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and Greek in the Cazenovia Methodist Seminary (1833); of chemistry and natural philosophy in Dickinson College (1836); of philosophy and English literature in the same college (1846); president of Girard College from 1850 to his death, except during an interval of five years from 1863, for a part of which time he presided over the State Agricultural College. In 1872 he became president of the American Bible Society. He died at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Aug. 29, 1882.

ALLEN, WILLIAM SULLIVANT VANDERBILT, an American painter, and illustrator in black and white. He was born Oct. 8, 1860, in New York City; was a pupil, in France, of Gérôme and Claude Monet, and adopted the style of the impressionist school, introducing it into his figure-pieces; a member of the Society of American Artists; resides in New York.

ALLENDE, a city in the southern part of the state of Chihuahua, in north-central Mexico. It is situated in a valley that penetrates the Sierra Madre range of mountains from the east, and was settled by the Spaniards in 1570. It is about 60 It is about 60 miles W. of Jiminez, on the Mexican Central railroad, and was long a mere hamlet, but mining developments have caused its recent rapid growth, and it has an estimated population of 12,000.

ALLENDE, a town in the northeast of the state of Coahuila, in northeastern Mexico. It is on Eagle Pass division of the Mexican International railroad, at its junction with a railway to Zaragoza, 10 miles to the N., and is 32 miles S. from Ciudad Porfirio Diaz, on the Rio Grande. It is a place of growing commercial importance, and has a reputed population of 15,000.

ALLENDE, JEAN RAFAEL, playwright and poet of Chile, and the Tyrtæus of his country during her war with Peru and Bolivia in 1879-83, his inspiring lyrics being published by the government. In 1869, at the age of 19, he became a journalist, and in 1884 founded El Padre Padillo, in Santiago, his birthplace. He was the author of several successful plays and a number of volumes of verse.

ALLENTOWN, a city and the county seat of Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. See Vol. I, p. 583. Immense quantities of coal and iron ore pass through this city, and extensive blast-furnaces, rollingmills and iron-works are in constant operation. There are also numerous tanneries, machine-shops, tube-works, shoe manufactories, fire-brick works, and woolen and other mills. Allentown contains a prison which cost a quarter of a million dollars, a handsome courthouse, and is the seat of Muhlenberg College and of Allentown Female College. Population 1890, 25, 228.

ALEPPI OR ALLEPPI is a town in Travancore, India, on the coast of Malabar. It is 32 miles S. E. of Cochin, and has a considerable marine commerce. A canal connects it with a coast lake called Backwater. The place is important on account of its trade in teak, cardamoms and pepper. Population estimated at 25,000.

ALLER, a navigable river of Prussia, about

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ALLERTON, ISAAC, one of the "Pilgrim Fathers"; born about 1583, sailed for America in the first voyage of the Mayflower, and was an enterprising member of the colony until 1631, when he had a dispute with the settlers, and removed to Marblehead, establishing several trading-stations. He died in New Haven, in 1659. Allerton's daughter, Mary, was the last survivor of the Mayflower company.



ALLHALLOWMAS ALL SAINTS' DAY, a church festival, celebrated on November ist. In 731 Pope Gregory III consecrated a chapel in Rome to the Virgin and all the saints, since which time the festival is said to have been observed in that city. The fourth pope of that name in 837 gave it observance in France, where it is called La Tousaint. It commemorates the faithful dead who have not a special day of their own in the calendar, these saints having become more numerous than days could be provided for them. The choice of the day was probably due to the fact that the eve preceding was one of the four great festivals among the northern nations, the policy of the Church being to substitute Christian for heathen celebrations. This day is observed by Catholics, Lutherans, and Anglicans; but the Greek Church observes a like festival on the Sunday following Whit-Sunday. See HALLOWEVEN, Vol. XI, p. 398.

ALLIANCE, a manufacturing town situated on the Mahoning River, about 57 miles from Cleveland, Ohio, with which it is connected by railroads. It is 12 miles E. of Canton by the Pittsburg and Fort Wayne railroad, and is a railroad center. It is in a rich agricultural region, and is noted for manufactures of hardware, agricultural implements, lumber, and carriages. It has banking, express and other municipal facilities. population in 1890 was 7,607. Mt. Union College is situated one mile from the town.


ALLIANCE OF REFORMED CHURCHES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD is known as the Presbyterian Alliance, or Pan-Presbyterian Council, the plan of which was discussed in New York City by representative men of various Presbyterian communions who were in attendance upon the meetings there of the Evangelical Alliance in 1873. Communications were subsequently opened with the churches of Presbyterian order everywhere for the purpose of forming an association or council to consider matters of common interest and to promote harmonious action as to missionary work. These measures resulted in a conference in London in 1875, 100 delegates being present, during which a plan of organization was formulated, and arrangements made for holding the first general council in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1877, to be composed of delegates from such Presbyterian communions as should adhere to the union. At this first council there were present 249 delegates, ministerial and lay, from 40 different communions. The com


mon ground upon which they met is thus defined | in the constitution: "Any church organized on Presbyterian principles, which holds the supreme authority of the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments in matters of faith and morals, and whose creed is in harmony with the consensus of the reformed churches, shall be eligible for admission into the alliance." The council is composed of clerical and lay delegates in equal numbers, formally chosen by the legislative body of the specific denomination they represent, but it is without authority "to interfere with the creed or constitution of any church in the alliance, or with its external or internal relations. The second general council was held in Philadelphia (1880), and the third in Belfast (1884), the number of delegates at each being close upon the number at the Edinburgh meeting. The fourth meeting was held in London (1888). The number of delegates present was 275, representing 25 countries and provinces, 78 branches, 1,392 presbyteries, and 209 synods. The total number of church members represented at this council was 3,603, 209, who had contributed $30,000,000 to religious objects during the year preceding. At the meeting in Toronto (1892) there was an increase of four over the number that had been present in London. The sixth council met (1896) in Glasgow, Scotland. The objects of the organization are to promote fellowship, diffuse information, advance missionary work and reform, and to counteract infidelity and intolerance. The alliance in 1896 embraced 91 different Presbyterian denominations throughout the world, many of them, however, being missionary organizations, and it is estimated that these denominations comprised about 26,000,000 adherents. these denominations, 10 were in the United States, and include those denominations known as the Dutch and German Reformed Churches before they dropped the national epithet. Another organization is the Welsh Presbyterian Church in the United States. With the 600,000 adherents of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, this English-speaking constituency of North America is believed to embrace 6,500,000 souls. The proceedings of the councils are published in London and other authorized papers from time to time, and are on sale by the general secretary of the alliance there.


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every book published in the English language, with sketches of each author, and excerpts from leading reviews or critical writers concerning each important book. The first volume was published by Peterson and Childs, of Philadelphia, in 1854, and the third appeared 17 years later. It is a monument of unwearying diligence, and comprises notices of about 46,500 writers. While not free from errors and imperfections, there is no other work extant to take its place among reference books, and the marvel is that one man should have had the requisite industry to produce it. In 1891 continuation in two volumes appeared, edited by John Foster Kirke. Mr. Allibone compiled several volumes of prose and verse quotations, distributed by topics, and some pious books in the interests of evangelical faith. He was twice an editor and secretary for the American Sunday School Union, while between the ages of 50 and 63. In 1880, he became librarian of the Lenox Library in Newport. He resigned at the age of 72, went abroad, and died, Sept. 2, 1889, in Lucerne, Switzerland.


ALLIES, THOMAS WILLIAM, born at Bristol, England, in 1813. He was examining chaplain to Bishop Blomfield, who, in 1842, presented to him the rectory of Launton, Oxfordshire. He joined the Roman Catholic communion in 1850, and published the See of St. Peter, in which he accounted for his conversion. He was excluded from the priestly office by his marriage, and subsequently became secretary to the Catholic School Committee. He published, among other works, St. Peter, His Name and Office as Set Forth in Holy Scripture; The Formation of Christendom; Per Crucem ad Lucem, The Result of a Life; and Dr. Pusey and the Ancient Church.

ALLIGATION, meaning "to bind together," is a rule of arithmetic relating to the solution of questions concerning the compounding or mixing of different ingredients, or ingredients of different qualities or values. The simplest form of alligation is seen in the following example: 3 lb of coffee, @ 45c, are mixed with 5 lb, @55c: what is the price of 1 lb of the mixture? The result is attained by adding the products of the price and quantities of each and dividing by two sums of the quantities; that is, add 135 to 275 and divide by 8. gives the solution, 514c.




VI, p. 729.

ALLINGHAM, HELEN PATERSON, wife of William Allingham, the poet, was born near Burton-onTrent, England, Sept. 26, 1848. Her maiden name was Paterson. Going to London, she entered the schools of the Royal Academy in 1867, eventually becoming one of the art staff of the Graphic. Amongst other bookwork, she furnished illustrations to the novels published in the Cornhill Magazine. She also produced many watercolor drawings, exhibiting at the leading galleries. The Milkmaid and Wait for Me were exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1874. year she was elected an associate of the Royal Society of Painters in Water Color, and in 1890




to the full membership. Her portraits of Carlyle | about 300 species. They are perennial, or rarely bi

are well known.

ALLINGHAM, WILLIAM, a popular poet, of English family, born at Ballyshannon, in Ireland, in 1828. He contributed to the Athenæum, Household Words, and other journals, while doing the duties of a commissioner of taxes in London, and in 1874 he succeeded Froude as editor of Fraser's Magazine. In this year he married Helen Paterson, the artist. His first volume of poems appeared in 1850; his second, Day and Night Songs, in 1854, and in an enlarged form, illustrated by Rossetti and Millais, the year after. In 1864 first appeared, in book-form, Lawrence Bloomfield in Ireland, a narrative poem of contemporary Irish life. He published, in 1877, Songs, Ballads and Stories, a collection of new pieces, together with revised versions of earlier poems, and in 1887, Irish Songs and Poems. He died in London, Nov. 20, 1889.

ALLIOLI, JOSEPH FRANZ, a German Roman Catholic theologian, was born at Sulzbach, Aug. 10, 1793. He was appointed to the chair of theology at Munich, 1826, and later provost of Augsburg Cathedral. He is known chiefly through his translation of the Bible into German, which work reached a sixth edition. He died, Aug. 22, 1873, in Augsburg.

ALLISON, capital of Butler County, northeastern Iowa, is situated in the center of the county, on the Chicago and Great Western railroad, 23 miles W. of Waverly. Population 1895, 436.

ALLISON, JOHN, an American politician. was born at Beaver, Pennsylvania, Aug. 5, 1812. After having served several terms in the state legislature, he served two terms in Congress (1852-53, 1856-57). Conspicuous in founding the Republican party, in 1860 he was also a delegate to the Republican convention which nominated Abraham Lincoln. He served as a staff-officer during the Civil War, and died at Washington, District of Columbia, in 1878, while holding the office of Registrar of the United States Treasury.

ALLISON, WILLIAM B., an American Republican statesman, was born in Perry, Ohio, March 2, 1829, and educated at the Western Reserve College, in that state. He practiced law in Ohio until 1857, when he removed to Iowa. On the breaking out of the Civil War, he became a member of the governor's staff, and aided in the organization of the Iowa volunteers. He was elected to Congress in 1862, served four terms, and in 1873 was chosen United States Senator, in succession to James Harlan. In 1878, 1884, and 1890 he was re-elected. His present term of office will expire March 3, 1897. In the Fifty-second Congress he was chairman of the finance committee. In 1892 he was a delegate from the United States to the international monetary congress at Brussels. ALLIUM, the largest genus of Liliacea, containing


ennial, herbaceous plants, natives chiefly of the temperate or colder regions of the northern hemisphere. They are bulbous, with a characteristic odor, and bear their flowers in an umbel at the summit of a scape which arises from the middle of a cluster of radical leaves. Some of the more common cultivated species are the garlic, onion, leek, shallot and chive.

ALLMAN, GEORGE JAMES, an Irish naturalist, was born at Cork, Ireland, 1812. Graduating in the medical department at Trinity College, Dublin, 1844, he was appointed the same year to the chair of botany in that college. In 1855, he became professor of natural history in the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, which position he held till 1870. His chief works include a History of the FreshWater Polyzoa, and Hydroida of the Challenger Expedition. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, London, in 1854; and received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Edinburgh University after his retirement from his chair therein. In 1879 he was president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. He was president of the Linnæan Society from 1874 to 1883.

ALLMOUTH. See DEVIL-FISH, Vol. VII, p. 138. ALLOBROGES, a Celtic race of Gaul, allies of Hannibal at the time of his invasion, 218 B.C. They were subjected to the Roman yoke in 121 B.C., by Quintus Fabius Maximus, and from that time governed as a part of Gallia Narbonensis. Their capital was Vienna (now Vienne), on the Rhône.

ALLOCUTION, in the language of the Vatican, denotes the address delivered by the pope to the College of Cardinals on any important ecclesiastical or political circumstance. When the papal court desires to guard a principle which it is obliged to relinquish in a particular case, or to reserve a claim for the future which has no chance of present recognition, it makes use of this form of address. Allocutions are published by being affixed to the doors of St. Peter's at Rome.

ALLOMERISM, in chemistry, is the term applied to crystalline matter possessing the property of remaining unchanged in form while varying in its chemical constituents or proportions.

ALLON, HENRY, an English Congregational minister and author, was born Oct. 13, 1818, at Welton, Yorkshire, England. He was educated at Cheshunt College, Hertfordshire; and in January, 1844, was ordained assistant pastor of Union Chapel, Islington, London, and in 1852 sole pastor of the congregation. He became eminent in his denomination, and was chosen chairman of the Congregational Union in 1864, and again in 1881. In addition to his ministerial duties he has been a prolific writer, and was editor of the British Quarterly Review, from 1865 to 1887. He published the Congregational Psalmist and The Vision of God (1876), the latter being a volume of his own sermons, which had an extensive sale. Yale College, New Haven, Connecticut, conferred upon him the degree of D.D. in 1871. St. Andrew's University, Scotland, conferred the same degree upon him in 1885. He died in London, Oct. 16, 1892.

ALLOPATHY, a term originated by Hahnemann



for a system of medical treatment founded on the dictum expressed by Hippocrates that "opposites are remedies for opposites," and which proceeded upon the plan of using medicines that in a healthy person induced conditions of a character antagonistic to those sought to be removed. The term has long been obsolete. It is objectionable, as scientific practitioners cannot restrict themselves to such limitations on the treatment of disease; as with the development, for instance, of bacteriology, entirely new resources have been brought into prominence and taken advantage of extensively. The practice of allopathy was opposed to that of HOMOEOPATHY; q.v., Vol. XII, p. 129; Vol. XV, p. 814; also HAHNEMANN, Vol. XI, p. 333. ALLOTMENTS. In England allotments are small plats of common-land let to agricultural laborers, who cultivate them during their spare time. The custom of letting allotments varies in different parts of the country, a quarter of an acre being about the average size of plats. When wisely applied it has been found to be a beneficial system.

ALLOWAY, the birthplace of Robert Burns, the Scottish national poet. It is situated on the right bank of the Doon, south of the town of Ayr, Scotland. The low, thatched cottage in which the poet was born, Jan. 25, 1759, was converted in 1880 into a Burns museum. The roofless ruin of the "haunted kirk" is still standing, and near by is the Burns monument and the "aul' brig o' Doon."


ALLOXANTIN, a compound obtained by the mixture of dialuric acid with alloxan. It forms small, white, hard, brilliant prismatic crystals, is freely dissolved by boiling water, and its solution reddens litmus. ALLOYS OF COPPER, TIN AND ZINC. STRENGTH OF MATERIAL, in these Supplements. ALLOYS, NEW. The study of alloys is carried on systematically in connection with various trades, and is often discussed by engineering societies. Most of the valuable alloys of recent years contain aluminum, which metal has been subjected to a very wide examination in many quarters. Aluminum bronze alloys are the most valuable yet discovered. The proportion of aluminum used is from 5 to 111⁄2 per cent. The 10-per-cent mixture affords great tensile strength. It is yellow, melts at about 1700° F., and is malleable at a red heat.

Electrotypers have found an alloy of about 13 parts tin with aluminum to form a useful nonshrinking combination. A six-per-cent alloy of copper with aluminum has been found best for sheathing torpedo-boats. Steel alloyed with 8 per cent of copper and 12 per cent of aluminum is used for bicycle-frames. German silver and aluminum are also added to steel for the same purpose, a high tensile strength being secured, and the color being whiter than pure aluminum.

Promethium of titan metal is the name of a new alloy, consisting of 60 per cent copper, 38 zinc, 2 aluminum, a minute quantity of sodium being added to the molten mass in casting. It possesses remarkable resistance.

Recent tests show that a little arsenic adds strength to copper. Some experimenting has been done with the rarer metals, and one interesting alloy has been


found, of two tenths of one per cent zirconium with gold, yielding a bright green alloy, useful in the manufacture of jewelry.

A committee of English engineers in 1895 made an exhaustive report on the subject of alloys, showing the freezing-points of many combinations, and that many of them have two freezing-points.

ALL-SAINTS' BAY indents the coast of the province of Bahia, Brazil. It has a fine natural harbor, in which the navies of the world might ride at anchor. The harbor has easy entrances on both sides of the island Itaparica. Its length from north to south is 37 miles, its breadth 27.

ALL SAINTS' DAY. See ALL HALLOWS, in these Supplements. ALLSOPP, SAMUEL, born in 1780. He was a member of the brewing establishment of Alsopp and Sons at Burton-on-Trent, England. He was noted for his charities. He died in 1838, and was succeeded in the business by his sons, Charles, James, and Henry.

The last-named entered Parliament in

1874, and in 1880 was named a baronet. After his retirement from the firm he was raised to the peerage as Baron Hindlip. He died April 3, 1887.

ALL SOULS' DAY, a day of devotion in the Roman Catholic Church, held on the 2d of November. By prayers and almsgiving it is sought to alleviate the sufferings of the souls in purgatory. It was first instituted in the monastery of Clugny (Cluny), France, in 993, A.D. Its origin is related as follows: Returning from the Holy Land, a pilgrim, by stress of weather, was stranded on a rocky isle between Sicily and Thessalonica. A hermit, whom he met on the isle, told him that among the rocky ravines was the opening to the lower world. Flames were to be observed issuing from this opening, and even the agonized cries of the souls in torment below could be heard. The hermit had also heard the loud denunciations of the evil spirits against those who, by their prayers and alms, had been successful in securing the release of the tormented souls therefrom. These evil spirits were specially exercised against the monks of Cluny. At length, on reaching this monastery, the pilgrim acquainted Odilo, the abbott. The latter thereupon announced the dedication of the day named for the special purposes mentioned above.

ALLSPICE, the fruit of Eugenia Pimenta and E. acris; also called pimento and Jamaica pepper. It is supposed to combine the flavor of cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves. The name is also applied to certain spicy plants, such as Calycanthus floridus ("sweet-scented shrub "); Chimonanthus fragrans, and Lindera Benzoin ("spice-bush").

ALLSTON, ROBERT FRANCIS WITHERS, an American governor; was born in All Saints' Parish, South Carolina, April 21, 1801. He graduated at West Point in 1821, and was assigned to the artillery service, but resigned at the end of a year. He returned to his native state, engaging in agriculture and surveying, in both of which pursuits he became noted. He was made state surveyor-general in 1823, holding the office four years. In 1828 he was elected to the legislature, and in 1831 was appointed deputy adjutant-general, which office he held till



1838. He entered the state senate in 1832 and became successively acting president and president. In 1856 he was elected governor of the state. He published several works on rice-culture and the cultivation of sea-coast plants. He died at his home near Georgetown, April 7, 1864.

ALLSTON, WASHINGTON, American painter and poet, born in Waccamaw, South Carolina, Nov. 5, 1779. He was graduated at Harvard in 1800, and studied at the Royal Academy, London, and also at Paris and Rome, He returned to America in 1809, but again sought England in 1811, remaining seven years, during which time he produced The Dead Man Revived, Uriel in the Sun, and Jacob's Feast, besides other pictures. In 1818 he was elected an associate of the Royal Academy, London, and in this year removed his studio to Boston, where he painted Jeremiah, The Witch of Endor, Miriam, Rosalie, Madonna, Spanish Girl, Spalatro's Vision of the Bloody Hand, and Belshazzar's Feast. He also painted portraits of Coleridge, Benjamin West, a countryman, who was president of the Royal Academy, and one of himself. Allston was also a man of literary talent; his books are The Sylphs of the Season, published in London (1813); The Paint King; The Two Painters; Monaldi (1841); and Lectures on Art, and Poems, published posthumously (1850). He died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, July 9, 1843.


ALLUVION. See RIPARIAN Laws, Vol. XX, pp. 565, 566.

ALMA, capital of Wabaunsee County, northeastern Kansas. It is situated at the intersection of the Union Pacific and Manhattan, Alma and Burlington railroads, about 35 miles W. and S. of Topeka. It has good stone-quarries, and water-power furnished by a branch of the Kansas River. Population 1880, 362; 1890, 1,125.

ALMA, a town in Gratiot County, northeastern Michigan, on the Pine River. It is on the Detroit, Lansing and Northern, and Toledo, Ann Arbor and Northern Michigan railroads. It is about 32 miles W. of Saginaw and 9 miles N. of Ithaca. It has considerable miscellaneous manufactures. It is the seat of Alma College, a Presbyterian institution. Population 1880, 437; 1890, 1,655.

ALMA, capital of Harlan County, central southern Nebraska, situated on the left bank of the Republican River, on the Grand River and Burlington and Missouri River railroads, about 20 miles W. of Bloomington. Population 1880, 298; 1890, 905.

ALMA, capital of Buffalo County, central western Wisconsin, situated at the junction of the Mississippi and Buffalo rivers, on the Chicago, Burlington and Northern railroads, 52 miles N. of La Crosse. In its vicinity are the noted "Beef Slough Booms." Population 1890, 1,428; 1895, 1,529. ALMACANTAR OR ALMUCANTOR, an astro

nomical term derived from the Arabic, applied to a circle of altitude of the celestial sphere parallel to the horizon, or simply a circle or parallel of altitude. The word is now commonly applied to an instrument recently invented by S. C. Chandler for the observation of heavenly bodies as they cross a given "almacantar line," for the purpose of ascertaining their right ascension and declination with greater accuracy than with a meridian circle, and thus affording more accurate data in determining time and latitude. Its essential parts consist of a telescope accommodated with horizontal wires, the whole attached to a float sustained in a trough of mercury. The float, by being turned around the telescope, can be pointed east of the meridian, so that the time of a star's rising over the horizontal wires can be noted. Similarly, the time of its descending can be fixed. Hence, the positions of the stars being known, it is possible to obtain correct time and to determine latitude. If the correct time and latitude are known, the apparent positions of the stars as to ascension and declination can be ascertained.

ALMACK'S, the name of two places in London during the end of the last and earlier part of the present century. The former was a gaming-club situated in Pall Mall; the latter place consisted of a suite of assembly-rooms in King William Street, St. James. Both places became famous. They were under the management of William Almack, a tavern-keeper, whom his descendants claim to be a Yorkshireman, but who is generally believed to have been a Scotch Highlander named MacCall, who disguised his nationality, then little esteemed in London, and inverted the syllables of his patronymic. The firstnamed resort became later known as "Brook's," the resort of a famous Whig club. Among the original members were the Duke of Portland and Charles James Fox, subsequent members being Edward Gibbon, William Pitt, and others of distinction. The other resort, "Almack's Assembly Rooms," became famous for the balls given there under the management of a committee of ladies of high rank, and was noted for its exclusiveness. After the year 1840 its credit began to wane. The rooms have since become known as Willis's Rooms, so called from the name borne by Almack's heir. They are used for dinners and concerts, as well as balls.

ALMADA, a town of Portugal, in the province of Estremadura. It is built upon a height over the Tagus, opposite Lisbon. It is principally known as a depot for wine. Population, 5,091.

ALMADEN is a township of Santa Clara County, west-central California, named, on account of its cinnabar-mines, from the Spanish Almaden, where were situated the most famous quicksilver-mines ever known. The most productive mine is located at the town of New Almaden, situated on a hill overlooking a picturesque valley. New Almaden is connected by two spurs of the Southern Pacific railroad, with Hillsdale in the northeast and Campbell in the northwest. New Almaden is about 20 miles S. of San José. The total amount of ore of all descriptions roasted from 1880 to 1889 was 346,888.39 tons, from which were produced 217,095 flasks of quicksilver (76.5 pounds per flask).

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