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SUMTER, NORTH AND SOUTH.

449

While Charleston resumed and in- | they were transferred to the Federal tensified her exulting revels,' and the steamship Baltic, awaiting them off telegraph invited all • Dixie' to share the bar, which brought them directly the rapture of her triumph, the weary to New York, whence Maj. Andergarrison extinguished the fire still, son dispatched to his Government raging, and lay down to rest for the this brief and manly report : night. The steamboat Isabel came down next morning to take them off ;

“STEAMSHIP Baltic, OFF SANDY IIook, April 18, 1861.

} but delay occurred in their removal “ The Honorable S. CAMERON, by tug to her deck, until it was too Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.: late to go out by that day's tide. thirty-four hours, until the quarters were

“Sir: Ilaving defended Fort Sumter for When the baggage had all been re- entirely burned, the main gates destroyed, moved, a part of the garrison was the gorge-wall seriously injured, the maga

zine surrounded by flames, and its door * told off as gunners to salute their flag closed from the effects of the heat, four barwith fifty guns; the Stars and Stripes rels and three cartridges of powder only being lowered with cheers at the firing being available, and no provisions but pork

remaining, I accepted terms of evacuation of the last gun. Unhappily, there was offered by Gen. Beauregard (being the samo at that fire a premature explosion, offered by him on the ilth instant, prior to whereby one of the

the commencement of hostilities), and gunners was

marched out of the fort on Sunday afterkilled, and three more or less seriously noon, the 14th instant, with colors flying wounded. The men were then formed and drums beating, bringing away company and marched out, preceded by their and private property, and saluting my flag band, playing inspiring airs, and

“ROBERT ANDERSON, taken on board the Isabel, whereby

“Major First Artillery."

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WHETHER the bombardment and section was deeply in debt to the merreduction of Fort Sumter shall or chants and manufacturers of the shall not be justified by posterity, it Northern cities, as well as to the is clear that the Confederacy had no slave-breeders and slave-traders of alternative but its own dissolution. the Border States; and, while many Five months had elapsed since the creditors were naturally urgent for Secession movement was formally in their pay, few desired or consented augurated--five months of turmoil, to extend their credits in that quaruncertainty, and business stagnation, ter. Secession had been almost everythroughout the seceded States. That where followed, if not preceded, by

5" Bishop Lynch (Roman Catholic), of Charles through every section of South Carolina, that ton, S. C., celebrated on Sunday the blood the movement in which the people were engaged legs victory of Fort Sumter with a Te Deum and was begun by them in the deepest conviction of congratulatory address. In all the churches, duty to God; and God had signally blessed their allusions were made to the subject. The Epis- dependence on Him. If there is a war, it will copal Bishop, wholly blind and feeble, said it be purely a war of self-defense."- New York Triwas his strong persuasion, confirmed by travel bune, April 16.

a suspension of specie payments by | Secession, as we have seen, had the Banks; and, though the lawyers been initiated by the aid of the most in most places patriotically refused positive assurances that, once fairly to receive Northern claims for collec- in progress, every Slave State would tion, a load of debt weighed heavily speedily and surely unite in it; yet, on the planting' and trading classes up to this time, but seven of the fifof the entire South, of whom thou- teen Slave States, having a decided sands had rushed into political con- minority of the population, and a vulsion for relief from the intolerable still more decided minority of the pressure. Industry, save on the white inhabitants, of that section, plantations, was nearly åt a stand; had justified the sanguine promise. never before were there so many On the contrary, the so-called 'Borwhites vainly seeking employment. der States,' with Tennessee and Ar. The North, of course, sympathized kansas, had voted not to secede, and with these embarrassments through most of them by overwhelming mathe falling off in its trade, especially jorities; save that Kentucky, Marywith the South, and through the land, and Delaware, had scarcely paucity of remittances; but our cur- deigned to take the matter into conrency was still sound, while Southern sideration. And, despite Vice-Presidebts had always been slow, and paid dent Stephens's glowing rhetoric, it substantially at the convenience of was plain that the seceded States did the debtors, when paid at all. Still, not and could not suffice to form a the feeling that the existing suspense nation. Already, the talk in their and apprehension were intolerable, aristocratic circles of Protectorates and that almost any change would and imported Princes betrayed their be an improvement, was by no means own consciousness of this. Either to confined to the South.

attack the Union, and thus provoke The following private letter from a South running here and there, with and without the Carolina planter to an old friend settled in Texas,

Governor's orders.

We have no money. A forced tax is levied upon every man.

I have gives a fair idea of the situation :

furnished the last surplus dollar I have. I had " ABBEVILLE C. H., S. C., Jan. 24,1861. about $27,000 in the bank. At first, I gave a "DEAR SIR:-I desire you to procure for me, check for $10,000; then $5,000; then the reand send by mail, a Texas Almanac. Six months

mainder. It is now estimated that we are since, I felt perfectly willing to remain in South spending $25,000 per day, and no prospect of Carolina ; but I can remain here no longer. At getting over these times. It was our full underthe election of Lincoln, we all felt that we must resist. In this move, I placed myself among

standing, when we went out of the Union, that

We would have a new Government of all the the foremost, and am yet determined to resist him to the bitter end. I had my misgivings, at

Southern States. Our object was to bring

about a collision with the authorities at Washfirst, of the idea of separate Secession; but ington, which all thought would make all join thought it would be but for a short time, and at amall cost.

Although we have sought such collision in In this manner, together with thousands of other Carolinians, we have been

every way, we have not yet got a fight, and the mistaken. Everything is in the wildest commo

prospect is very distant. I want the Almanac

to see what part of Texas may suit me. I want tion. My bottom land on Long Cone, for which

to raise cotton principally, but must raiso corn I could have gotten thirty dollars per acre, I enough to do me. I cannot live here, and must now cannot sell at any price. All our young get away. Many are leaving now; at least men, nearly, aro in and around Charleston. Thither we have sent many hundreds of our

10,000 negroes have left already; and, before negroes (I have sent twenty) to work. Crops long, one-third of the wealth of South Carolina

will be in the West. I desire you to look around were very short last year; and it does now seem

and help me to get a home. As ever yours, that nothing will be planted this coming season.

"ROBERT LYON." All are excited to the highest pitch, and not a thought of the future is taken. Messengers aro * Wm. H. Russell, of The London Times, in his

us.

HESITATION OF THE BORDER STATES.

451

a war, or to sink gradually but surely | poses, that there should be "coërout of existence beneath a general cion.' appreciation of weakness, insecurity, So late as April 4th—a month after and intolerable burdens, was the only the return of her Commissioners' choice left to the plotters and uphold from the abortive Peace Conference ers of Secession.

-Virginia, through her Convention, And, though signally beaten in by the decisive vote of 89 to 45, rethe recent elections of the non-sece- fused to pass an Ordinance of Secesded Slave States, they had yet a very sion. Still, her conspirators worked strong party in most of those States on, like those of the other ‘Border -stronger in wealth, in social stand- States,' and claimed, not without ing, and in political activity and in- plausible grounds, that they were fluence, than in numbers. A major- making headway. Richmond was ity of these had been able to bring the focus of their intrigues, as it was the Conventions or the Legislatures of her Slave-trade; but it was boasted of their respective States to say, with that, whereas two of her three deletolerable unanimity, “If the Black gates to the Convention were chosen Republicans attempt to coërce the as Unionists, she would now give a seceded States, we will join them in decided majority for Secession. The armed resistance.” It was indispen- Richmond Whig,' the time-honored sable, therefore, to their mutual pur- organ of her Whig Conservatives,'

"Diary, North and South," writing at Charles sands. The sport of every popular excitement, ton, April 18, 1861, says:

the victim of every conflicting interest, of plot

ting ambition or momentary impulse, it would "These tall, thin, fine-faced Carolinians are great materialists. Slavery, perhaps, has aggra

afford no guarantee of perpetuity, while the

hours bring round the circuit of a single year. vated the tendency to look at all the world

To suppose that a single State could withdraw through parapets of cotton-bales and rice-bags;

at will, is to brand the statesmen of the Revoluand, though more stately and less vulgar, the

tion, convinced of the weakness and certain deworshipers here are not less prostrate before

struction of the old Confederation of States, of the 'almighty dollar' than the Northerners.

laboring to perpetuate the evil they attempted Again, cropping out of the dead level of hate to

to remedy. The work, which has been the marthe Yankee, grows its climax in the profession,

vel of the world, would be no government at all; from nearly every one of the guests, that he

the oaths taken to support and maintain it would would prefer a return to British rule to any reunion with New England. * ** They affect the

be bitter mockery of serious obligations; and

nothing would exist to invite the confidence of agricultural faith and the belief of a landed gen

citizens or strangers in its protection. try. It is not only over the wine-glass-why

“Less strong would it be than a business call it cup?—that they ask for a Prince to reign partnership of limited time. From this, neither over them. I have heard the wish repeatedly party who has entered into it can escape, except expressed within the last two days that we

by due course of law. Withdrawal of one memcould spare them one of our young Princes, but

ber carries no rights of possession of property or never in jest or in any frivolous manner."

control of the affairs of the partnership, unless Mr. Russell's letters from Charleston to The the injunctions of legal tribunals are invoked to Times are to the same effect, but more explicit restrain all action until the matter in dispute is and circumstantial.

settled. A State seceding knows no law to maintain its interest nor vindicate its rights.

The right to secede, on the other hand, places The Richmond Whig of November 9, 1860, had the Government more at the mercy of popular the following:

whim than the business interest of the least “Because the Union was created by the vol

mercantile establishment in the country is placed, untary consent of the original States, it does not

by the law of the land." follow that such consent can be withdrawn at

Such were the just and forcibly stated conviowill by any single party to the compact, and its obligations and duties, its burdens and demands,

tions of a leading journal, which soon after bebe avoided. A government resting on such a came, and has since remained, a noisy oracle basis would be as unstable as the ever-shifting of Secession.

this:

who had secured her vote for Bell | Address. I commend a careful consideration and Everett, had been changed-by give to my purposes. As I then and

therein

of the document as the best expression I can purchase, it was said—and was now said, I now repeat, “The power confided in as zealous for Secession as hitherto me will be used to hold, occupy, and possess, against it. Finally, her Convention property and places belonging to the Gore

ernment, and to collect the duties on imresolved, on the 4th aforesaid, to send ports; but, beyond what is necessary for new Commissioners to wait on Presi- these objects, there will be no invasion, no dent Lincoln, and appointed Messrs. anywhere.' By the words "property and

using of force against or among the people William Ballard Preston, Alex. H. H. places belonging to the Government,' I Stuart, and George W. Randolph (of chiefly allude to the military posts and

property which were in possession of the whom the last only was formerly a Government when it came into my hands. Democrat, and was chosen as a Se- But if, as now appears to be true, in pursuit cessionist), to proceed to Washington anthority from these places, an unprovoked

of a purpose to drive the United States on this errand. They did not ob- assault has been made upon Fort Sumter, I tain their formal audience until the shall hold myself at liberty to repossess it

,

if I can, like places which had been seized 13th—the day of Fort Sumter's sur before the Government was devolved upon render—when its bombardment, if me; and, in any event, I shall, to the best of not its capture also, was already my ability, repel force by force. In case it

proves true that Fort Sumter has been asknown in that city-and there was a saulted, as is reported, I shall, perhaps, cause grim jocosity in their appearance at

the United States nails to be withdrawn

from all the States which claim to have sesuch an hour to set before the ha- ceded, believing that the commencement of rassed President such a missive as actual war against the Government justifies

and, possibly, demands it. I scarcely need

to say that I consider the military posts and “Whereas, in the opinion of the Conven- property, situated within the States which tion, the uncertainty which prevails in the claim to have seceded, as yet belonging to public mind as to the policy which the Fed- the United States as much as they did before eral Executive intends to pursue toward the the supposed secession. Whatever else I may seceded States is extremely injurious to the do for the purpose, I shall not attempt to colindustrial and commercial interests of the lect the duties and imposts by any armed incountry, tends to keep up an excitement vasion of any part of the country; not meanwhich is unfavorable to the adjustment of the ing by this, however, that I may not land a pending difficulties, and threatens a disturb- force deemed necessary to relieve a fort on ance of the public peace: therefore, the border of the country. From the fact

"Resolved, That a Committee of three del- that I have quoted a portion of the Inauguegates be appointed to wait on the President ral Address, it must not be inferred that I of the United States, present to him this repudiate any other part, the whole of which preämble, and respectfully ask him to com I reaffirm, except so far as what I now say municate to this Convention the policy of the mails may be regarded as a modificawhich the Federal Executive intends to tion." pursue in regard to the Confederate States."

With this answer, the CommissionTo this overture, after duly ac

ers retired; and the next important knowledging its reception, Mr. Lincoln replied as follows:

news from Virginia reached Wash

ington via Montgomery and New “In answer, I have to say that, having, at the beginning of my official terın, expressed Orleans, which cities had been exmy intended policy as plainly as I was able, hilarated to the point of cheering it is with deep regret and mortification I and cannon-firing, by dispatches from now learn that there is a great and injurious uncertainty in the public mind as to what Richmond, announcing the fact that that policy is, and what course I intend to the Convention had, in secret, taken pursue. Not having, as yet, seen occasion their State out of the Union, and to change, it is now my purpose to pursue the course marked out in that Inaugural | united her fortunes with those of the

THE PRESIDENT'S FIRST CALL FOR MILITIA.

453

Confederacy. The vote by which | ily followed, the number of the inthis result was achieved stood 88 to credulous was even increased. All 55—the majority greatly strength- doubt, however, was dispelled when ened, doubtless, if not secured, by an the journals of Monday morning, act of the Confederate Congress for- April 15th, displayed conspicuously bidding the importation of slaves the following from States out of the Confederacy

"PROCLAMATION. man act which, so long as Virginia

“WHEREAS, the laws of the United States adhered to the Union, struck a stag- have been for some time past, and now are, gering blow at the most important opposed, and the execution thereof obstruct

ed, in the States of South Carolina, Georgia, and productive branch of her indus- Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and try. And, while the fact of her se- Texas, by combinations too powerful to be cession was still unproclaimed, her suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial

proceedings, or by the powers vested in the authorities at once set whatever mili- marshals by law: now, therefore, I, Abratary forces they could muster in mo ham Lincoln, President of the United States, tion to seize the Federal Navy Yard Constitution and the laws, have thought fit

in virtue of the power in me vested by the at Norfolk (Portsmouth) and the Ar- to call forth the Militia of the several States senal at Harper's Ferry.

of the Union to the aggregate number of 75,000, in order to suppress said combina

tions, and to cause the laws to be duly exeAs the news of the attack on Sum

cuted.

“ The details for this ob. will be immeter flashed over the country, an in- diately communicated to the State authoritense and universal excitement was ties through the War Department. I appeal aroused in the Free as well as the aid, this effort to maintain the honor, the in

to all loyal citizens to favor, facilitate, and Slave States. Indignation was par- tegrity, and existence, of our national Union, amount in the former ; exultation and the perpetuity of popular Government, ruled throughout the latter. Many endured. I deem it proper to say that the

and to redress wrongs already long enough at the North obstinately refused to first service assigned to the forces hereby

called forth will probably be to repossess the credit the tidings; and, when news

forts, places, and property which have been of the surrender of the fort so speed- seized from the Union; and in every event the

* The New York Herald of April 13th had a 6 The Circular from the War Department, Charleston dispatch of the 12th, which thus cor which was sent to the Governors along with rectly expresses the Confederate idea:

this Proclamation, explained that the call was "The first shot [at Fort Sumter] from Ste for regiments of infantry or riflemen only-each vens's battery was fired by the venerable Ed. regiment to be composed of 780 men—the apmund Ruffin, of Virginia. That ball will do

portionment of regiments to the several States more for the cause of Secession in Virginia than

called on being as follows: volumes of stump speeches."

Maine .

1 | Virginia 5 The New York Herald of the 14th had the fol New Hampshire North Carolina lowing:

Vermont.

1 Kentucky

Massachusetts 2 Arkansas. “RICHMOND, VA., April 13, 1861.

Rhode Island 1 Missouri “There is great rejoicing here over the news

Connecticut.

1 Ohio from Charleston.

New York

17 Indiana * One hundred guns have been fired to cele

New Jersey

Mlinois brate the surrender of Fort Sumter.

Pennsylvania 16 Michigan " Confederate flags are everywhere displayed; Delaware.

Iowa while music and illuminations are the order of

Tennessee

Minnesota the evening.

Maryland.
4 | Wisconsin

1 “Gov. Letcher has just been serenaded. He

The 94 regiments thus called for would form a made a non-committal speech. ** The streets are crowried with people, and

total of 73,391 men-the residue of the 75,000 the utmost enthusiasm and excitement prevails." being expected from the Federal District.

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