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47. General ROBERT E. LEE
528 53. Lt.-Gen. John C. PEMBERTON 528 48. JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON
55. Maj. Gen. Jno. C. BRECKINRIDGE 50. Lt.-Gen. P. G. T. BEAUREGARD 56.
SIMON B. BUCKNER
ALBERT Syd. JOHNSTON
UNION NAVAL OFFICERS.
59. Rear-Adm'l ANDREW H. FOOTE 608 65. Commodore CHARLES WILKES. 608
CHARLES H. Davis
HENRY W. MORRIS 62.
Sam'l F. Du Pont . 68. Captain JAMES H. WARD
John L. WORDEN
CHARLES S. Boggs.
160 288 294 440 445 474
517 . 530
532 540 573 578 586 595 . 599
600 601 604 622 625
THE AMERICAN CONFLICT,
The United States of America, ed two or three hundred miles westwhose independence, won on the ward, to the bases and more fertile battle-fields of the Revolution, was valleys of the eastern slope of the tardily and reluctantly conceded by Alleghanies; and there were three Great Britain on the 30th of Novem or four settlements quite beyond that ber, 1782, contained at that time a formidable but not impassable barrier, population of a little less than Three mainly in that portion of Virginia Millions, of whom half a million which is now the State of Kentucky. were slaves. This population was But, in the absence of steam, of camainly settled upon and around the nals, and even of tolerable highways, bays, harbors, and inlets, which ir- and with the mouth of the Missisregularly indent the western shore of sippi held and sealed by a jealous. the Atlantic Ocean, for a distance and not very friendly foreign power, of about a thousand miles, from the the fertile valleys of the Illinois, the mouth of the Penobscot to that of the Wabash, and even of the Ohio itself, Altamaha. The extent of the settle- were scarcely habitable for civilized ments inland from the coast may have communities. No staple that their averaged a hundred miles, although pioneer population would be likely, there were many points at which the for many years, to produce, could be primitive forest still looked off upon sold on the sea-board for the cost the broad expanse of the ocean. of its transportation, even from the Nominally, and as distinguished site whereon Cincinnati has since from those of other civilized nations, been founded and built, much less the territories of the Confederation from that of Indianapolis or Chicago. stretched westward to the Mississippi, The delicate, costly fabrics of Europe, and northward, as now, to the Great and even of Asia, could be transLakes, giving a total area of a little ferred to the newest and most inland more than eight hundred thousand settlement for a small fraction of the square miles. At several inviting price at which they would there be localities, the “clearings" were push- I eagerly bought; but when the few
coins which the settlers had takened, desolating Revolutionary strugwith them in their journey of emi- gle, rich, indeed, in hope, but poor in gration had been exhausted, there worldly goods. Their country had, was nothing left wherewith to pay for seven years, been traversed and for these costly luxuries; and debt, wasted by contending armies, almost embarrassment, bankruptcy, were the from end to end. Cities and villages inevitable results. A people clothed had been laid in ashes. Habitations in skins, living on the products of the had been deserted and left to decay. chase and the spontaneous abund- Farms, stripped of their fences, and ance of nature, might maintain ex- deserted by their owners, had for istence and a rude social organization years produced only weeds. Camp amid the forests and on the prairies fevers, with the hardships and priof the Great Valley; any other must vations of war, had destroyed many have experienced striking alterna more than the sword; and all alike tions of factitious prosperity and uni- had been subtracted from the most versal distress; seeing its villages and effective and valuable part of a popcommercial depots rise, flourish, and ulation, always, as yet, quite inadedecay, after the manner of Jonah's quate. Cripples and invalids, melangourd, and its rural population con- choly mementoes of the yet recent stantly hunted by debt and disaster struggle, abounded in every village to new and still newer locations. and township. Habits of industry The Great West of to-day owes its had been unsettled and destroyed by unequaled growth and progress, the anxieties and uncertainties of its population, productiveness, and war. The gold and silver of antewealth, primarily, to the framers of revolutionary days had crossed the the Federal Constitution, by which ocean in exchange for arms and its development was rendered possi- munitions. The Continental paper, ble; but more immediately and pal- | which for a time more than supplied pably to the sagacity and statesman- in volume) its place, had become ship of Jefferson, the purchaser of utterly worthless. In the absence of Louisiana; to the genius of Fitch and a tariff, which the Confederate ConFulton, the projector and achiever, gress lacked power to impose, our respectively, of steam-navigation; to ports, immediately after peace, were De Witt Clinton, the early, unswerv- glutted with foreign luxuries gewing, and successful champion of artifi- gaws which our people were eager cial inland navigation; and to Henry enough to buy, but for which they Clay, the eminent, eloquent, and effec- soon found themselves utterly unable tive champion of the diversification to pay. They were almost exclusively of our National Industry through the an agricultural people, and their Protection of Home Manufactures. products, save only Tobacco and In
The difficulties which surrounded digo, were not wanted by the Old the infancy and impeded the growth World, and found but a very restrictof the thirteen original or Atlantic ed and inconsiderable market even States, were less formidable, but kin- in the West Indies, whose trade was dred, and not less real. Our fathers closely monopolized by the nations emerged from their arduous, protract- to which they respectively belonged.
OUR COUNTRY AFTER THE REVOLUTION.
Indian Corn and Potatoes, the two fashionable, even in high quarters; principal edibles for which the poor and the letters of Washington' and of the Old World are largely indebt- his compatriots bear testimony to the ed to America, were consumed to a wide-spread prevalence of venality very limited extent, and not at all and corruption, even while the great imported, by the people of the eastern issue of independence or subjugation: hemisphere. The wheat-producing was still undecided. capacity of our soil, at first unsur The return of peace, though it passed, was soon exhausted by the arrested the calamities, the miseries, unskillful and thriftless cultivation of and the desolations of war, was far the Eighteenth Century. Though from ushering in that halcyon state one-third of the labor of the country of universal prosperity and happiness was probably devoted to the cutting which had been fondly and sanguineof timber, the axe-helve was but a ly anticipated. Thousands were sudpudding-stick; while the plow was denly deprived by it of their aca rude structure of wood, clumsily customed employment and means of pointed and shielded with iron. A subsistence, and were unable at once thousand bushels of corn (maize) are to replace them.
Those accepted now grown on our western prairies at though precarious avenues to fame a cost of fewer days' labor than were and fortune, in which they had found required for the production of a hun- at least competence, were instantly dred in New York or New England closed, and no new ones seemed to eighty years ago. And, though the open before them. In the absence settlements of that day were nearly of aught that could, with justice, be all within a hundred miles of tide- termed a currency, Trade and Busiwater, the cost of transporting bulky, ness were even more depressed than staples, for even that distance, over Industry. Commerce and Navigation, the execrable roads that then existed, unfettered by legislative restriction, was about equal to the present charge ought to have been, or ought soon to for transportation from Illinois to have become, most flourishing, if the New York. Industry was paralyzed dicta of the world's accepted political by the absence or uncertainty of mar- economists had been sound; but the kets. Idleness tempted to dissipation, facts were deplorably at variance with of which the tumult and excitement their inculcations. Trade, emanciof civil war had long been the school. pated from the vexatious trammels T'nquestionably, the moral condition of the custom-house marker and of our people had sadly deteriorated gauger, fell tangled and prostrate through the course of the Revolution. in the toils of the usurer and the Intemperance had extended its rav- sheriff. The common people, writhages; profanity and licentiousness ing under the intolerable pressure of had overspread the land; a coarse debt, for which no means of payment and scoffing infidelity had become existed, were continually prompting
1 " That spirit of freedom, which, at the com public, but private interest, which influences the mencement of this contest, would have gladly generality of mankind, nor can the Americans sacrificed every thing to the attainment of its any longer boast of an exception.”- Washingohject, has long since subsided, and every self ton's Letter to Henry Laurens, July 10 (1782). ish passion has taken its place. It is not the “Shoddy,” it seems, dates away back of 1861.
their legislators to authorize and di- | this hasty and casual glance at our rect those baseless issues of irredeem country, under the old federation, able paper money, by which a tem- without noting some features which porary relief is achieved, at the cost tend to relieve the darkness of the of more pervading and less curable picture. The abundance and exceldisorders. In the year 1786, the lence of the timber, which still coverlegislature of New Hampshire, then ed at least two-thirds of the area of sitting at Exeter, was surrounded, evi- the then States, enabled the common dently by preconcert, by a gathering people to supply themselves with of angry and desperate men, intent habitations, which, however rude and on overawing it into an authorization uncomely, were more substantial and of such an issue. In 1786, the famous comfortable than those possessed by Shays's Insurrection occurred in west- the masses of any other country on ern Massachusetts, wherein fifteen earth. The luxuriant and omnipreshundred men, stung to madness by ent forests were likewise the sources the snow-shower of writs to which of cheap and ample supplies of fuel, they could not respond, and execu- | whereby the severity of our northern tions which they had no means of winters was mitigated, and the warm, satisfying, undertook to relieve them- bright fireside of even the humblest selves from intolerable infestation, family, in the long winter evenings and save their families from being of our latitude, rendered centers of turned into the highways, by dis- cheer and enjoyment. Social interpersing the courts and arresting the course was more general, less formal, enforcement of legal process alto more hearty, more valued, than at gether. That the sea-board cities, present. Friendships were warmer depending entirely on foreign com- and deeper. Relationship, by blood merce, neither manufacturing them or by marriage, was more profoundly selves, nor having any other than regarded. Men were not ashamed foreign fabrics to dispose of, should to own that they loved their cousins participate in the general suffering, better than their other neighbors, and earnestly scan the political and and their neighbors better than social horizon in quest of sources and the rest of mankind. To spend a conditions of comprehensive and en- month, in the dead of winter, in a during relief, was inevitable. And visit to the dear old homestead, and thus industrial paralysis, commercial in interchanges of affectionate greetembarrassment, and political disorder, ings with brothers and sisters, marcombined to overbear inveterate pre- ried and settled at distances of judice, sectional jealousy, and the twenty to fifty miles apart, was not ambition of local magnates, in cre- deemed an absolute waste of time, ating that more perfect UNION, where nor even an experiment on fraternal of the foundations were laid and the civility and hospitality. And, though pillars erected by Washington, Ham- cultivation was far less effective than ilton, Franklin, Madison, and their now, it must not be inferred that food compeers, in the Convention which
was scanty or hunger predominant. framed the Federal Constitution. The woods were alive with game,
Yet it would not be just to close and nearly every boy and man be