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CONTENTS.

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1.—THE AMERICAN COLONIES, AND THEIR SEPARATION FROM GREAT BRITAIN.

BY WILLIAM N. HUDSON.

Introductory Remarks: Character of the Early Colonists; Spirit of Resistance to Oppression ;

Seeds of Freedom.- The Colonies: Foundation and Political Structure; Acts Relating to Civil and

Political Rights.—Oppressive Acts of the British Parliament: Restrictions upon Commerce; Navigation

Acts; Prohibition of Manufactures; Writs of Assistance; Stanıp Act; the Judiciary and Military as

Instruments of Oppression.-Indignation Throughout the Colonies: New York; Boston; Philadelphia;

Virginia; James Otis, Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry. First Continental Congress: Address to the

Crown. -- First Symptoms of Resistance: Parson Mayhew; Stamp Officers Compelled to Resign;

Destruction of Stamped Paper; Disregard of the Stamp Act; Sons of Liberty.—Repeal of the Stamp

Act.—The Elder Pitt in Behalf of the Colonies. -Imposition of Import Duties: Protests by Massachu-

setts and Virginia.---Attempt to Quarter Troops on the People. --First Acts of Violence: The Boston

Massacre; the Boston Tea Party.-Retaliatory Measures: The Boston Port Bill; Citizens Sent Abroad

to be Tried. --Second Colonial Congress: Declaration of Rights; Suspension of Commercial Inter-

course. --- Military Steps Taken by the Government and by the Colonies. -Lexington and Concord:

Gathering of the Continental Forces; the Patriot Army around Boston.-Ticonderoga and Crown Point:

Ethan Allen and Seth Warren.-The Continental Congress: Exercise of Comprehensive Powers; Petitions

to the King and People of Great Britain; Determination of Resistance; an Army Voted to be Raised;

Washington as Commander-in-chief; Bills of Credit.—Battle of Bunker Hill.-Washington in Command

of the Army: Capture of Dorchester Heights; Evacuation of Boston by the British.-Expedition

Against Quebec.- Measures of the British Parliament: Troops Sent to America; Burning of Norfolk;

Attack on Fort Moultrie.--Independence First Proposed: The Mecklenberg Declaration; Action of

North Carolina, Georgia, Rhode Island and Virginia; the Proposition before Congress; Committee to

Draft a Declaration; Other Colonies Declare for Independence; the Formal Declaration Made; Pro-

phetic Utterance of John Adams. — THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. . . Page 13-33

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First Settled by the French.-Politically Associated with Canada.–Occupied by the United States

in 1796.—Part of the Northwest Territory.--Form of Government.-Descent of the Territorial Sover-
eignty: The Claims of Virginia, Connecticut and Massachusetts; the United States Statistical Atlas;
Opinion of Judge Charles I. Walker; Conquest of the Northwest Territory by Gen. George Rogers
Clark; Indefiniteness of the Colonial Charters; Policy of Congress as to Conflicting State Boundaries;
Virginia the only Party Consulted in the Division of the Northwest Territory; Direct Descent from

Great Britain; Opinion of Chancellor Manning; Territorial Sovereignty not Exercised by the United
States under the Federation.-Organization of the Territory of Michigan.--Organization of the State
Government: Adoption of a Constitution; Admission into the Union; the Disputed Boundary; the
Toledo War; the Upper Peninsula. ---Seat of Government and State Capital: Location of the Capital

at Lansing; the Old and the New Capitol Buildings; Board of State Building Commissioners.--Gov-

ernors of Michigan. . . . . . . . . . . Page 34-43

III.--THE CENTENNIAL FOURTH IN MICHIGAN.

Introductory Remarks. —Newspapers from which Quotations are Made.— Reports of Celebrations

at Adrian, Allegan, Ann Arbor, Battle Creek, Bay City, Big Rapids, Bronson, Caro, Charlotte,
Coldwater, Detroit, Dexter, Dundee, Flint, Fowlerville, Grand Ledge, Grand Haven, Grand Rapids,
Greenville, Houghton, Ionia, Ithaca, Jackson, Jonesville, Kalamazoo, Lansing, Lexington, Marquette,
Mason, Mount Pleasant, Milford, Muskegon, Negaunee, Niles, Northville, Ontonagon, Otsego County,
Port Huron, Quincy, Roscommon, Saginaw, Saline, St. Johns, St. Joseph, St. Louis, Sturgis, Tawas,
Traverse City, Union City, Vassar.

1.-REPRESENTATIVE CENTENNIAL ORATIONS.

What the Age Owes to America: Hon. Wm. M. Evarts, at Philadelphia.—The Declaration of

Independence, and the Effects of It: Rev. R. S. Storrs, D.D., at New York.—The Progress of Liberty: Hon.

Charles Francis Adams, at Taunton, Mass.—The Signers of the Declaration: Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, at

Boston. . . . . . . . . . . . Page 187–254

II.-EXTRACTS FROM MICHIGAN ORATIONS.

Thomas B. Church, at Grand Rapids.--Theodore Romeyn, at Detroit.-Dan. P. Foote, at Saginaw.-

Mark S. Brewer, at Milford.-L. D. Dibble, at Battle Creek.-Judge Marston, at Bay City.-J. E. Tenney,
at Lansing.–A. L. Millard, at Adrian.--Jonas H. McGowan, at Coldwater. -Geo. W. Wilson, at Charlotte.
-Geo. H. Jerome, at Niles.--Aaron Clark, at Middleville.-A. H. Fenn, at Allegan.-C. H. Denison, at
Port Huron. . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 255–304

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III.—THE MICHIGAN PULPIT ON THE CENTENNIAL.

America's Centennial Memories : Rev. W. D. Love, D.D.-The Hand of God in American History:

Rev. Geo. D. Baker, D. D.-Comparative Progress of the Century: Rev. L. R. Fiske, D. D.—Lessons of
the Centennial Exhibition: Rev. C. H. Brigham. --The Centenary of Missions: Rev. John P. Scott,
D. D.--The Paramount Allegiance: Rev. Alfred Owen, D. D.--Progress the Lesson of the Century: Rev.
T. G. Colton.--Presbyterians in the Revolution: Rev. Wm. Aikman, D. D.--Righteousness Exalteth a

Nation: Rev. J. Gordon Jones.-The Thanksgiving of the Patriot: Dr. Henry Zirndorf.-Modern

Spiritualism--A Centennial Lesson: Giles B. Stebbins.

. . . . . . Page 305-372

By Whom the Exhibition was first Proposed.-Agitation of the Subject in Philadelphia and

Pennsylvania. -Act of Congress Establishing the Centennial Commission.--The President's Proclamation.

-Further Act of Congress Giving the Exhibition a National Character. - The Centennial Board of
Finance. --State Appropriations. --Countries Represented. —SALE OF LIQUORS ON THE CENTENNIAL GROUNDS:
Report Adverse Thereto; Opinion of the Solicitor of the Commission.—THE QUESTION OF OPENING THE

INTRODUCTION—THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL EXPOSITIONS: Fairs of the Middle

Ages--Leipzig, Nijni Novgorod, Tantah; Fairs of More Modern Times--Venice, Leyden, England;

Exhibitions of the Past Century--the French Series (1798 to 1849); Fairs in Vienna, Berlin, the Nether-

lands, Belgium, Sweden, Great Britain, the World's Fair of Hyde Park, its Four Successors in Paris,

London and Vienna.--THE EXHIBITION GROUNDS: A General Description--the Valleys, Avenues, Bridges,

Railways; Statues and Fountains--Bartholdi, Father Matthew, Columbus, Washington, Union Soldier, the

Pegasus Bronzes, Naval Group, Elias Howe, Colossal Hand of the French Statue of Liberty.--THE MINOR

BUILDINGS: Their Number and Character; Bazars or Places of Traffic; Restaurants and Cafés; Special

Exhibit Buildings--Brewer's Hall, Butter and Cheese Factory, Glassware Building, Quartz Mill, Spanish

and French Government Pavilions, Canada Log House, Swedish School House, Pennsylvania Educational

Hall, Kindergarten, American Newspaper Building, the New England Farmer's Home, House Apiary,

Cuban Acclimatization Society, Old Locomotives and Cars, Hunter's Camp, Boats and Rafts; Foreign

Government Buildings--Residences and Offices Erected by Great Britain, Japan, Spain, Germany, Brazil

and Portugal; State Buildings; Official and other Buildings.--THE PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS: The Main

Building--its Materials and Dimensions, Floorage, the Three Annexes; Machinery Hall--Size, Two

Miles of Shafting, the Great Motor, Tank for Pumps, Boiler Houses, Shoe and Leather Building, Saw-Mill

Annex; Agricultural Hall--its Peculiar Architecture, Area, Annexes; Horticultural Hall--its Moorish Style

in Form and Colors, Area, Annex, Rhododendrons and Azeleas, General Contents, the Conservatories, the

Adjoining Beds of Flowers and Foliage-plants; Memorial Hall--a Permanent Monument of the Exhibition,

Construction and Architecture, Dimensions, Wall-space for Paintings, the Art Annex, its many Galleries

and Corridors, its Wall-space, the Photographic Building and its Contents; United States Government

Building--its Area, Annexes and Surroundings; the Woman's Pavilion.—Recapitulation, showing the

Number of Acres for the Exhibition of Goods and the Amount of Ground Actually covered by the 153

Buildings Within the Grounds.

. . . . .

Page 390–406

III.-A GENERAL REVIEW OF THE EXHIBITION.

BY BRONSON HOWARD.

The Number of Exhibitors.—The Seven Departments.--MINING AND METALLURGY: A Table

Showing the Number of Exhibitors from each Nation; the Contributions of the Several Countries
Represented in this Department; Cold Twisted Iron and Fracture-Tests of Steel; Diamonds from South
Africa, China, Japan, Hawaii, and other Countries.--MACHINERY: The Centennial Exhibition Unequaled
in this Department; the Boiler Houses; the Corliss Engine; Table of Exhibitors According to Nationality;
the Ten Classes of Machinery; Russia, Sweden and France; the English-speaking Nations the Largest
Contributors; Canada and the United States; General Mention of Various kinds of Machinery; American
Inventions; Scientific Accuracy of American Work.—THE GENERAL MANUFACTURES: Twenty-eight
Nations Represented; Table of Exhibitors; American Chemical Products; Petroleum; Coal-tar and its Won-
ders; Ceramics; Products of Various Countries; Thorwaldsen in Danish Art; Japan and China--Remarkable
Excellence in this Department; Glassware-Bohemian, French and Venetian; Furniture; Characteristics of
the American Display; Silver-ware and Jewelry; the Elkington Display; Russia; Combination of Beauty
and Usefulness in American Silver-ware; Artistic Products of many Countries; the Jewelry Exhibits of
the United States; Articles of Personal Use or Ornament; Fancy Articles; the “Shoe and Leather Building;"
Clothing from all Countries; Cotton Fabrics; Small Représentation from Great Britain and France; Other
Countries; the United States; Immense Number of American Exhibitors of Cotton Goods; their Superior

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