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can have no right to fix upon it her own was born; while the father of John peculiar construction.”

C. Calhoun died when his son was

still in his early teens. Each was by ANDREW JACKSON and John C. birth a South Carolinian; for, though CALHOUN—two of the most remarka- General Jackson's birth-place is ble men ever produced in this or any claimed by his biographers for North other country—were destined to lead Carolina, he expressly asserted South the rival forces by which the Nullifi- Carolina's to be his native State, in cation issue was finally brought to a the most important and memorable practical conclusion. Though they document to which his name is apbecame and died fierce antagonists, pended, and which flowed not merely and even bitter personal enemies, from his pen, but from his heart. their respective characters and careers Each was of the original Anti-Federexhibited many points of resemblance. al, strict-construction school in our Each was of that “Scotch-Irish” politics—Calhoun's father having vePresbyterian stock with which Crom- hemently opposed the adoption of well repeopled the north of Ireland the Federal Constitution ; while Jackfrom Scotland, after having all but son, entering Congress as the sole reexterminated its original Celtic and presentative of the newly admitted Catholic inhabitants, who resisted State of Tennessee (December 5, and defied his authority. That 1796), voted in a minority of twelve Scotch-Irish blood to this day evinces against the address tendering to Gensomething of the Cromwellian ener- eral Washington, on his retirement gy, courage, and sturdiness. Each | from the Presidency, a respectful exwas of Revolutionary Whig antece- pression of the profound admiration dents—Jackson, though but thirteen and gratitude wherewith his whole years of age, having been in arms for public career was regarded by Conthe patriotic cause în 1780; his bro- gress and the country. General ther Hugh having died in the service Jackson was not merely an extreme the preceding year. Andrew (then Republican of the Jeffersonian Statebut fourteen), with his brother Ro Rights School; he was understood to bert, was taken prisoner by the Brit- side with Colonel Hayne at the time ish in 1781, and wounded in the head of his great debate on Nullification and arm while a captive, for refusing with Mr. Webster. Each entered to clean his captor's boots. His bro- Congress before attaining his thirtither was, for a like offense, knocked eth year, having already taken a condown and disabled. John C. Cal. spicuous part in public affairs. Each houn was only born in the last year was first chosen to the House, but of the Revolutionary War; but his served later and longer in the Senate. father, Patrick Calhoun, was an Each was a slaveholder through most ardent and active Whig throughout of his career, always found on the the struggle. Each was early left side of Slavery in any controversy fatherless-Andrew Jackson's father affecting its claims or interests during having died before his illustrious son his public life; and neither emanci

15" Fellow-citizens of my native State !"- tion against the Nullifiers, Dec. 11, 1832.

He appealing to South Carolinians in his Proclama can hardly have been mistaken on this head.

PROTECTION - MR. JEFFERSON'S VIEW.

89

was

pated his slaves by his will. Each | earliest conspicuous champion in our
became, for the first time, a candidate national councils Alexander
for the Presidency in 1824, when Hamilton, General Washington's
each counted with confidence on the Secretary of the Treasury, came, at
powerful support of Pennsylvania. a later day, to be mainly championed
When that State, through her leading by Republicans. The great mer-
politicians, decided to support Jack- chants were leading Federalists; the
son, Calhoun fell out of the race, but great sea-ports were mainly Federal
was made Vice-President without strongholds; the seaboard was in
serious opposition; General Jackson. good part Federal: it yearned for
receiving a plurality of the electoral extensive and ever-expanding com-
votes for President, but failing of merce, and mistakenly, but naturally,
success in the House. In 1828, their regarded the fostering of Home
names were placed on the same Manufactures as hostile to the con-
ticket, and they were triumphantly summation it desired. Mr. Jeffer-
elected President and Vice-Presi- son's Embargo had borne with great
dent respectively, receiving more severity upon the mercantile class,
than two-thirds of the electoral votes, inciting a dislike to all manner of
including those of every State south commercial restrictions. The inte-
of the Potomac. This is the only rior, on the other hand, was prepon-
instance wherein the President and derantly Republican, and early com-
Vice-President were both chosen from prehended the advantage of a more
those distinctively known as Slave symmetrical development, a wider
States ; though New York was nom- diversification, of our National Indus-
inally and legally a Slave State when try, through the legislative encou-
her Aaron Burr, George Clinton, and ragement of. Home Manufactures.
Daniel D. Tompkins were each chosen The Messages of all the Republican
Vice-President with the last three Presidents, down to and including
Virginian Presidents respectively. General Jackson, recognize and
Alike tall in stature, spare in frame, affirm the wisdom, beneficence, and
erect in carriage, austere in morals, constitutionality of Protective legis-
imperious in temper, of dauntless lation. The prëamble to the first
courage, and inflexible will, Jackson, tariff act passed by Congress under
and Calhoun were each fitted by na- the Federal Constitution explicitly
ture to direct, to govern, and to affirms the propriety of levying im-
mould feebler men to his ends; but posts, among other ends, “ for the
they were not fitted to coalesce and protection of Domestic Manufac-
work harmoniously together. They tures.” Mr. Jefferson, in his Annual
had hardly become the accepted Message of December 14, 1806, after
chiefs of the same great, predominant announcing that there is a prospect
party, before they quarreled; and of an early surplus of Federal reve-
their feud, never healed, exerted a nue over expenditure, proceeds:
signal and baneful influence on the
future of their country.

“The question, therefore, now comes forward — to what other objects shall these

surpluses be appropriated, and the whole The Protective Policy, though its surplus of impost, after the entire discharge

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kindly and delicately reminded of it. Senators not to suppose that I do it in the Mr. George M. Dallas, e of Pennsyl- spirit of taunt, of reproach, or of idle de

clamation. Regarding it as a misfortune vania—a life-long Democrat and merely, not as a fault—as a disease inherited, anti-Abolitionist, cautious, conserva

not incurred-perhaps to be alleviated, but

not eradicated-I should feel self-condemned tive, conciliatory-replying to one of were I to treat it other than as an existing Mr. Hayne's eloquent and high- fact, whose merit or demerit, apart from the wrought portrayals of the miserable question under debate, is shielded from

commentary by the highest and most just state to which the South and her in- considerations. I refer, Sir, to the character dustry had been reduced by the Pro- of Southern labor, in itself

, and in its intective policy, forcibly and truthfully to the ever-varying changes of human socie

fluence on others.' Incapable of adaptation said:

ty and existence, it retains the communities

in which it is established, in a condition of “What, Sir, is the cause of Southern dis

The tress? Has any gentleman yet ventured to lights of Science and the improvements of

apparent and comparative inertness. designate it? I am neither willing nor

Art, which vivify and accelerate elsewhere, competent to flatter. To praise the honora

cannot penetrate, or if they do, penetrate ble Senator from South Carolina would be

with dilatory inefficiency, among its opera* To add perfume to the violet

tives. They are not merely instinctive and Wasteful and ridiculous excess.'

passive. While the intellectual industry of But, if he has failed to discover the source other parts of this country springs elastically of the evils he deplores, who can unfold it? forward at every fresh impulse, and manual Amid the warm and indiscriminating denun- labor is propelled and redoubled by countciations with which he has assailed the less inventions, machines, and contrivances, policy of protecting domestic manufactures instantly understood and at once exercised, and native produce, he frankly avows that the South remains stationary, inaccessible to he would not deny that there are other such encouraging and invigorating aids. causes, besides the Tariff, which have con

Nor is it possible to be wholly blind to the tributed to produce the evils which he has moral effect of this species of labor upon depicted.' What are those "other causes ?? those freemen among whom it exists. A In what proportion have they acted? How disrelish for humble and hardy occupation; much of this dark shadowing is ascribable to a pride adverse to drudgery and toil; a each singly, and to all in combination? | dread that to partake in the employments Would the Tariff be at all felt or denounced, allotted to color may be accompanied also if those other causes were not in operation? by its degradation, are natural and inevitaWould not, in fact, its influence, its discrimi- ble. The high and lofty qualities which, in nations, its inequalities, its oppressions, but other scenes and for other purposes, characfor those other causes,' be shaken, by the terize and adorn our Southern brethren, are elasticity, energy, and exhaustless spirit of

fatal to the enduring patience, the corporal the South, as “dew-drops from the lion's exertion, and the painstaking simplicity, by mane ? These inquiries must be satisfac- which only a successful yeomanry can be torily answered before we can be justly formed. When, in fact, Sir, the Senator required to legislate away an entire system. from South Carolina asserts that “Slaves are If it be the root of all evil, let it be exposed too improvident, too incapable of that miand demolished. If its poisonous exhalations nute, constant, delicate attention, and that be but partial, let us preserve such portions persevering industry which are essential to as are innoxious. If, as the luminary of manufacturing establishments,' he himself day, it be pure and salutary in itself, let us

admits the defect in Southern labor, by not wish it extinguished, because of the which the progress of his favorite section shadows, clouds, and darkness, which ob- must be retarded. He admits an inability scure its brightness, or impede its vivifying to keep pace with the rest of the world. He power.

admits an inherent weakness; a weakness “That other causes' still, Mr. President, neither engendered nor aggravated by the for Southern distress, do exist, cannot be Tariff-which, as societies are now constidoubted. They combine with the one I tuted and directed, must drag in the rear, have indicated, and are equally unconnected and be distanced in the common race.” with the manufacturing policy. One of these it is peculiarly painful to advert to; and when I mention it, I beg honorable

South Carolina did not heed these

16 Speech in the Senate, February 27, 1832.

NULLIFICATION MADE PRACTICAL.

93

gentle admonitions. The convictions | States against the validity of said of her leading men were, doubtless, act should be permitted; no copy of Pro-Slavery and Anti-Tariff; but the proceedings should be taken for their aspirations and exasperations the purpose of making such appeal; likewise tended to confirm them in and any attempt to appeal to the Juthe course on which they had resolved diciary of the United States from any and entered. General Jackson and decision of a State court affirming and Mr. Calhoun had become estranged upholding this Ordinance, should be and hostile not long after their joint "dealt with as for a contempt of the election as President and Vice-Presi- court” thus upholding and affirming. dent, in 1828. Mr. Calhoun's san- Every office-holder of the State, and guine hopes of succeeding to the “every juror” was required expressly Presidency had been blasted. Mr. to swear to obey this Ordinance, and Van Buren supplanted him as Vice- all legislative acts based thereon. President in 1832, sharing in Jack- Should the Federal Government unson's second and most decided dertake to enforce the law thus nullitriumph. And, though the Tariff of fied, or in any manner to harass or 1828 had been essentially modified obstruct the foreign commerce of the during the preceding session of Con- State, South Carolina should theregress, South Carolina proceeded, di- upon consider herself no longer a rectly after throwing away her vote member of the Federal Union : in the election of 1832, to call a Con

“ The people of this State will thenceforth vention of her people, which met at hold themselves absolved from all further her Capitol on the 19th of Novem obligation to maintain or preserve their poliber. That Convention was composed

tical connection with the people of the other

States, and will forth with proceed to organof her leading politicians of the Cal- ize a separate government, and do all other houn school, with the heads of her acts and things which sovereign and indegreat families, forming a respectable pendent States may of right do.” and dignified assemblage. The net Thus was Nullification" embodied result of its labors was an Ordinance

rdinance in an Ordinance preparatory to its of Nullification, drafted by a grand reduction to practice. The LegislaCommittee of twenty-one, and adopt- ture, 'in which the Nullifiers were an ed with entire unanimity. By its overwhelming majority, elected Mr. terms, the existing Tariff was form-Webster's luckless antagonist, Robert ally pronounced " null, void, and no Y. Hayne, Governor of the State; law, nor binding on this state, its and the Governor, in his Message, officers, or citizens,” and the duties thoroughly indorsed the action of the on imports imposed by that law were nullifying Convention, whereof he forbidden to be paid within the State had been a member. of South Carolina after the 1st day “I recognize," said he, "no allegiance as. of February ensuing. The Ordinance paramount to that which the citizens of.

South Carolina owe to the State of their contemplated an act of the Legisla- birth or their adoption. I here publicly ture nullifying the Tariff as afore- declare, and wish it to be distinctly undersaid ; and prescribed that no appeal highest of all obligations, to carry into

stood, that I shall hold myself bound, by the to the Supreme Court of the United effect, not only the Ordinance of the Con

17 November 24, 1832.

18

vention, but every act of the Legislature, maintain the Constitution, as if unand every judgment of our own courts, the conscious of the tempest he had exenforcement of which may devolve upon the executive. I claim no right to revise their cited, and which was now preparing acts. It will be my daty to execute them; to burst

to burst upon his head. and that duty I mean, to the utmost of my

General Jackson had already power, faithfully to perform." He proceeded :

made provision for the threatened “ If the sacred soil of Carolina should be emergency. Ordering General Scott polluted by the footsteps of an invader, or to proceed to Charleston for the purbe stained with the blood of her citizens, shed in her defense, I trust in Almighty God pose of “ superintending the safety that no son of hers, native or adopted, who of the ports of the United States in has been nourished at her - bosom, or been that vicinity,” and making the requicherished by her bounty, will be found rais- site disposition of the slender military ing a parricidal arm against our common mother. And even should she stand ALONE

and naval forces at his command, the in this great struggle for constitutional President sent confidential orders to liberty, encompassed by her enemies, that there will not be found, in the wide limits the Collector for the port of Charlesof the State, one recreant son who will not ton, whereof the following extract Ay to the rescue, and be ready to lay down sufficiently indicates the character his life in her defense. South Carolina cannot be drawn down from the proud emi.

and

purpose : nence on which she has now placed herself, “Upon the supposition that the measures of except by the hands of her own children. the Convention, or the acts of the Legislature Give her but a fair field, and she asks no may consist, in part, at least, in declaring more. Should she succeed, hers will be the laws of the United States imposing glory enough to have led the way in the duties unconstitutional, and null and void, noble work of REFORM. And if, after mak- and in forbidding their execution, and the ing these efforts due to her own honor, and collection of the duties within the State of the greatness of the cause, she is destined South Carolina, you will, immediately after utterly to fail, the bitter fruits of that failure, it shall be formally announced, resort to all not to herself alone, but to the entire South, the means provided by the laws, and particnay, to the whole Union, will attest her vir- ularly by the act of the 2d of March, 1799, tue."

to counteract the measures which may be The Legislature proceeded to pass adopted to give effect

to that declaration the acts requisite to give practical yourself authorized to employ the revenue

“For this purpose, you will consider effect to the Ordinance, and the Gov- cutters which may be within your district, ernor to accept the services of volun- and provide as many boats and employ as

many inspectors as may be necessary for the teers, who were not mustered into execution of the law, and for the purposes service, but directed to hold them of the act already referred to. You will, selves in readiness for action at a

moreover, cause a sufficient number of offi

cers of cutters and inspectors to be placed moment's notice. Mr. Calhoun re on board, and in charge of every vessel signed the Vice-Presidency when he arriving from a foreign port or place, with

goods, wares, or merchandise, as soon as had three months still to serve, and practicable after her first coming within was chosen to the Senate to fill the your district, and direct them to anchor her seat vacated by Mr. Hayne's accept- she may be secure from any act of violence,

in some safe place within the harbor, where ance of the governorship. Leaving and from any unauthorized attempt to dishis State foaming and surging with charge her cargo before a compliance with

the laws; and they will remain on board of preparations for war, Mr. Calhoun, her at such place until the reports and enin December, calmly proceeded to tries required by law shall be made, both of Washington, where he took his seat secured to be paid, to your satisfaction, and

vessel and cargo, and the duties paid, or in the Senate, and swore afresh to until the regular permit shall be granted for

18 November 6th.

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