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LUTHER'S ONE IDEA.

a joy as mighty and overwhelming as had been his anguish. Thenceforth there was to him but one mighty idea--SALVATION and a SAVIOUR.

When, late in life, he was complimented on the wonderful courage and energy he had showed in conceiving and carrying on the great enterprise of civil and religious reform, he seemed lost in thought for a time, and then said: "Strange, I never thought of any of those things; all I wanted was salvation, salvation, if salvation were possible."

And having found Jesus, he proclaimed him; and when he saw the Catholic Church putting anything in place of Jesus, he tore it down; and when he found, to his amazement, that the whole Catholic establishment was not accidentally but designedly standing between the simple, common people and their Saviour, and meaning still to stand there, then it was that he undertook to fight the whole Church.

Historians have dilated on the incredible courage that Luther showed in thus relying on himself in the face of the world, but his courage is all accounted for in this one passage of Scripture: "I have set the Lord always before me; because he is on my right hand, I shall not be moved."

When on his way to the Diet at Worms, he stopped at Erfurt, and crowds flocked to see the doomed man, alone and helpless, marching onward, to all human view, to certain and horrible death-the church was crowded to overflowing; and at this time, when, like Jesus, he was going up to Jerusalem, or, like Paul, was bound in the spirit, knowing nothing, except that in every city bonds and afflictions should abide him, of what did he speak? Of Luther, and Luther's trials, and Luther's dangers-of Charles, of the pope, and princes of the empire ? No, none of these; nor yet of civil liberty and rights of conscience. Hear his text: "Then the same day at evening, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came JESUS, and stood in the midst, and said unto them, Peace be unto you! and when he had so said, he showed them his hands and his side;" and the whole discourse was a simple and pathetic illustration of this truth, that the presence of Christ, and the remembrance of his sufferings, is the Christian's support in times of affliction and danger.

When forsaken by all his friends, and threatened with instant destruction by his enemies, he writes: "But in regard to their threats, I have nothing to say to my friends, but that sentence of Reuchelin's: He who has nothing fears nothing, for he can lose nothing;' property I have none, and desire none; fame and honour, if I have had them, the destroyer has now entirely destroyed; one thing only remains-a feeble body, worn down by constant labour; and if by force or fraud they take this away, they

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may, perhaps, make me poorer by an hour or two of life. It is enough for me that I have my sweet Redeemer and Saviour, my Lord Jesus Christ, to whom I will sing as long as I have my being."

It ought to be known that the great body of Luther's preaching was not controversial, but consisted of such plain, practical efforts to lead the weak and ignorant to a Saviour, as would befit a city missionary of our own times; for "when I preach," said he, "I preach not for learned men and magistrates, of whom there are but few; but for the poor, the women, and children, and servants, of whom there are some thousands." Might not some modern ministers derive a useful hint from this?

It would seem to be a time now, when it is necessary for every minister and private Christian, like Luther, to inscribe the name of JESUS on every effort, and set him always before them. Preaching Christ, has in these days become a phrase for anything which a man chooses to say in the pulpit. A man preaches on the differences between Old School and New, and that is preaching Christ. If he preaches all sorts of philosophical speculations, that is preaching Christ. If he preaches on temperance, moral reform, anti-slavery, and all the various outworks, that is preaching Christ; in short, if he preaches at all, he is preaching Christ, of course.

But preaching Christ, according to the apostolic sense, is preaching the person, the individual, CHRIST JESUS as he is in himself, as he is in his adaptation to the wants of every human creature. It is preaching so as to produce a vivid, constant impression of the present reality of Christ, and his present activity in the affairs of the world. One sermon a-year on the character of Christ, a philosophical exemplification of the rationale of the atonement, an occasional dash at some historical fact in the life of Jesus, will not do it. There is given in the Evange lists the most noble, the most inconceivably beautiful ideal, far beyond the poet's dream, far beyond anything the highest human ideality ever hoped; and this vision of beauty and glory it is the minister's duty to reproduce, and make real and vivid on every mind in his audience. He must measure his success by this question, "How much reality and personal power among my people do I give to Christ ?" And as no one can reproduce the enchantments of art, but one who has been himself enchanted, who has gazed whole days, who has lingered on every line and lineament, marked every tone of colour and tremulous vibration of shade; so no one can reproduce Christ who has not seen him, felt him, and been thrilled to the heart's depths by his loveliness, and with whom he is not, as with Luther, the one idea, so that over every effort, of whatever kind, it should be the strong impulse of his heart to inscribe the name JESUS.-New York Evangelist.

PRAYER.*

THERE is what, rising from the earth,

Can pierce beyond the sky;

The lightning from the dark cloud cast,
The whirlwind travels not so fast,

As it ascends on high.

How, in a twinkling, from the earth

It to the heaven has gone!

Not long a suppliant at heaven's gate
Which opens wide, it passes straight
Unto Jehovah's throne.

Swiftly to that bright messenger
The seraphim, that dwell

In light before Jehovah's face,
Dividing their bright ranks, give place
Till it its mission tell.

Tell me, what messenger of grace

It is that cleaves the air,

To heaven, through heaven's gate, to the throne,
With speed so swift and sure has gone?
"Tis prayer-believing prayer.

And tell me from what heart it went?
From yon poor troubled one,
With manifold temptations worn,
With manifold afflictions torn,
So feeble and fore-done.

I saw the light fade from his eye-
How quick his spirit fell!

When Satan, striding 'thwart his path,
At his poor head, with bickering wrath,
Hurled the hot bolts of hell!

Long toiled the sore assailed one

In the unequal fight:

Foiled many a blow, and many a dart
Took on his shield, which else his heart
Had pierced with poisoned bite.

How swiftly sped that prayer on high!
As swiftly speedeth down

A gracious answer from the Lord,
O faithful ever to his word-

The tried and faithful One!

Bright were its rainbow wings, and ah,
How joyfully it came !

And breathed fresh life into the heart;
Fresh vigour wrought through every part-
Re-knit the weary frame !

The baffled foe has fled; with joy
The saint pursues his way;

Soon shall his journey lead where death
Opens for him a joyful path

Into eternal day.

CILIOGRADES AND SEA-WEED.

BY THE REV. DAVID LANDSBOROUGH, STEVENSTON. UNDER the last part of this general title I might have a wide range, seeing that it might be understood to comprehend one of the most interesting departments of botany; but instead of availing myself of this privilege, I mean, on the present occasion, to keep within very narrow bounds, and to speak only of one rare alga. And before attempting to describe it, as our gleanings in Arran are very near a close, I shall take the liberty of mentioning another Ciliograde or Beroë which was discovered in Arran. In the month of

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July, when my daughter M- was on a visit to her
friend Miss R――y, at that time residing in Arran,
they fell in with a Beroë, some specimens of which
were as large as a common-sized lemon. I was sorry
that I was not of the party, but I had not long cause
of regret, for the succeeding week, when my young
people were bathing at Saltcoats, they fell in with a
squadron of them, and having captured some, they
brought them home for my inspection. 'Lo, child-
ren are a heritage of the Lord. . . . ... Happy is the
man that hath his quiver full of them." It would
be paying them a poor compliment, were I to rest
their filial attentions on nothing better than their cap-
turing of Beroës; and yet, as I have little time myself
for strolling on the shore, I count it some advantage
to have occasionally younger eyes and hands at work
for me.
When they were younger than they are
now, a penny was promised for every new shell or
sea-weed, &c., they found on the shore; and when
new ones became rare, the premium rose to sixpence.
This I thought one of the cases in which bribery was
not corruption. For some weeks after this the Beroës
in fine weather were found in considerable abundance.
I brought some of them home, and putting them in
sea-water, in a jar, I had the pleasure of observing
their movements. The largest one we observed here
was three inches in length, by about one inch and
a-half in diameter. It was very beautiful-much
more magnificent than the Beroë ovata. In shape, it
resembled an antique pitcher contracted at the neck,
with a graceful revolution, or turning back at the
brim. It did not permanently retain this shape,
however, for it could vary it at will. The shape
which it more generally assumed was that of a clasp
purse, rounded at the base, and somewhat truncated
at the mouth. They were of various sizes, from the
size of a lemon, a little truncated above, to the dimi-
nutive size of a lady's thimble. Being in general
much larger and heavier than the Beroë ovata, they
are more likely to attract attention; and yet I never
heard of their being observed on our coast before.
As I knew that some fine Beroës had been found on
the Irish coast, I sent a figure of this one to Mr
William Thompson, Belfast, who showed it to Mr
Patterson, Belfast, who has written very scientifically
on Beroës, and who kindly sent me his interesting

* From "Songs for Wayfarers," by the Rev. J. C. Fair- publications; but as it was new to both these gentle

bairn, Allanton. A little book, full of instruction and refreshing for Zion's pilgrims. The "Songs" are, many of them, quaint, but all vigorous and expressive.

men, Mr Thompson forwarded the figure to Professor Edward Forbes, London, who informed us that it was Beroë cucumis; and that he had found numerous

CILIOGRADES AND SEA-WEED.

specimens of it that season in Lochfine, and had spent two whole days in the examination of them. As it is a rare animal, I may give a short description of it. It is gelatinous, like the sea-jellies, and hollow inside, like a pitcher. The whole body has a tinge of pink, and the eight ribs closely set with cilia, are beautifully adorned, having on each side an edging like fine crimson lace. In the larger specimens, this lace-work was studded with little orange ovalshaped bodies, like little grapes, attached by a capillary peduncle. When the Beroë was at rest, they rested; but when the cilia began rapidly to play, and the current of water, mixed at times with air bubbles, to rush through the tubes of the ribs, then all the little orange bodies were in quick motion, as if dancing to the music of the spheres; or, believing in fairies, as our forefathers did, one might have fancied that they were lace-bobbins, moved by nimble, invisible fairy hands, weaving the beautiful lace edging with which they were intermingled. Professor Forbes, however, says, as I had conjectured, that they are the eggs attached to the placentary 'membranes; and I doubt not that they are thus shaken by the motion of the cilia, that when fully ripe they may thereby be detached.

But why should I attempt to describe this animal, when, having been found by Dr Maccartney, on the shore of Kent, so good a description is given in my Vade-mecum-Professor Fleming's "British Animals?" I shall subjoin part of it: "This most elegant creature is of a colour changing between purple, violet, and pale blue; the body is truncated before, and pointed behind; but the form is difficult to assign, as it is varied by partial contractions, at the animal's pleasure. I have represented the two extremes of form that I have seen this creature assume. The first is somewhat that of a cucumber, which, as being the one it takes when at rest, should perhaps be considered as its proper shape. The other resembles a pear, and is the figure it has in the most contracted state. The body is hollow, or forms internally an infundibular cavity, which has a wide opening before, and appears also to have a small aperture posteriorly. The posterior two-thirds of the body are ornamented with eight longitudinal ciliated ribs, the processes of which are kept in such a rapid rotatory motion, while the animal is swimming, that they appear like the continual passage of a fluid along the ribs," &c.

As it is not likely that I shall return to the Beroës again, I have been tempted to subjoin some information respecting two of that tribe, so well described by Mr Patterson, in the papers he so kindly sent me. They are distinguished from the Beroës that have come under my observation, by having tentacula. The first bears a considerable resemblance to one described by Professor Fleming in his "British Animals," under the name of Pleurobrachia pileus. Mr Patterson points out in what respect his differs from Pleuro, pileus. His, to which he has given the name Cydippe pomiformis, was found by him in considerable abundance at various times, near Larne, in the county of Antrim. It had not before been recorded as British. From Mr Patterson's description, which is ably and tastefully written, it is evident

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that it is a creature of great beauty and elegance. Its form, as its specific name implies (pomiformis, apple-shaped), is more globular than either (Beroë ovata or Beroë cucumis. Its consistence, and also its movements by cilia (hence ciliagrade), were pretty much the same; but what most obviously distinguished it from the genus Beroë, was that it had two tentacula-one from each side-which, when extended, were five or six times the length of its body. These tentacula were of great beauty, being beset with delicate hair-like cilia, diverging like branchlets from the main stem; at times, indeed, rolled up like beads, but at other times moving gracefully, like the tentacula from which they sprang. The tentacula themselves were not always visible, as on any alarm, they withdrew with a sudden jerk into their sheathlike tubes, in which they lay concealed till the alarm was over, when, as they wheeled onwards, rising and falling at pleasure, they exhibited in great perfection their locomotive powers, and displayed in the sunshine the splendid iridescence of their colouring.

Another thing remarkable in them was their seeming insensibility of pain. An active little Medusa having laid hold on one of them, before they could be separated, it had cut out from the side of the Cydippe, a segment of a circle extending to more than a third of its breadth and fully two-thirds of its length. Did the Cydippe die, when three ribs with their gelatinous clothing, were thus like a crescent cut out of its body? No such thing. During four days that it was afterwards kept, it continued to career through the jar, and seemed as active and happy as before it met with the seemingly ruinous mutilation! When any of them happened to be shattered by the storm, the principle of vitality continued in the fragments. And when one of the fragments was clipped into small pieces, the cilia on the smallest bittock persisted in their rapid movements for a night and a day after an operation which might have seemed as deadly as if performed by the scissors of the Fates.

Mr Patterson describes another Ciliograde which he had the pleasure of discovering, and to which he has given the name of Bolina Hibernica. It comes near the shape of Beroë ovata; but it had four tentacula, which were very beautiful-sometimes erect like the ears of a horse, and at other times hanging down like the ears of a lap-dog. The only thing I shall advert to respecting the Bolina is their phosphorescence. When about thirty were put into a glass jar, and the water agitated, the whole contents of the vessel became so completely lighted up as to render all the adjoining objects for a moment visible. On stirring them round, they were seen like lamps suspended in the water. "It was impossible to behold these bodies of innocuous flame floating amidst the brightness which they themselves diffused, without feeling that to convey an adequate idea of their beauty would be a task more fitted for the imagery of the poet than the language of the naturalist."

The rare sea-weed to which I alluded at the commencement of this article, was Gloinsiphonia capillaris, which was on this occasion found by my son David, in a rock-pool not far from Corrie, being the

only known habitat of the plant in Scotland, except, one. It is rare in Ireland, and still more rare in England. A year or two ago it had been found by me in Saltcoats Bay. I had observed it at low-water, in a little channel betwixt two rocks, as I was retreating with all convenient speed, lest I should be circumvented by the returning tide, as I had been some days before. In my haste, I snatched only a small portion from a large plant of it growing on a bed of shale, thinking that it was some common thing, with rather an uncommon aspect. On floating it in freshwater, spreading it on paper, and exposing it to the air, it changed in a short time from a dull brownishred to a fine bright crimson. I then found that it was not an old friend with a new face, but an alga of great beauty, which was new to Scotland, viz., Mesogloia, now Gloiosiphonia capillaris. Next season it was found in considerable abundance in the same locality, in shallow water; but from being too much exposed to the light, or to some other cause, it had lost much of its fine crimson colour. My son, by wading into deep water and catching the plants with his toes, got fine specimens, which, on being plunged in fresh-water, and then exposed to the air, assumed the rich crimson hue.

fountains of waters, and God shall wipe away all tears from thine eyes."

PICTURE OF A PILGRIMAGE.
(From Cheever's “"Pilgrim in the Shadow of the
Jungfrau Alp.")

EINSIEDELN constitutes the very head-quarters of
the worship of the Virgin Mary. All day long, if
you come into the region as we did, nigh about the
season for the great annual worshipping festival or
Virginal levee, you will meet pilgrims on the roads in
every direction hurrying thither, or returning from
the shrine; old men and robust peasants, maidens and
little children, troops of old women telling their
beads and repeating their prayers, as they tramp
along the wet road, as if praying for a wager. What
an intense, haggard zeal is depicted in some of their
countenances! Their lips move, and they do not look
at you, but hurry on undistracted from their great
work; for they probably have a certain number of
aves to repeat, or perhaps a bead roll of prayers so
constructed, that if they miss one, they must go over
the whole again from the beginning.
beings who have heard of Jesus Christ, and of the
And is this religion? Is it taught for religion by
Sacred Scriptures, and of the character of God? Is
this the influence of the Virgin Mary upon the soul?
Do men expect thus to climb to heaven? Pass on
to the great building, the spacious Temple of the
Virgin, and you will see. It is a vast and guady
ing a black image of the Virgin, almost as black as
church within, a stately structure without, enshrin-
ebony, which some believe came miraculously from
heaven, as fully as ever the Ephesians believed in the
heaven-descended character of the image of their
great goddess Diana. This singular shrine is fre-
quented by multitudes of penance-doing people, who
go thither at the impulse of their anxious half-
awakened consciences, under guidance of their priests,
to deposit their offerings, perform their prayers, and
quiet their souls with the hope, by Mary's help, of
escaping unscathed both hell and purgatory.

If some can find sermons in stones, and good in everything, may not we extract lessons even from weeds? The prescribed address of a certain order of monks in meeting each other is: "Il faut mourir, mon frere," and the regular response is: "Oui, mon frere, il faut mourir !" The "il faut" (the must) shows that Death naturally is anything but welcome. But since he will come, however unwelcome, and since he may come at an inconvenient season, when we are ill prepared for receiving him, should we not consider whether it may not be so ordered that death, instead of being met with reluctance, may be hailed as the harbinger of a blessed change? This very alga which has been under our consideration, when living in its submarine habitation, is but an ungainly weed; and when torn from its native rock, and exposed to the air, after being plunged in fresh-water, death ensues. Yet it is only then that its worth appears. Then only it becomes permanently beautiful, when it is clothed in the unchangeable loveliness of death. If death is to make a change for the better on thee, gentle reader, instead of saying mournfully, "We must die," are you not ready to say, "I would not live alway" -"willing rather"-yea, "having a desire to depart and to be with Christ, which is far better." It was a mystery hid from ages, how the merciless king of terrors might be converted into a friend-how, by dying, the happiest and loveliest of human beings may become for ever unspeakably more happy and lovely. The mystery is over-the secret is divulged. The Volume of Inspiration reveals it. If thou believest in Jesus, the change which death effects is unspeakable Memoria Technica of her worship. The pope's ably for the better. The earthly house of this tabernacle dissolves; but thou shalt have a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. "Thou shalt hunger no more, neither thirst any more, neither shall the sun light on thee, nor any heat; but he who is in the midst of the throne shall feed thee, and shall lead thee to living

The multitude of pilgrims is sometimes prodigious. When the anniversary festival of the miraculous consecration of the shrine comes on the Sabbath, it lasts fifteen days, and is a great collective jubilee. From every quarter the pilgrims flock, as to the opened gate of heaven. Here they may have pleasure by the way commuted for by light penances, or by the pilgrimage itself, indulgences for future pleasure, and pardons, number of pilgrims annually has been at an average unlimited, for sin. From the year 1820 to 1840, the of more than one hundred and fifty thousand. This vast concourse of strangers keeps the town and parish of Einsiedeln in a thriving business of inn-keepthe "Star of the Sea," the "Queen of Heaven." As ing, merchandise, and various light manufactures for of old the Ephesians made silver shrines for Diana, and by her worship got their own wealth, so the Einsie delners make images, shrines, and pictures for Mary, and by this craft maintain a thrifty state. Around the great church in front and on each side, as well as in the village, are rows of stalls or shops for the sale knicknacks in honour of the Virgin, and as a portof books, beads, pictures, images, and a thousand

letter in her behalf makes appropriate display among all these treasures, and as it were fixes their value, just as the pontifical stamp coins money. It makes one's heart ache to see the mournful superstition of Virgin in the Romish worship is one of the most prothe people. Indeed the whole establishment of the digious transactions of spiritual fraud, one of the vastest pieces of forgery and speculation, in the history of

1

Our race.

PICTURE OF A PILGRIMAGE.

It is a great South Sea bubble of religious superstition, by which thousands make a fortune in this world, but millions make shipwreck of their souls for ever.

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mad enthusiasm of the tunic-worshippers at Treves, "Holy Coat, pray for us!" And what is to be said of a religion which, instead of endeavouring to cure people of their ignorance, just takes advantage of it, enshrining and maintaining in state every absurd phantasm that a frightened superstitious brain can coin? It is the veriest trickery, worthy of a Turkish santon, a religious jugglery, not half so respectable as that of Jannes and Jambres to cajole the common uneducated mind in this manner. And it passes one's comprehension how educated men, in other respects upright and honest, can connive at the cherishing of such lunacies among the people.

The pope and the priesthood are joint stockholders of a great bank in heaven, which they have reared on false capital, and of which they have appointed Mary the supreme and perpetual directress. So the pope and the priests issue their bills of credit on Mary, and for the people the whole concern is turned into a sort of savings bank, where believers deposit their ave marias, their pilgrimages, their penances, their orisons and acts of grace, receiving now, for convenience in this world, drafts from the pope, and expecting to receive their whole reversionary fortune from Mary in paradise. If this be not as sheer, pure, unsophisticated a form of Paganism as the annals of Heathen mythology ever disclosed or perfected, we are at a loss to know what constitutes Paganism. The artful mixture of the Gospel scheme of redemption, and reference to it, in this Marianic system, makes it, if not a stronger poison, a far more subtle and danger-tigations in all a man's journeyings in Europe, espeous delusion for the mind.

The Romish scheme, as here demonstrated, is a system of mediators and courts of appeal, which puts the soul as far as possible from the Great Mediator, and prevents all direct access to the fountain of a | Saviour's blood. Here we have the pope accrediting the saints-the saints interceding with MaryMary interceding with Christ. The system in general, and Einsiedeln in particular, with the legendary literature and litanies connected with it, constitutes a great development of the common faith and literature of the middle ages, the idea of which, examined not in the common mind, but only in a few great intellects, has been in some quarters so applauded, even by professed Protestants. Ages of faith, forsooth, where true faith was rendered almost impossible, and all the life of the soul was one vast super¡stition!

In front of the great Einsiedeln Church there is a fountain with fourteen compartments or jets, at one of which the common people say and believe our Saviour drank, though when, or how, or by what possibility, it would puzzle the stanchest Judæus Apellas to tell. If this place were Sychar, nigh to the parcel of ground which Jacob gave to his son Joseph, or even if Einsiedeln were on the way to Egypt from the Holy Land, such a legend were more possibly accountable and admissible; but here in the Alpine Mountains, on the way from Schwytz to Zurich, no man can imagine how such a tradition came about. And yet the poor people believe it. I saw a peasant with the utmost gravity and reverence taking fourteen drinks in succession, in order that he might be sure he had got the right one; and probably all the more ignorant pilgrims do the same. Simultaneously with him, a flock of geese were drinking round the fountain, but with much more wit, to save the trouble of going the circuit, they dipped their splashing bill-cups in the reservoir below, into which all the fourteen jets pour their streams together, being sure that the contents of the sacred one must necessarily be there also.

And do you really think that a goose has so much sense? Do you think a man can have so much folly? I would answer: Which ought to be the greatest marvel-that a goose should conclude, since all the jets fall into the pool, that there can be no one jet the water of which is not there, or that a man should have so much sad and blind credulity, as to believe that Jesus Christ once drank there, and that if he drinks at the same jet, his soul will be benefited? Which, I ask, ought to be the greatest marvel? Is it not a folly almost incredible, almost equal to the

It is not merely the nature of these things as a curious system of superstitions that we wish to look at. The philosophic traveller desires to observe, and is bound to observe, their effect upon the character of the people the manner in which they take hold of the mind-the sort of atmosphere which they form around the common heart and life of the multitude. This is one of the most curious and instructive inves

cially when he comes upon an enclosure into which the light and influences of the Reformation have never penetrated, and where Romanism, not having come in contact with systems or controversies that might shake the faith of its votaries, may be sounded in its depths in the souls invested with it. There is too much of a disposition to set down a Protestant traveller's notes on the Romish system as he sees it to the score of bigotry or religious prejudice. This is both unfair and unwise; for it tends to make travellers neglectful of observing the workings of foreign religious systems, or restricted and uncandid in giving their impressions to the public. There is nothing that a traveller ought to watch more closely, or report more fully and fairly, than the nature of these two things, religion and education, among the people where he journeys. What should we say if M. D. Tocqueville, in writing of us in America, had abstained from all notices and remarks on our religious system, because this would have rendered his book obnoxious to some, and distasteful to others, and might have injured its popularity and acceptableness? A man travels in Europe blindfold, who either does not observe, or neglects to record, the workings of the great religious system, or who sees it, not in its effects on the whole character of the people, or on common minds, but only in its festival ceremonies in gorgeous cathedrals. It is to be feared that many persons look upon Romanism only with the outward eye, and only in its outward observances, without attempting to trace its progress and its influence on the mind and in the heart.

I purchased and brought away with me several of the little images of the Virgin, which are sold in countless quantities for the use of worshippers. They look very much like the portable images of the household gods of Egypt, which I obtained several years ago while travelling in that country. They may lie on the same shelf in a man's cabinet of curiosities. And what a curious concatenation, after four thousand years, which brings the idolatry of the earliest Pagan system and that of the professedly Christian system, at the two extremes, so singularly together! Looking at these two sets of images, which a man may carry side by side in his trousers pocket, it is difficult to believe that there was one particle more or less of superstition and idolatry in the use of the one than of the other. For a poor peasant now may be as complete and unconscious an idolater of his "Star of the Sea," with the rude image which he carries in his pocket, or about his neck, as the ancient Egyptian peasant ever was of his Isis or Osiris. Indeed, the idolatry, whatever it be, which comes after Chris

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