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Problem 2. To what extent and in what way do studies in general or liberal education so "function" in mental training as to make important contributions toward vocational efficiency?

For example, does the study of mathematics contribute to the development of the mental powers requisite in the lawyer, the dentist, the music teacher, or the homemaker? Do the interests and types of appreciation develop in the study of literature "function at all as valuable mental qualities in the training of the engineer, the house carpenter, or the clerk?

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Problem 3. To what extent and under what conditions do various special types of vocational education so "function" as to result in the knowledge, appreciation, and ideals that are important in liberal education?

For example, in the case of a student who has studied little or no science, what will the vocational study of agriculture contribute as a by-product to his general insight into the applications of science? In what way will the study of teaching as a profession supplement deficiencies in liberal education? Will an effective program of vocational training for the house painter contribute materially to his general intellectual and esthetic development?

Problem 4. To what extent and under what conditions will systematic vocational education contribute, as regards mental training, to the ends that are valuable in general education?

In what ways, for example, does the close application to practice and theory required in the training of a printer develop such socalled general intellectual powers as attention, concentration, order, or the concentration and close thinking required on the part of a boy studying farming practically and theoretically result in the development of corresponding general mental powers? To what extent do the strong interests frequently evoked by vocational studies call into activity mental powers left inactive in general education?

Problem 5. To what extent is it expedient and desirable that the beginnings of systematic vocational education shall be postponed until after a definite degree of general or liberal education has been attained?

For example, if we assume that pupils are required to attend school until 14 years of age, is it expedient or desirable that from 12 to 14 a program consisting in part of vocational and in part of liberal education shall be made available? Is it practicable or desirable, in the case of youths from 14 to 16 who are to enter industrial callings at 16 years of age, to offer combined programs of liberal and vocational education prior to that age?

Problem 6. In case it seems desirable to divide the pupil's time at any given stage between vocational and liberal education, how shall the division be made?

For example, shall studies be alternated by hours, as in an ordinary commercial high school; that is, one period, perhaps, being given to algebra, another to stenographic practice? Or shall the day be so divided that one-half may be effectively given to concentration on vocational pursuits and the other half to general education? Or is a division on the basis of longer periods desirable; for example, one week being given to liberal education, another to vocational; or six months to liberal and six months to vocational education? Is a third program preferable, whereby the central part of each working day shall be given either to vocational or to liberal education, as the case may be, with the marginal part to the other type? For example, pupils might work from 8 to 3 o'clock on general studies (or vocational studies), and from 3 to 6 on vocation.... studies (or liberal studies). In practical life, it will be remembered, men usually pursue their vocations during the greater part of each working day, reserving evenings, holidays, etc., for recreational and cultural purposes.


It is contended that certain studies or practices serve as a basis for general vocational education; that is, presumably give fundamental elements needed in many callings.

Problem 1. To what extent are any of the studies usually found in a program of general education (excepting reading and writing) vocationally fundamental to a number of callings?

For example, it was formerly asserted that the study of Latin was vocationally fundamental to the subsequent study, for professional purposes, of law, medicine, theology, education, and botany. It has long been thought that the study of mathematics is vocationally fundamental, not only to the engineering professions, but also to law, medicine, and almost all other advanced pursuits. It is a widespread belief that mechanical drawing is fundamental, in a vocational sense, to industrial, agricultural, and perhaps even commercial pursuits. Again, there survives a belief that a program of vocational education might be devised which would train the so-called handy or all-round practical worker..

Problem 2. Does modern society present a general demand for the person who, while not exceptionally proficient in any calling, is ready and practical in many; for example, the man "handy" with tools, the "all-round" clerk, etc.?

Problem 3. What courses of practical instruction will train the "handy" man, as he is in demand, for example, in farming communities?

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Problem 1. To what extent and under what conditions do the results in skill, knowledge, appreciation, and ideals (or of practical experience in general) in one occupational field constitute an asset for entrance into another?

Problem 2. To what extent can the results in skill, knowledge, appreciation, and ideals (or of practical experience in general) obtained in one occupational field be utilized as a basis for systematic training toward another occupational field?

The following are examples of these problems: (1) To what extent does expertness in running constitute an asset in learning to swim? (2) To what extent can a thoroughgoing education in the practice of medicine be utilized when the doctor wishes to become a farmer? (3) How far can professional competency as a bookkeeper be regarded as an asset when the bookkeeper wishes to become a machinist? (4) If a man has been well trained as a machinist, to what extent can such training be drawn upon in equipping him to be a house carpenter? (5) A farmer's son "picks up" a great variety of vocational experience; to what extent does this constitute an asset when he wishes to become a physician, a locomotive engineer, a manager of an industrial enterprise?

(a) It is obvious that these problems are capable of being scientifically investigated as soon as psychology possesses the necessary tools. There exist now a large variety of popular beliefs or prejudices on the subject. For example: (1) Some vocational-school authorities believe that boys aged 16 or more, who wish to learn a trade, succeed much better if from 14 to 16 they have had a miscellaneous industrial experience as job workers in various unskilled or juvenile occupations. But effect of selection is obvious here, and probably deceptive. Only boys of exceptional character, probably, seek admission to industrial schools after such a period of miscellaneous experience.

(2) There is a widespread belief that the varied and often intensive experience obtained in farm life constitutes a valuable basis for almost any kind of subsequent employment.

(3) It is also believed in some quarters that persons who have for several years habituated themselves to a special line of manufacturing or commercial employment (for example, bookkeeping, shoemaking, draftsmanship, weaving) are permanently disqualified in large measure from taking up employment in other fields.

(b) Even superficial analysis will show that these problems must be approached with reference to particular types of qualities involved. For example, few people would assert that skill obtained

in playing baseball can be directly utilized in learning to swim. On the other hand, results of physical development, such as lung power, strength of arm muscles, etc., obtained in baseball may constitute a valuable asset in learning to swim. Again, the life of the farmer's son may give little direct preparation in skill or knowledge for the work of a physician, but, on the other hand, a general attitude toward work, a disposition to finish jobs once undertaken, an appreciation of the value of money or recognition resulting from successful work may in large measure be transferred.

(c) Much will depend, naturally, upon the relationship of the various occupations involved, according as these deal with similar working conditions, similar tools, identical materials, etc. One would expect a drill-press operator to bring to the work of the planer a variety of important assets, while one would not expect the bookkeeper to bring to house carpentry at least similar assets.

(d) It must be recognized that prolonged practice in any occupation may, in an important degree, disqualify the person for pursuit of another not related to it. The man who has followed farming for several years is in many respects disqualified to become a counter salesman of dry goods; the actor disqualified to become a farmer; the machinist to become a bookkeeper; etc.

(e) The question is an important one for several reasons. In the first place, there are many occupations which can not be entered upon in youth-for example, that of locomotive engineer. The locomotive engineer must have served in some other calling for sev-. eral years, for which, presumably, he could have had systematic training. Will his previous experience as stationary engineer or as fireman constitute, in the long run, a sufficient preparation for his work as locomotive engineer? Again, systematic vocational education in schools for some occupations is easily possible; for others, extremely difficult. If a transfer can be easily effected, then we might train a person to be a house carpenter or a farmer, even though we knew that eventually he would follow the sea as a sailor or later work underground as a coal miner.


The problems of professional education are in the main remote from the purpose of this paper. But one of general interest is that relating to the extent to which a program of professional training must base the so-called technical studies upon foundations of practical experience.

Problem 1. To what extent does effective vocational education for any profession require that the present order of studies which involves the giving of technical instruction in advance of practical

experience should be modified, or even reversed, to the extent that a certain amount of practical experience shall be taken perhaps at the outset and at intervals in the course of professional training?

For example, in the training of teachers it would be practicable, if desirable, to have a certain amount of practice teaching done at the very start as a basis for the subsequent study of methods, theory, etc. An engineering student might be given practical employment in something of an apprentice capacity along practical lines. A prospective physician might serve as a hospital orderly, nurse, etc., before completing his training.

Problem 2. (Undifferentiated professions.) To what extent shall training for professions which are not as yet clearly differentiated presuppose as a basis a complete professional training along the lines of professional training already established?

In the field of agriculture, for example, professional field of "administration of agricultural plants," "rural engineer," "rural journalist," etc., seem to be in process of differentiating. In medicine there is a demand for specialists in such fields as optometry, school physician, etc. In the commercial occupations, certain fields of expert inquiry, statistical work, and salesmanship seem to be assuming the proportions and standards of professions. In industry we have as yet no systematic training for the positions of foreman, overseer, and the like, except in very few fields.

(a) At present it is often assumed that before one may take up professional training in these undifferentiated or "nascent" professions, it is necessary that he should have a complete professional training along the established lines. This process, however, is costly, and it is a question whether the resources of the community or of the individual trained are always equal to it. The question of necessity must also be considered. For example, the school nurse and school physician represent distinct demands to-day in specialized fields for which it is doubtful if the historic training of the nurse and of the physician are at all necessary prerequisites. The professions of rural engineer and rural journalist may, on the other hand, be of such a nature as to require not so much a large amount of technical training in agriculture, as maturity and a wide range of experience, before they are taken up.

(b) To some extent the problem involved is one of maturity and experience, rather than the purely technical training of the person embarking in such work. Most directive or managerial positions require maturity and experience. It is quite probable that in some of these professional lines the ultimate solution will be that the person will take a definite amount of practical training for the historic occupation itself, and will then enter upon some field of practice with a view to returning, later, for advanced study toward mana

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