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lavished at Charleston on futile at- | Nothings,” tended to confuse and betempts to bring them to an agree- wilder those who “always vote the ment, that the party first and the regular ticket," and were accustomed Union next might be saved from im- to regard a Democratic bolter with minent dissolutiont. Personal aspi- more repugnance than a life-long rations, doubtless, had their weight; adversary. The portents, from the but the South could have taken any outset, were decidedly unfavorable candidate—perhaps even Douglas to Mr. Douglas's election. himself—if he were standing square And, from the shape thus given to ly, openly, on the Avery or Breckin- | the canvass, his chances could not ridge platform; and so, probably, fail to suffer. The basis of each anticould the Northern delegates have Lincoln coalition could, of course, be consented to support Breckinridge or nothing else than hostility to the ReHowell Cobb on the Payne-Samuels publican idea of excluding Slavery or Douglas platform.” Never was an from the territories. Now, the posiissue more broadly made or clearly tion directly and thoroughly antagodefined as one of conflicting, incom- nistic to this was that of the Breckinpatible assumptions. And nowhere ridge party, which denied the right in the Slave States did the Breckin- to exclude, and proclaimed the right ridge men consent to any compro- of each slaveholder to carry Slavery mise, partnership, coalition, or ar- into any territory. The position of rangement, with the partisans of Mr. Douglas was a mean between Douglas, though aware that their these extremes; and, in an earnest, antagonism would probably give sev- arduous struggle, the prevailing teneral important States to the Bell dency steadily is away from the Everett ticket. But the Douglasites mean, and toward a positive and of the Free States, on their part, decided position on one side or the evinced a general readiness to waive other. The great mercantile intheir prestige of regularity, and sup- fluence in the seaboard cities had one port Electoral tickets made up from controlling aim in its political efforts the ranks of each anti-Republican —to conciliate and satisfy the South, party. Thus, in New York, the so as to keep her loyal to the Union. “Fusion” 'anti-Lincoln ticket was But Douglasism, or “Squatter Sovermade up of ten supporters of Bell eignty," did not satisfy the Southand Everett, seven of Breckinridge in fact, since the failure to establish and Lane, and the residue friends Slavery in Kansas, was regarded of Douglas. No doubt, there was an with special loathing by many Southunderstanding among the managers rons, as an indirect and meaner sort that, if all these could elect Mr. of Wilmot Proviso. Wherever a Douglas, their votes should be cast coalition was effected, the canvass solid for him; but the contingency was thenceforth prosecuted on a basis thus contemplated was at best a re- which was a mumbling compromise mote one, while the fact that those between the Bell and the Breckinwho had the prestige of Democratic ridge platforms, but which was usualregularity consented to bargain and ly reticent with regard to “Popular combine with bolters and “Know- | Sovereignty.”

THE BELL-EVERETT PARTY

IN 1860.

325

as

But the salient feature of the can- ciples by nominating him for the vass was the hearty accord of the Presidency. That party was mainly coälesced parties North of the Poto- composed of admiring disciples of mac, in attributing to the Republican Clay and Webster, who had sternly platform and to Mr. Lincoln appre- resisted Nullification on grounds of hended consequences that were, by principle, and had united in the the South, attributed to Douglas and enthusiastic acclaim which had “Squatter Sovereignty.” The De- hailed Webster the triumphmocratic National Convention and ant champion of our Nationality, the party had been broken up, not be “great expounder of the Constitucause of any suspicion of Republican- tion,” in his forensic struggle with ism affecting either faction, but be- IIayne. It had proudly pointed to cause the South would not abide the such men as William Gaston, of doctrine of Mr. Douglas, with regard North Carolina, Sergeant S. Prento Slavery in the Territories. Yet tiss, of Mississippi, Edward Bates, of here were his supporters appealing to Missouri, George W. Summers, of the people from every stump to vote Virginia, John J. Crittenden, of Kenthe coalition ticket, in order to concil- tucky, and James L. Petigru, of South iate the South, and save the country Carolina, as the exponents of its prinfrom the pangs of dissolution! It ciples, the jewels of its crown. It was not easy to realize that the Pughs, had nominated and supported Bell Paynes, Richardsons, Churches, etc., and Everett on a platform which who had so determinedly bearded meaningly proclaimed fidelity to the South at Charleston and at Balti- “ The Union, the Constitution, and more, defying threats of disruption the Enforcement of the Laws," as its and disunion, were the very men who distinctive ground. To say that it now exhorted the People to vote the meant by this to stand by the Union coälition Electoral tickets, in order until some other party should, in its to dispel the very dangers which they judgment, violate the Constitution, is had persistently invoked, by support- to set the human understanding at ing the Payne-Samuels platform, and defiance. It either meant to cling to : nominating Douglas for President. the Constitution and Union at all

It is more difficult to treat calmly hazards and under all circumstances, the conduct of the “American,” and to insist that the laws should be “ Conservative," “Union," or Bell- enforced throughout the country, or Everett party of the South ; or, more it was guilty of seeking votes under accurately, to reconcile its chosen false pretenses. Unlike the Douglas attitude and professions in the canvass Democracy, it was a distinct, wellwith the course taken by thousands established party, which had a definiof its members immediately on the tive existence, and at least a semannouncement of the result, with the blance of organization in every Slave ultimate concurrence of many more, State but South Carolina. It had including even the eminent and polled a majority of the Southern hitherto moderate and loyal Tennes-vote for Harrison in 1840, for Taylor sean whom it had deliberately pre in 1848, had just polled' nearly forty sented as an embodiment of its prin-1 per cent. of that vote for Bell, and

might boast its full share of the licans. They had begun by carrying property, and more than its share of New Hampshire by 4,443—a satisfacthe intelligence and respectability, of tory majority ; but were next beaten the South. This party had but to be in Rhode Island—an independent courageously faithful to its cardinal ticket, headed by William Sprague for principle and to its abiding convic- Governor, carrying the State over tions to avert the storm of civil war. theirs, by 1,460 majority. In ConnecHad its leaders, its orators, its presses, ticut, Gov. Buckingham had been respoken out promptly, decidedly, un- ölected by barely 541 majority, in nearconditionally, for the Union at all ly 80,000 votes—the heaviest poll ever hazards, and for settling our differ- had there at a State Election. It ences in Congress, in the Courts, and was evident that harmony at Charlesat the ballot-box, it would have pre- ton would have rendered the election vented the effusion of rivers of pre- of a Democratic President morally cious blood. It was perfectly aware certain. But, after the disruption that the Republicans and their Presi- there, things were bravely altered. dent elect were powerless, even if Maine, early in September, elected a disposed, to do the South any wrong; Republican Governor by 18,091 mathat the result of the elections already jority; Vermont directly followed, held had secured" an anti-Republi. with a Republican majority of can majority in either branch of the 22,370; but when Pennsylvania and ensuing Congress; that the Supreme Indiana, early in October, declared Court was decidedly and, for a con- unmistakably for Lincoln-the forsiderable period, unchangeably on mer choosing Andrew G. Curtin her the same side. In the worst con- Governor by 32,164 majority over ceivable event of the elections yet Henry D. Foster, who had the hearty to come, no bill could pass respect- support of all three opposing parties; ing the Territories, or anything else, while Indiana chose Gen. Henry S. which the “Conservatives” should Lane by 9,757 over T. A. Hendricks, see fit unitedly to oppose. And yet, his only competitor, with seven out South Carolina had scarcely indica- of eleven Representatives in Conted unmistakably her purpose, when gress, and a Republican Legislature many Bell-Unionists of Georgia, Ala- —it was manifest that only a miracle bama, and other Southern States, be- could prevent the success of Lincoln gan to clamor and shout for Secession. and Hamlin the next month. They seemed so absorbingly intent Yet the mercantile fears of conon getting, for once, on the stronger vulsion and civil war, as results of Mr. side, that they forgot the controlling Lincoln's election, were so vivid and fact that the side on which God is earnest that the contest at the North has always at last the majority. was still prosecuted by his combined

adversaries with the energy of desThe early State Elections of 1860 peration. New York, especially, was had not been favorable to the Repub- the arena of a struggle as intense, as

" New York had chosen 10; Pennsylvania 7; rendering it morally certain that, but for SecesNew Jersey 3; Ohio 8; Indiana 4; Illinois 5; sion, Mr Lincoln would have had to face an Opand Missouri 6 anti-Republicans to the House; position Congress from the start.

GOV. SEWARD CLOSING THE CANVASS OF 1860.

327

and that argu

vehement, and energetic, as had ever | low the music of the clanging bells; and, been known. Her drawn battle of strange to say, they will all bring you into

one common chamber. When you get there, the year before, and the perfect ac you will hear only this emotion of the hucord in this contest of the anti-Re- man heart appealed to, Fear, -fear that, if publican parties, gave grounds for you elect a President

of the United States

according to the Constitution and the laws hope, if not confidence, that she to-morrow, you will wake up next day, and might now be carried against Lin- find that you have no country for him to

preside over! Is not that a strange motive coln, especially as the City was ex for an American patriot to appeal to ? And, pected to give a far larger majority in that same hall, amid the jargon of three for “ Fusion" than she had ever

discordant members of the 'Fusion' party,

you will hear one argument; yet given for any man or party. ment is, that, so sure as you are so perverse Abundance of

money

for
every pur-

as to cast your vote singly, lawfully, honest

ly, as you ought to do, for one candidate pose

doubtless contributed to the ani- for the Presidency, instead of scattering it mation of the struggle on this side, among three candidates, so that no Presiwhile painful apprehensions of South- dent may be elected, this Union shall come

down over your heads, involving you and ern revolt, in case Lincoln should be us in a common ruin ! elected, rendered the “merchant

· Fellow-citizens, it is time, high time,

that we know whether this is a Constituprinces,” whose wealth was largely, tional government under which we live. It if not wholly, locked up in the shape is high time that we know, since the l' nion of Southern indebtedness, ready to is threatened, who are its friends, and who

are its enemies. The Republican party, who bleed freely for even a hope of pre- propose, in the old, appointed, constitutional venting a result they so dreaded as way, to choose a President, are every man fatal to their business, their prosperi- ists, wherever they may be, are those who

of them loyal to the Union. The disloyalty, and their affluence.

are opposed to the Republican party, and Gov. Seward—who had made a po- dent.'I know that our good and esteemed

attempt to prevent the election of a Presilitical tour through the North-West neighbors—(Heaven knows I have cause to during the Autumn, wherein his respect, and esteem, and honor, and love speeches in behalf of the Republican them, as I do; for such neighbors as even

my Democratic neighbors, no other man cause and

candidates were of a re. ever had)-I know that they do not avow, markably high order, alike in origin- nor do they mean to support, or think they

are supporting, disunionists. But I tell them, ality, dignity, and perspicuity-closed that he who proposes to lay hold of the pilthe canvass, the night before Elec- lars of the Union, and bring it down into tion, in an address to his townsmen at ruin, is a disunionist; and that every man

who quotes him, and uses his threats and Auburn, which concluded with these his menaces as an argument against our extruthful and memorable words: ercise of our duty, is an abettor, unconscious

though he may be, of disunion; and that, Now here is the trinity in unity and when to-morrow's sun shall have set, and unity in trinity of the political church, just the next morning's sun shall have risen on now come to us by the light of a new reve the American people, rejoicing in the eleclation, and christened “Fusion. And this tion of Abraham Lincoln to the Presidency, Fusion' party, what is the motive to which those inen who to-day sympathize with, upit appeals? You may go with me into the hold, support, and excuse the disunionists, streets to-night, and follow the 'Little will have to make a sudden choice, and Giants,' who go with their torchlights, and choose whether, in the language of the their flaunting banners of Popular Sover- Senator from Georgia, they will go for treaeignty ;' or you may go with the smaller and son, and so make it respectable, or whether more select and modest band, who go for they will go with us for Freedom, for the Breckinridge and Slavery; or you may fol- | Constitution, and for eternal Union.”

XXII.

SECESSION.

STATES,

Vermont
New York.
Ohio
Indiina...
Illinois.
Michigan
Wisconsin.
Minnesota.
low.....
California.

The choice of Presidential Elec- those of Missouri (9) and 3, as aforetors, which formerly took place at said, from New Jersey. But, though the discretion of the several States nowhere in the Electoral, Mr. Dongwithin a limited range, is now re- las was second in the Popular, vote, quired, by act of Congress, to be as will be seen by the following made on the same day throughout table, wherein the "Fusion” vote is namely, on the Tuesday next suc divided between the parties which ceeding the first Monday in Novem- contributed to it, according to the ber. This fell, in 1860, on the 6th | best estimate that can now be made of the month; and it was known, be- of their strength respectively: fore that day had fully expired, that ABRAHAM LINCOLN had been clearly Maine...... designated by the People for their New Hampshire.. next President, through the choice by Bhende Inland.... his supporters of a majority of the whole number of Electors. Every DayTania... Free State but New Jersey had chosen the entire Lincoln Electoral ticket; and in New Jersey the refusal of part of the Douglas men to support the “Fusion” ticket (composed Oregon. of three Douglas, two Bell, and two

Total Free States..1,631,150 1,123,049 279,211 130,151 Breckinridge men), had allowed four * - Fusion" vote apportioned according to the estima.

ted strength of the several contributing parties. of the Lincoln Electors to slip in over the two Bell and the two Breck

Douglas, Breckinridge. Bell inridge Electors on the regular Dem- Maryland...... ocratic ticket. The three Lincoln North Carolina... (no tichet)

44,990

South Carolina... [Chosen by the Legislature.] Electors who had to confront the full Georgin..

(no ticket) vote of the coalesced anti-Republican Mississippi (no ticket) parties were defeated by about 4,500 Tennessee (no tichet) majority. And, although this was not ascertained that night, nor yet Florida.... the fact that California and Oregon

(no ticket) (no ticket) 47.25 15,+33 had gone with the other free States,

Grand Total......1,557,610 1,291,574 $50,0-2 646,124 yet there were 169 Lincoln Electors chosen (out of 303) outside of these

Electoral ticket, but almost entirely by old Whigs' or three States; with these, Mr. Lincoln

Lincoln over Donglas, 566 436; Do. over Bell, 1,211,486; had 180, to 123 for all others. Of

Lincoln has less than all his opponents combined, by these, Breckinridge had 72; Bell 39 930,170,

Breekinridge had in the Slave States over Bell, 54,898;

da. over Douglas, 407,846; du, over Douglas and Lin(from Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee); and Douglas barely 12— Breckinridge lacks of a majority in the Slave States,

135,057.

FREE STATES.

LINCOLN. Douglas. Breckinridge. Bell. 62,811 26,698 6.868 2,046 37.519 25,531

2,112 106,333 84,372 6,989 22,331 12,244 *4,000 *1,000 2,707 43,972 15,722 14.611 8,291 83,503 6.49 219 1.969 853, 504 *203%29 *50,00) *54,00)

5432 *30.000) *30.000 *2,501 26.030 *78,571 *100).XMO 12.776 231.610 157,232 11,405 12 194 139,0183 115,509 12,295 5,306 172,161 160.215 2,1014 4,913 65.057

503 4115 86.110 63,021 SSS 161 22.000 11.920

62 70,409 55,111 1.045 1,743 89.173 316 31,324 5,270 8,9.31 5.006 133

STATES.
Delaware..

SLAVE STATES.
LINCOLN,

3, S15 1,023
2.294

5.966
1,929 16,290)

2,701

3,64 41.760) 74.131

42,12
71.323
45,39

Virginia...

(no ticket)

Alabama..

11.590 13.051

8,933 25.651 11,350

1,361

51.9 45-31 40.797 $9,113 61,200 81,317 28.732

42.996 27. 75 23,00 66,053 69,274 5 372 20.094 20.21H 3,137

Missouri..
Arkansas.
Louisiana

3,227

17,025
(no ticket)
(no ticket)
(no ticket)

367

Texas

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