleasures of Hope,” which at once placed him among the best poets of the day. The success of this youthful effort seems to have had an unfavorable influence on the subsequent development of his genius. The fear of being unable to sustain his reputation rendered him unduly fastidious, and perhaps deprived his verse of that freedom and boldness that are necessary to the highest efforts of genius. Though the " Pleasures of Hope” has marks of immaturity of mind, occasional gaudy lines and imperfect figures, it has been the most widely popular of his long poems. There are passages in it that are embalmed in the memory, and occur unbidden to the mind as the noblest embodiment of generous sentiment and elevated moral feeling. Io condensation, terseness, and polish of versification, it has never been equalled by so young a man, with the exception, perhaps, of the Essay on Criticism, which Pope wrote at the same age. Visiting the Continent in 1800, soon after Moreau's celebrated victory over the Austrians, the sight of the battle-field inspired the celebrated stanzas on “Hohenlinden." The verses of the poem roll on with a solemn movement, as if they echoed the sounding squadrons and terrible artillery that gained the battle. The “ Exile of Erin,” the “ Mariners of England," and "Lochiel's Warning,” soon after followed. In 1803 the poet removed to London. In 1809 he published " Gertrude of Wyoming." From 1820 to 1830 he edited the New Monthly Magazine, to which he contributed many of his minor poems. In 1824 he published " Theodoric," and in 1842 the “ Pilgrim of Glencoe.” Notwithstanding the elegance and occasional touching sentiment and exquisite beauty of Gertrude and Theodoric, we are disposed to think that the fame of Campbell will rest mainly on the “ Pleasures of Hope" and his lyrical effusions.
· Hohenlinden,” the “ Mariners of England,” the Battle of the Baltic," the “ Last Man," and " Lochiel's Warning,” all throb and quiver in every line with the rush of life and strength of passion that mark the masters of lyric song. These will ever live in the hearts and memories of men. When once read they can never be forgotten. "Lochiel's Warning" having been read once in the hearing of Sir Walter Scott, it so fasteved itself on his imagination and heart, that he was able to repeat it entire at a subsequent period. So long as the “meteor flag” shall wave on the seas, the “Mariners of England” will stir the blood of the British subject.
There are many points of similarity between Campbell and Gray. They hid the same comprehensiveness and elegance of scholarship, the same sympathy with what is noble in human action and character, the same fistidiousness of taste, and were alike haunted by ideals of unapproachable Loveliness and beauty. Both wrote little, and that little was finished to a degree approaching perfection. Their works are alike free from all those moral blemishes that so often cause the Christian to loathe the contact of works of genius.
The work of the biographer, Dr. Beattie, is mainly that of a compiler.