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ADVOCATING TRADE SCHOOLS
EDITED AND PRINTED AT THE
BOSTON, APRIL, 1907
VOL. I, NO, IV
instruction in his trade or
APPRENTICESHIP IN THE
Be it resolved, that the administrative counMETAL TRADES
cil recommend to the members of the NaTHE National Metal Trades Association
tional MetalTrades Association the adoption, is composed of “persons, firms, or cor
as near as possible, of a uniform agreement porations engaged as principals, owning or
covering rules and regulations governing controlling manufacturing plants operating
the employment of apprentices; and, principally in the metal trades,
Be it further resolved, that the in which there are employed
following conditions be advised
WHAT IS AN machinists, millwrights, black
for the incorporation in such smiths, pipe fitters, boiler mak- APPRENTICE?
agreement, subject to the laws ers, pattern makers, carpenters, Webster's Dictionary says: of the State or Province in struc ral iron workers, iron
One who is bound by inden-
which the member's shop is loship builders, polishers and other person, for a certain cated and the conditions in the
time, with a view to learn
tion, in which his master is
1. No boy will be engaged as ers, or machine operators, and Worcester's Dictionary: apprentice who is under fifteen helpers to any of the above.”' A person bound by inden
ure for a certain time, to
years of age. These firms, it will be seen, perform services for a mas- 2. The regular time of ap
ter, and receiving in return employ highly skilled labor and
prenticeship shall consist of their work is specialized prob
Century' Dictionary: ably more than any other im
One who is bound by inden
3. The period to be divided portant industry. The experi- ture to serve some particular so that the apprentice may ob
individual or company for a ence of such a body of intelli
specified time, in order to tain experience in the various
learn some art, trade, progent men with regard to the
classes of work and upon the
fession, manufacture, etc., training of skilled workmen has in which his master or mas- different tools.
ters become bound to inan important bearing on the struct him,
4. A boy successfully comsubject of industrial education. Standard Dictionary:
pleting his four years of appren
A person, usually a minor, Their knowledge of the actual
who serves another in order ticeship shall receive a certifineed for trade education and a
to learn a trade, art, profes- cate to that effect, signed by the
sion, especially when bound bona-fide apprenticeship sys- by indentures for a term of proper officers of the company tem comes as near to “the real
or members of the firm. thing” as can be found among
5. The member should agree any body of practical men in the country. to give the boy every opportunity to become In the matter of apprentices, this associa- a thorough mechanic, by advancing him on tion, in May, 1903, adopted the following better grades of work from time to time, as "Council Resolutions," which it publishes he demonstrates his ability and willingness in connection with its constitution and by- | for advancement. laws :
6. We recommend that as generous comAPPRENTICES Whereas, There is at present no uniform- pensation be given boys as circumstances ity in the employment of apprentices in the
will permit. shops of our members, and
7. In consideration of continual, faithful, Whereas, A proper apprenticeship system and satisfactory performance of the conis essential to the education and perpetua-tract, and furthermore, as an incentive to tion of skilled mechanics; therefore,
diligence, a bonus of at least $100 be paid
the apprentice at the completion of his con- CONDITIONS THAT MAKE APPRENtract.
TICESHIP NECESSARY 8. The member shall reserve the right to THAT the status of the boy who goes into dismiss a boy who does not prove dili- the ordinary workshop to learn a trade" gent trustworthy or competent, and a boy is very much the same in nearly all mechanso dismissed, or leaving before the expira- | ical occupations, and the results similar, are tion of his time, shall not be en
facts which make the question of titled to receive any bonus.
apprenticeship a matter of vital 9. In all cases the consent of
The proper epic
consequence to the welfare of the parent or guardian should be of this world is
every community. Here is what obtained.
not now "Arms
the president of the National As10. It is recommended that for and the Man."
sociation of Sheet Metal Workers further experience the apprentice
No-it is nou' ; said at a convention held in Milbe advised to leave the service
“ Tools and the
waukee a year or two ago. He of the firm with whom he has
Man." CARLYLE. touched upon a live topic among served his apprenticeship, for one
the employers in that industry, year, shall receive from his em
and his words apply with equal ployer a recommendation to other firms of force to printers. He said : the National Metal Trades Association, and "The present system of apprenticeship is such apprentice should receive preference not worthy of the name of apprenticeship. I from N. M. T. A. members.
would like to gather your experience, and 11. Apprentices who leave their employ- | I think it would be something like this : You ment for good and sufficient reason should want help and a boy comes to you. “Do you receive a certificate covering the time they want a boy?" "Yes.” The boy goes to work have served.
and he stays a few weeks, or a year, or until 12. We recommend that members of this there is trouble between you. The boy leaves association shall decline to employ any ap- you
goes out' to another shop and he prentice who may have left his employer, stays there a little while, and in the followwith whom he has a contract, without the ing six months you may find him in another employer's consent, before the entire com- shop, and at the end of the second year pletion of his contract.
he flouts himself as a first-class mechanic,
whereas the chances are that he is a firstAPPRENTICESHIP was given a bad class, all-round botch. That is our experience
name and hanged by Adam Smith, who in Philadelphia and the East. It is a lamentsaw it under special circumstances, and his able fact that there is no system among the followers have inveighed against it ever sheet metal workers as to the employment since. Laymen look upon it as obsolete on and training of the boy. Now, the time was their authority. The system these writers when the boy was indentured, and I am condemn is one involving restriction of lib- proud to say that I was indentured myself. erty, injustice, oppression, and lack of adapt- | I am proud of the fact that I was bound to ability to changing conditions of industry. a man under a contract for four years, and
But these objectionable features are not stayed those four years. inherent in the contract of apprenticeship. * I hope the convention will do something They are the results of unwise trade regu- that will bring about a general agreement as lations, or undesirable trade customs asso- to the treatment of apprentices. In Philaciated with, but incidental to, that contract. delphia we have taken that question up, and
It is worthy of note that not even the it looks now as though we would draw up opponents of apprenticeship have been able an agreement to bind ourselves to give the to suggest a satisfactory substitute for it as a boy employment for a stated term of, say, means of craft training. It might be revived four years, and at the end of that time we in a form which is free from the disadvan- perhaps would give him a bonus. We are tages referred to, and by its revival a great inclined to think that the boy should have improvement might be effected in the tech- some object to work for and at the end of nical skill of workmen of all sorts, and that in his time there will be a bonus given to him an easy, natural way involving no expend- for his proficiency. iture and little new machinery.--Methods of “ This is a golden opportunity for this Social Advance (Macmillan & Co.)
association to put itself on record and do
something that will break up the pernicious machine is so perfected that the intelligence system that is restricting the proper educa- necessary to operate it is reduced to a tion of the boy, a practice that is absolutely minimum. un-American and almost uncivilized. Where However much we may inveigh against are you going to get your men from ten this system as regards its narrowing or years hence? I will tell you
benumbing effect on the inthat in the last ten years the
dividual workman, we must demand for sheet metal work
recognize its economic value has doubled, and I am not
What will your boy do
in production, and therefore going far astray when I say
this system of specialization that in the next twelve years
when he leaves school?
will undoubtedly continue. it will double itself again, and
Will he have an oppor
It might seem, in view of where are your workmen go
tunity to rise ? Or will
this high specialization, that ing to come from?
he just look for a "job"? the all - round workman is “I trust that before we Skilled workmen are al- doomed. But this is not so. adjourn some definite action ways in demand and re- A recent inquiry was made of will be taken looking toward
ceive the highest wages.
a number of large manufacthe training of apprentices in Will you give your boy a
turing machinists relative to this country. We are not turn- chance?
the effect of specialization on ing out first-class mechanics,
An apprenticeship inden
trade training and it was the we are turning out first-class
ture guarantees a boy's
unanimous opinion that bebotches and inefficient men,
ginners from sixteen to twenty and if in ten years we do not
A boy with a good trade
years should not specialize have the men we need we will
narrowly in learning the mesimply reap what we sowed.
chanical process, provided The fault is not altogether
their education and ambition that of the labor union; the fault also lies qualify them for more general training. It with us.”
was further affirmed that a certain number
of all-round workmen, variously estimated THE VALUE OF APPRENTICESHIP from ten to fifty per cent of the whole number AN apprenticeship indenture is simply an employed, are 'needed even in those indusagreement between two persons to per
tries where specialization has been carried form certain acts which are of mutual ad- to the extreme, and that the demand for men vantage. Printing, in common with other broadly trained and having large industrial trades, is feeling the need of such an agree intelligence is increasing. ment as a basis of trade training, and the One large manufacturer of machine tools North End Union School of Printing deems
says: "As from year to year machinery that an apprenticeship indenture is essential grows more perfect, more automatic machinto its success. It is believed that this prin- ery is introduced, and greater specialization ciple is quite as essential to other trade in certain lines is necessary, the demand schools wherein the shop supplements in any
for particularly trained workmen, according large measure the school training. Why is to our experience, will, if anything, be greater an indenture necessary, or even desirable ? than it is now."
The problem of trade training is made all Thus it will be seen that under the most the more complex by the system of speciali- modern methods of production a certain zation which obtains in every trade to a number of broadly trained, all-round workgreater or less extent. This system, by which men are needed. the processes of manufacturing are divided It takes time and opportunity to develop into parts, each part being done by different this superior industrial intelligence, and if workmen, is developing as rapidly as new any large part of this training is to be given inventions and methods can be discovered. in the shop, it is essential that the time and The time required to learn a single process opportunity be assured. An indenture gives is much less than is needed to learn several, this assurance more surely than any other and the learner becomes a productive unit method. just that much sooner. It is an economic The National Metal Trades Association achievement in manufacturing whenever a has unhesitatingly declared that, "A proper new device eliminates a pair of hands, or a apprenticeship system is essential to the education and perpetuation of skilled me- THE SCHOOL OF PRINTING chanics.” Other persons, collectively and
NORTH END UNION, BOSTON individually, with intimate knowledge of industrial affairs, have affirmed the same
BOARD OF SUPERVISORS conclusion.
J. STEARNS CUSHING, J. S. Cushing & Co., Norwood AN INDENTURE GUARANTEES TO THE BOY:
GEO. H. ELLIS, President United Typothetæ of America
J. W. PHINNEY, American Type Founders Co., Boston (1) An opportunity to learn his trade H. G. PORTER, Smith & Porter Press, 127 Federal St. as a whole.
GEO. W. SIMONDS, C. H. Simonds & Co., 297 Congress St.
JOSEPH LEE, Vice President Massachusetts Civic League (2) A fixed wage and a steady in
SAMUEL F. HUBBARD, Superintendent North End Union crease.
A. A. STEWART, Instructor
THE SCHOOL OF PRINTING was established in January, 1900,
by the North End Union, under the supervision of a numAN INDENTURE GUARANTEES TO THE EM- ber of leading master printers of Boston. It has had to demon
strate its purpose in practical results, and is gradually being PLOYER:
recognized by those who realize the important need in the trade
of such a method of technical instruction. (1) Continuous service of the boy
The aim of the School is to give fundamental and general
instruction in printing-office work, and to offer young men, during a definite time.
through a system of indentured apprenticeship, an opportunity (2) A better grade of boy. An em
to learn the things which are becoming each year more and more
difficult for the apprentice to obtain in the restricted and speployer will not enter into a contract cialized conditions of the modern workshop.
The course of study embraces book, commercial, and advercovering several years with a boy
tising composition, and platen presswork. The School is supwhom he does not select with care.
plied with hand and job presses, roman and display types of
various styles, and thé ustial furniture and material of a modern (3) More faithful service. By such
The School is continuous and pupils may enter at any time. an agreement the boy realizes that
The hours are identical with those of a regular workshop, from his interests are bound up with his 7.40 A.M. to.5.45 P.M., excepting Saturday afternoon.
The tuition fee for one year is $100. Applicants must be sixemployer's, and that his advancement teen years of age or over. depends upon how he improves his
Further information may be obtained by addressing SAMUEL
F. HUBBARD, 20 Parmenter Street, Boston. opportunity In a word, the employer wants a number THE APPRENTICESHIP BULLETIN is intended to be
issued each month in the year, except July and August. Price
25 cents for the ten numbers. The composition and presswork are of all-round workmen, not specialists alone,
done by the apprentices in the School. and he is willing to furnish the opportunity for the necessary training, provided he can SCHOOL OF PRINTING LEAFLETS be assured the boys will stay a definite time;
SERIES of technical pamphlets giving in concise form much on the other hand, bright, ambitious boys rudimentary information relating to type-composition and
printing. The composition and presswork of he Leaflets are are willing to give the time necessary to done by pupils in the School, and are parts of the practical work learn a trade thoroughly, provided they can
of the course of instruction. Uniform size 4x64 inches. The
Leaflets now ready are noted below. Sent post-paid upon receipt be assured that the opportunity will be given of price : singly, 15 cents each ; five copies of one or more num
bers, 10 cents each. them. An apprenticeship indenture guarantees No. 1. THE PRINTER'S TYPES.
A brief description of their mechanical features, comboth parties a faithful performance of this position, sizes, etc. 24 pp. mutual service.
No. 2. THE COMPOSITOR'S WORK.
A leaflet for beginners. 20 pp.
No. 3. USE OF ITALIC. TECHNICAL education has already Hints about the common uses of italic in combination
with roman, 15 pp. worked an industrial transformation in
No. 4. DivisiON OF WORDS. Germany. It has lifted the nation to the
Contains many general directions and rules, with excondition at which it acknowledges no su
amples. 12 pp. perior in its manufactured products. The
No. 5. QUOTE-MARKS.
An epitome of general rules and customary usages, marking "Made in Germany" now signifies with examples of their use. 12 pp. the finest workmanship and most perfect No. 6. USE OF CAPITALS. adaptability. Industrial education in Ger
Giving many general rules for capitalizing, as well as
spacing and leading. 19 pp. many has proved a pride in workmanship, No.7. ABBREVIATIONS AND CONTRACTIONS. and has imparted a new dignity and a new When to use them and when to spell in full, with list
of common forms. 26 pp. inspiration.
No. 9. MODERN METHODS OF PRINTING.
A brief description of the relief, intaglio and plane
surface printing processes. 22 pp. “John,” said the printer's wife, as he came home with a black eye, a cut nose, and a bandaged jaw, Address, THE SCHOOL OF PRINTING, NORTH END "where on earth did you get that display head?”
UNION, PARMENTER STREET, BOSTON.
Bulletin for May
Advocating Trade Schools and a Modern Indentured Apprenticeship System
Edited and printed at the School of Printing, North End Union, Parmenter Street, Boston
Nineteen Hundred and Seven
School Arts Book
ment and in color it was
The Exhibit of the School of and practical. This is especially to be noPrinting
ticed in display practice and in the series of
technical leaflets. [From the Boston Transcript, April 9, 1907
The school was started as an evening class HOW young persons seriously intending in 1900 under the supervision of a board of
to learn the printer's art may become several leading master printers of the city. proficient under conditions removed from The school met with so much favor that it the care, worries and commercial perplexi- was decided to open a day school, which ties which beset the average printing office should follow shop is well set forth at the Exhibit of Industrial practices, the working The Exhibit at HortiConditions now being held at Horticultural time of the school to cultural Hall Hall
. The special department wherein this be the same as that of From the Editor of the work is shown is section 5, in the main hall, the shop—that is, nine
I want especially to con. and it embodies the results accomplished at hours a day for twelve
gratulate you upon the the School of Printing which is carried on
months. The school, recent exhibit made by
the School of Printing at the North End Union. As the employing which gives a boy four at Horticultural Hall.lt
not only contained ex. printers of Boston have an oversight over years' apprenticeship cellent work, arranged the school-in fact, it is carried on directly by (one year in the school most successfully, from
a pedagogical point of them—it becomes practical from the start. and three years in the view; but it was hung
attractively. In arrangeOne first is attracted by a large photo- workshop), aims to acgraph of the school at work, and it is well quaint him with the
excellent. The next great
development in the art to observe this first, for then the visitor practice and usage of of printing is to take
place in this country, forms some idea of the type of youth who the customary working have done the various kinds of printing which tools of a printing of
more effective use of are seen on the burlap-covered walls of the fice, so that he
Schoolof Printing,small improvised hollow square that holds the his work with facility;
as it is, is a leader in exhibit.
also to inculcate effi
Cordially yours, The exhibit consists of booklets, book cient and workmanlike covers, illuminated mottos, bill heads, busi- methods, careful habness cards, specimen book pages and ex- its, intelligent planning and enthusiasm for amples of lettering and coloring, all of the work; to broaden his field of observation which enter intimately into high-class print- and to cultivate an appreciation of the posing. One feature is a comparison exhibit ! sibilities of his craft. of a piece of work done by an amateur The course of instruction embraces book, "genius" and one by a pupil under instruc- job and advertising composition and platen tion. In this case the illustrative piece hap- presswork. The instructor at the school is pens to be a business card, the setting up A. A. Stewart, and, besides the board of and the type used in the one case being supervisors, there is an apprenticeship comcrude and inharmonious, the other neat, mittee of five which keeps in intimate touch artistic and well displayed. As an exhibit it with the progress and development of each is small but it serves its purpose to show the pupil. wrong and right way of doing something The exhibit seen at Horticultural Hall is adequately enough. Not a feature of the in every way creditable, both with regard typographical art is overlooked in the school to the selection of material and the manner which so thoroughly embodies theoretical of its display.
and is to be in the direction of a wider and
HENRY T. BAILEY,