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which passes from the absorbing roots to the transpiring leaves, and is loosely referred to as the "ascent of the sap." The duramen is outside the circle of plant-activity, having become compact and hardened. It is, however, the more valuable for building and other purposes. The alburnum is of a pale color in all woods, even in ebony, in which the duramen or under layer is black.

ALCAÑIZ, a walled town of Aragon, Spain. It stands upon the right bank of the Guadalupe river, 12 miles below its junction with the Ebro. Saragossa is 56 miles N.W. of it, and the nearest railway point is 18 miles away in the same direction. There is a magnificent collegiate church here. Population, 7,800.

ALCATRAZ, an island in the bay, 3 miles N. of the city of San Francisco, California. There is a lighthouse upon the island, and a fortified post which commands the entrance of the Golden Gate and is used as a military prison.

ALCEDINIDÆ OR ALCEDIDÆ, a family of birds composed of the true kingfishers, which are remarkable for their fish-eating habits. The name Halcyonida, found in some works, is equivalent to the above. See KINGFISHER, Vol. XIV, pp. 81, 82.


ALCESTER, FREDERICK BEAUCHAMP PAGET SEYMOUR, BARON, son of Sir Horace Beauchamp Seymour, was born in London, April 12, 1821. Having studied at Eton, he entered the royal navy in 1834. Successive promotion finally brought him the rank of rear-admiral, which he attained in 1870. Six years later he became a vice-admiral and in 1882 was made an admiral. He was severely wounded during an engagement of the naval brigade in New Zealand in 1860. From 1870 to 1877 he was successively commander of the detached squadron, lord of the admiralty, and commander of the channel squadron. the latter year he was made a K.C.B. His most distinguished services were rendered during 1882, when, as commander-in-chief of the Mediterranean fleet or squadron, he took a foremost part in the Egyptian operations. On the 11th of July, Arabi Pasha having refused to comply with his demand that the erection of defensive works before Alexandria should cease, he bombarded and utterly destroyed the forts at that point. In recognition of this service Parliament voted Admiral Seymour a reward of $100,000 and elevated him to the peerage, with the title of Baron Alcester of Alcester. He retired from the navy in April, 1886, and died on the 30th of March, 1895, at his home in London.

ALCIDÆ OR ALCADÆ, a group of birds which includes the auk, found in northern seas. See AUK, Vol. 3, p. 85.

ALCIDAMAS, a Greek rhetorician who flourished in Athens in the fifth century B. C. He was a pupil of Gorgias and a famous teacher of elocution. He was a native of Elæa, Asia Minor. Against the Sophists is the better known of his two

extant orations.

ALCMÆON, a hero of Greek mythology who

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participated in the successful expedition of the Epigoni against Thebes. For having slain his mother, Eriphyle, he was pursued and driven to madness by the Furies.

ALCO, a small domesticated wild dog of Peru and Chile. Its very small head, and large, pendulous ears are its most striking characteristics.

ALCOCK, SIR Rutherford, was born in London in 1809. He studied medicine there, at King's College, and served three years on the medical staff of the British auxiliaries in Portugal and Spain. In 1844 he was sent out as a British consul to China, in 1858 made consul-general in Japan, and the next year received the rank of minister plenipotentiary. He filled this post until 1865, from which time until 1871 he was envoy to the Chinese government. He was made a C. B. in 1860, a K. C. B. in 1862, a D. C. L. of Oxford in 1863, and president of the Royal Geographical Society in 1876. Among his works are The Capital of the Tycoon; and Art and Art Industries in Japan. He died Nov. 2, 1897.

ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES are any liquids containing a proportion of alcohol and used as beverages by mankind. They are classified as follows: Malt liquors, beverages which are prepared by the fermentation of malted grain, and include beer, ale and porter. In malt liquors the percentage of alcohol varies from 1.5 to 9 per cent. Fermented liquors, those which are prepared by the fermentation of the juices of fruit, and include wines properly so called, cider, and fruit wines prepared from other than grape juice. Wines restricted to the product of the grape contain 7.77 to 20.2 per cent of alcohol, and other fermented fruit beverages from 2 to 7 per cent.Distilled liquors, prepared by the distillation of fermented saccharine liquid. To this class belong ardent spirits, such as brandies, rum, whisky, etc. The percentage of alcohol in ardent spirits. considerably exceeds that in wine, varying in spirits from 45 to 55, and in liquors from 33.9 to 58.93 per cent.


p. 481.

ALCOHOLOMETRY is the process of estimating the percentage of absolute alcohol in a sample of spirits. The usual method, if only alcohol and water are contained, is to determine the specific gravity of the spirits. Adulterated spirits must be distilled before this test is made. Tables showing the percentage of alcohol corresponding to variations of gravity have been prepared on the basis of the specific gravity of absolute alcohol at 60° being .7938, and of water 1.

ALCORA, a Spanish trading-town in the province of Castellon, 42 miles N. of Valencia. A railroad skirting the Mediterranean coast is 13 miles to the east. It has a large export trade in fruit. Population, 3,827.

ALCORAN OR KORAN. See MOHAMMEDANISM, Vol. XVI, pp. 597-606; and for its theology, see Vol. XXIII, p. 242. Alcoran is also the name of a sort of steeple upon mosques and other oriental buildings.

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ALCORN, JAMES LUSK, an American Senator, was born in Illinois, Nov. 4, 1816, and educated in Kentucky, where he was elected to the state legislature in 1843. He practiced law in Mississippi, and served in the legislature for about 20 years. At the close of the war, he was elected United States Senator, but was not allowed to sit. He was governor of Mississippi in 1869-71, and United States Senator in 1871-77; was the founder of the levee system of Mississippi, and of the State Agricultural and Mechanical College for colored youth, which bears his name. He died in Eagle Nest, Mississippi, Dec. 20, 1894.

ALCOTT, AMOS BRONSON, American educator and transcendental philosopher; born in Wolcott, Connecticut, Nov. 29, 1799. In 1823 he started an infant school in Wolcott, and in 1828 established another in Boston. He taught by conversation instead of by books, and his methods attracted considerable attention and criticism. Mr. Alcott finally gave up his school for the lecture platform. He visited Europe, and made many friends. On his return, he led the life of a peripatetic philosopher, conducting "conversations" on a wide range of practical questions. He published, after his seventieth birthday, Tablets; Concord Days; Table Talk; and Sonnets and Canzonets. He was one of the most prominent contributors to The Dial. Mr. Alcott was attacked with apoplexy, Oct. 24, 1882, and died at his home in Concord, Massachusetts, March 4, 1888.

ALCOTT, LOUISA MAY, American authoress, daughter of Amos Bronson Alcott, was born at Ger


mantown, Pennsylvania, Nov. 29, 1832; was for some years a teacher, but began to write at an early age, and published her first book, Flower Fables, in 1855. Her life as a volunteer hospital nurse during the Civil War furnished material for her Hospital Sketches (1865), and supplied a background for several of her tales. She had written for the Atlantic Monthly and published several books before the appearance of her greatest success, Little Women (1868). She published a second part (1869), followed by Little Men (1871), with its sequel, Jo's Boys (1886). Among her numerous other works are An OldFashioned Girl (1869); Under the Lilacs (1878); and An Old-Fashioned Thanksgiving (1882). Few writers have been more popular with children than Miss Alcott, and her stories are valuable, as giving insight into the more wholesome side of child-life and child-ways in the United States. She died on March 6, 1888, only two days after the death of her father.

ALCOTT, WILLIAM ALEXANDER, American author, born in Wolcott, Connecticut, Aug. 6, 1798. He studied medicine at Yale, and practiced for several years before he associated himself with William Woodbridge in the preparation of school

geographies and atlases. Mr. Alcott published The House I Live in; The Young Man's Guide; The Young Housekeeper; and many pamphlets on reform in education and moral and physical training. He died in Auburndale, Massachusetts, March 29, 1859.

ALCYONARIA, an order of the corals; q.v., Vol. VI, p. 384.

ALCYONIUM OR DEAD MEN'S FINGERS, a genus of cœlenterates belonging to the coral polyps (Anthozoa). The colonies of this polyp are often found as soft, branching masses incrusting foreign bodies. The red coral, sea-fans, and sea-pens belong to the same order. See CORALS, Vol. VI, pp. 384, 386.


ALDEHYDES. See CHEMISTRY, Vol. V, p. 567. ALDEN, EDMUND KIMBALL, a Congregational minister, was born at Randolph, Massachusetts, April 11, 1825. Since 1876 he has been the secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, in which capacity he has traveled and lectured extensively. ed and lectured extensively. He is an alumnus of Amherst College and of Andover Theological Seminary.

ALDEN, HENRY MILLS, an American author, and the editor of Harper's Magazine, was born at Mt. Tabor, Vermont, Nov. 11, 1836. In 1857 he was graduated from Williams College, and three years later from Andover Theological Seminary. He has been the principal editor of Harper's Magazine since 1869. His Study of Death is considered superior to his other writings.

ALDEN, JAMES, rear-admiral in the United States navy, was born in Portland, Maine, March 31, 1810. He died in San Francisco, California,

Feb. 6, 1877. From 1838 to 1842 he accompanied, as a midshipman, the Wilkes expedition around the world, and during the war with Mexico he served as a lieutenant. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Alden was in command of the steamer South Carolina, and later commanded the sloop-of-war Richmond at the passage of Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and at the taking of New Orleans in April, 1862. Two years later he participated in the capture of Mobile Bay, being in command of the Brooklyn. He had become a captain in 1863. In 1866 he was promoted to be a commodore, and five years later he was made. rear-admiral and placed in command of the European squadron.

ALDEN, JOHN, the youngest of the "Pilgrim Fathers," and said to have been the first to set foot upon Plymouth Rock when the Mayflower made land on Dec. 21, 1620. He was a cooper of Southampton, born in 1599. The year after the landing of the Pilgrims in New England he married Priscilla Mullens. He became, by his wisdom and uprightness, the chief officer of the colony. colony. He died at Duxbury, Massachusetts, September, 1686. His courtship has been celebrated by the poet Longfellow, and is the subject of the fine statuette: Speak for Yourself, John, by the sculptor Rogers.

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ALDEN, JOSEPH, an American educator; born | York counting-house he began to contribute in Cairo, New York, Jan. 4, 1807. He was gradu- verse to the newspapers, and soon after the publiated at Union College in 1829, became pastor of cation of The Bells (1855), the Congregational Church at Williamstown, adopted journalism as a Massachusetts, then professor in Williams Col- profession, and was editlege, later president of Jefferson College, and or of the Atlantic Monthly from 1867 to 1872 president of the New York from 1881 until 1892. State Normal School at Albany. He was a pro- Among his novels are lific writer, and published more than seventy vol- Daisy's Necklace; Story of umes, the best known of which are The Example of a Bad Boy; Marjory Daw; Washington; The Science of Government; Citizen's Prudence Palfrey; Queen Manual; and First Steps in Political Economy. He of Sheba; Stillwater Tradied in New York City, Aug. 30, 1885. gedy. In 1874 he published a selection of his poems under the title Cloth of Gold, and other Poems, and in 1881 his popular XXXVI Lyrics and XII Sonnets. Through his prose, Aldrich has taken a high place for descriptive power and gift of humor. His verse is noted for its metrical perfection and dainty thought. He is among the best composers of vers de société.


ALDEN, WILLIAM LIVINGSTON, American author, was born in Virginia on the 9th of October, 1837. From early youth he was an enthusiastic devotee of canoeing, and it was he who practically introduced this sport into the United States. After graduation from Washington and Jefferson College in 1858, he founded the Canoe Club of New York City and began to write stories for boys. He became the humorous editorial writer of the New York Times, and was one of the editors of The Idler. In 1885 Mr. Alden was appointed consul-general at Rome. After his service there, he removed to London, where he has since remained and been a frequent contributor to English magazines. His best-known stories for boys are Toby Tyler; The Moral Pirates; Life of Columbus; and Cruise of the Canoe Club.

ALDENHOVEN, an historic town in the Rhine province of southeastern Prussia. It is 13 miles N. of Aix-la-Chapelle, with which it is connected by rail. On the 1st of March, 1793, it was the scene of an important victory won by the Austrians over the French, but upon the 2d of October of the following year 85,000 French under Jourdan defeated upon the same ground 70,000 Austrians commanded by Clairfait. Population of the town, 1,200. ALDINE EDITIONS. XV, pp. 512-514.


ALDRICH, HENRY, born at Westminster, England, in 1647, and died at Oxford, Dec. 14, 1710. He was canon of Christ Church, Oxford, in 1682, and dean in 1689; was the designer of the Peckwater Quadrangle, and wrote Hark, the Bonny Christ Church Bells. But he is less remembered as an architect or a composer than as the author of the Artis Logica Compendium (1691), of which a new edition appeared in 1862, and which before 1826 was very largely used in English colleges. He was considered in his time one of the foremost defenders of Protestantism.

ALDRICH, NELSON WILMARTH, born in Foster, Rhode Island, Nov. 6, 1841; served in the state general assembly in 1875-76; in the latter year was speaker of the house of representatives, and was elected to Congress for 1878-80. In 1881 he was elected to the United States Senate as a Republican to succeed General Burnside, and was re-elected for 1887-99.

ALDRICH, THOMAS BAILEY, an American poet and novelist, was born at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Nov. 11, 1836. While engaged in a New


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ALDRIDGE, IRA, American negro tragedian brought out by the actor Edmund Kean, and afterward known as the "African Roscius. Some biographers claim that he was born at Belair, near Baltimore, about 1810, while others say, probably on better authority, that he was born in New York City about 1805. They all agree that as a boy he had a passion for the stage, and that when he made his début in London at the Royalty Theatre as Othello he met with immediate success. He appeared in various countries, and everywhere was received with enthusiasm,-honors being conferred on him by nearly all the crowned heads of Europe. Aldridge was an honorary member of numerous academies of art. He died in Lodz, Poland, Aug. 7, 1867, leaving a widow, an English lady, in London.

ALECSANDRESCU, GRIGORIE, Rumanian poet, was born in 1812 at Tirgovesti in Wallachia, and died at Bucharest in 1886. His best-known work, The Year 1840, was written in a convent in which he was detained for political reasons. In 1859, while the Liberal party was in power, he was for a few months minister of finance. An edition of his collected poems and fables appeared in 1863.

ALECSANDRI, VASILIO. See ALEXANDRI, in these Supplements.

ALECTORIDES, a so-called order of birds, considered by many authors as corresponding with the super-family Gruioidea. The group is composed of the cranes, the rails, and allied forms.

ALECTOROMORPHÆ, a group of birds now restricted to the two sub-orders, Alectoropodes, containing the fowls proper, and the Seristeropodes, containing the curassows and mound-birds.

ALECTOROPODES, one of the two sub-orders of alectoromorphous birds, containing the pheasant, guinea-fowl, grouse, turkey, quail, partridge and all true fowls.

ALEDO, county seat of Mercer County, northwestern Illinois, 14 miles E. of the Mississippi River, on the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy



railway, and 22 miles S. of Rock Island. mines are found extensively in this region. ulation 1880, 1,492; 1890, 1,601.

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ALENCAR, JOSÉ MARTINIANO D', the "Brazilian Cooper, wrote many romances of colonial and Indian life, and stories of Rio de Janeiro society. Of the former, Iracema and O Guarany may be taken as typical, and of the latter, Senhora, Diva and Luciola. He was born in Ceará, May 1, 1829, and died at Rio de Janeiro, Dec. 12, 1877.

Coal- of Hesse. He now vigorously applied himself Pop- to his duties as chancellor of the University of Finland, and became popular with the Finns. ALEMAN, MATEO, a Spanish novelist; born On his accession to the throne, March 2, 1855, he about the middle of the sixteenth century at found himself in a critical position. He had two Seville, and died in Mexico in 1610. For many parties to conciliate, the old Muscovite party, years the finances of Philip II were in his care. zealous for the prosecution of the Crimean War, He was author of several works, one of which, and the more peaceable portion of the nation, Guzman de Alfarache, published at Madrid in sympathizing with the latter. By temporizing he 1599, ran through 26 editions, consisting of not was enabled to conclude a peace. Throughout. less than 50,000 copies, in six years. See SPAIN, his reign he had to hold the balance between conVol. XXII, p. 357. servatives and extreme radicals, but succeeded in promoting reform. The grand achievement of his reign, which was in great measure his own deed, was the emancipation of the 23,000,000 serfs in 1861. Reforms of the tribunals of civil and criminal procedure and of municipal institutions. followed, the years 1861-67 being considered the most progressive in Russian history. In 1865 Alexander established elective representative assemblies in the provinces. He resisted strenuously all foreign interference with Polish affairs during the insurrection of 1863, which was severely suppressed. During his reign the Russian empire was widely extended in the Caucasus and in central Asia. The capture of Schamyl, the famous Lesghian chief, in 1859, closed the long struggle with the tribes of that country. In 1864 Russia began a decided advance against the khanates of central Asia, and in a few years reduced them to partial subjection. During the Franco-German ALEURONE. See BOTANY, Vol. IV, p. 88. war of 1870-71, Alexander maintained a sympaALEUTS. See ALASKA, in these Supplements.thetic attitude toward Germany; a policy which ALEWIFE, a North American sea-fish (Clupea vernalis). During the spawning-season (April and May) it is very abundant in the rivers of the Eastern coast. After spawning, it returns to the sea. It resembles the shad, but is not so valuable, economically.

ALESIA. See CESAR, Vol. IV, p. 637. ALESIUS, ALEXANDER. Same as ALES, Vol. I, P. 478.

ALETSCH, the largest glacier in Europe, 12% miles in length, sweeps round the southern side of the Jungfrau, and passes down the valley in a majestic curve. It has two tributary glaciers, the Upper and Middle Aletsch, which branch off to the northwest. At its eastern extremity there is a blue mountain lake, the Merjelen-See; and to the northwest lies the Aletschhorn, the second highest peak of the Bernese Alps.

ALEXANDER I (OBRENOVITCH), king of Servia, was born on Aug. 14, 1876, and succeeded his father, the ex-King Milan, who abdicated in favor of the son, March 6, 1889, after divorcing his consort, Queen Natalie. Until 1893 he governed through two regents, then, being in his seventeenth year, he took the royal authority into his own hands. When crown prince he accompanied his mother, Queen Natalie, into exile, after her separation from the king, but was forcibly removed from her at Berlin and conveyed back to Belgrade.

ALEXANDER II (ALEXANDER NICOLAEVICH ROMANOFF), emperor of Russia, was born April 29, 1818. He was carefully educated by his father, Nicholas, who professed himself delighted with the manifestations of "true Russian spirit" in his son. At 16 he was declared of age, made commandant of the Lancers of the Guard and first aide-de-camp of the emperor, and subjected daily to a life of maneuvering, reviewing and military parade, which at last seriously injured his health. He then traveled through Germany to recruit his energies, and while there in 1841 concluded a marriage with the Princess Marie (1824-80), daughter of the Grand Duke

was continued and extended in subsequent alliances, both with that country and Austria. The czar shared the national sympathy with the Slavic races under Turkish rule, and took the field during the war between Russia and Turkey in 1877-78. The most remarkable feature of the second half of his reign was the struggle of the Russian autocracy with the revolutionary party called Nihilists. Like his grandfather, Alexander I, he was a liberal and humane monarch, but could not keep pace with the more forward portions of his subjects, hence the reactionary tendency of many of his later measures. His government repressed the revolutionists severely, and they sought vengeance by attacking the persons of the czar and of his officers. Repeated attempts were made to assassinate Alexander. In 1879 he was shot at in his capital; in the same year the train in which he was supposed to be traveling was blown up by an elaborate mine beneath the railway; in 1880 a destructive explosion was effected by dynamite placed beneath the imperial apartments in the Winter Palace at St. Petersburg. On March 13, 1881, he was injured by a bomb thrown at him while riding in a sleigh near his palace, and died within two hours afterward.

ALEXANDER III, late emperor of Russia, succeeded to the throne on the murder of his father by Nihilist conspirators on March 13, 1881. He was born on March 10, 1845. For some time after his elevation he lived in close retirement at Gatschina, being in dread of Nihilists. His corona


tion took place at Moscow, May 27, 1883. He had married, in 1866, Mary Feodorovna (formerly Mary Sophia Frederica Dagmar), daughter of Christian IX, King of Denmark, and sister of the Princess of Wales and the King of Greece. He strenuously opposed the ultra-conservative policy which his father followed in his later years, and in 1879 came into open rupture with him. The czar suppressed Nihilism, developed the military power of Russia, organized her Asiatic and Caucasian provinces, and kept constant watch over India and Constantinople.


The reign of Alexander III was comparatively uneventful. In November, 1887, he made a public entrance into Berlin on the occasion of a visit to Emperor William I. In 1892 he had a meeting with William II. During his reign the Dreikaiserbund (Austria, Germany and Russia) was perfected. He was known to be truly devoted to peace, and only his strong purpose held Russia back from war in more than one international contention. He also devoted himself to the reform of state abuses and the extension of popular rights, though during 1892 he was guilty of directing a harsh edict against his Jewish subjects. In his personal and domestic relations the czar was a high-minded gentleman. Attempts to take his life were made in 1887 by the Nihilist societies, and in October, 1888, he and his family narrowly escaped death in an accident upon the Transcaspian railway. His death took place at Livadia, in the Crimea, Nov. 1, 1894, his eldest son becoming czar as Nicholas II.

ALEXANDER, ARCHIBALD, was born near Lexington, Virginia, April 17, 1772; died at Princeton, New Jersey, Oct. 22, 1851. He became a Presbyterian minister; was president of Hampton-Sidney college from 1796 to 1807, and in 1812 was elected the first professor of Princeton Theological Seminary, which had just been founded. He wrote extensively for the Princeton Review, and published theological treatises.

ALEXANDER, EDMUND BROOKE, American soldier, was born in Haymarket, Virginia, Oct. 2, 1802; died at Washington, District of Columbia, Jan. 3, 1888. After graduation from the United States Military Academy in 1823, and twenty years' service at the frontier, he won, in the Mexican War, major's and lieutenant-colonel's brevets. During the Civil War he was posted at St. Louis as provost-marshal and superintendent of the volunteer recruiting service; was made brevet brigadier-general March 13, 1865, and commanded his regiment at Fort Snelling until his retirement in 1869.

ALEXANDER, GEORGE, a Presbyterian clergyman, born at West Charlton, New York, Oct. 12, 1843. After graduating from Union College and



Princeton Theological Seminary, he was ordained in 1870 pastor of a Presbyterian church at Schenectady, New York, where he remained until 1883, acting, during the last six years of that pastorate, as professor of logic at his alma mater. 1884 he has been pastor of the University Place Presbyterian Church, New York City, and has conducted extensive missionary-work in the tenement-house districts of that city.

ALEXANDER, GEORGE, an English actor, was born at Reading in June, 1858, and, after some years' stage experience in the country, was brought to London by Sir Henry Irving, and appeared at the Lyceum in The Two Roses; toured in America with Mr. Irving in 1884-85. In 1890 he undertook the management of St. James Theatre, London, where he has had much success.

ALEXANDER, JAMES WADDELL, Presbyterian minister, son of Archibald Alexander (q. v.), was born March 13, 1804, at Gordonsville, Virginia. In 1820 he graduated from Princeton College, and later from the theological seminary at the same place. After holding various pastorates in Virginia and New Jersey, he returned to Princeton in 1853 as professor of rhetoric. From 1851 until his death he was pastor of the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church, New York City; published Discourses on Christian Faith and Practice; Sacramental Discourses; and many others of a similar nature, besides being an extensive contributor to the Princeton Review. He died at Red Sweet Springs, Virginia, July 31, 1859.

ALEXANDER, JOHN HENRY, mathematician and physicist; born at Annapolis, Maryland, June 26, 1812; died in Baltimore, March 2, 1867. He was professor of physics at the University of Pennsylvania and at the University of Maryland; published History of the Metallurgy of Iron; Universal Dictionary of Weights and Measures; and other works.

ALEXANDER, STEPHEN, astronomer, born in Schenectady, New York, Sept. 1, 1806; died at Princeton, New Jersey, June 25, 1883. From 1845 to 1878 he occupied in turn the professorships of mathematics and of astronomy and mechanics at Princeton. In 1860 he conducted an expedition to Labrador for the purpose of observing a solar eclipse. He has published Physical Phenomena Attendant Upon Solar Eclipses; Fundamental Principles of Mathematics; and numerous papers.

ALEXANDER, WILLIAM, called "Lord Stirling," soldier, born in New York City, in 1726; died in Albany, New York, Jan. 15, 1783. In 1757 he prosecuted his claim to the earldom of Stirling before the British House of Lords, but without success. Soon afterward he became surveyorgeneral and member of the provincial council. At the beginning of the Revolution he assumed the cause of the patriots, and as colonel of the battalion of East Jersey captured an armed British transport, for which exploit Congress, in March, 1776, appointed him brigadier-general. At the battle of Long Island, Aug. 26, 1776, his brigade was nearly destroyed, and he himself taken prison

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