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right killed, captured or dispersed. The enemy lost at least 1000 men this day. March 16th Lieutenant-Colonel McCaskey, 20th U. S. Inf. at Pasig, was instructed to clear the country in his immediate vicinity of any of the insurgents who might be lurking near, and soon after he sent a despatch that he had sent out two battalions to be deployed as skirmishers to clear the island of Pasig. Soon after a heavy and continued firing was heard to the east and north of Pasig. At 12 m. it was learned that Maj. William P. Rogers, commanding 3d Battalion 20th Inf., had come upon the enemy entrenched, 1000 strong, at the village of Cainta and that he had carried the entrenchments and burned the town, the enemy flying in the direction of Taytay. Maj. Rogers returned with his battalion to Pasig. In this affair he lost two killed and fourteen wounded.
On the 17th of March, by direction of the Corps Commander, the 20th U. S. Inf. returned to Manila, being relieved at Pasig by a part of the 1st Washington Volunteer Inf. On the afternoon of March 18th a force of the enemy appeared in the vicinity of Taguig, which was held by one company of the 1st Washington Volunteer Inf. The place was re-inforced with two companies of infantry, and the colonel of the 22d Inf. directed to send a battalion south of the position, held by his regiment, and to the west of Taguig to ascertain the force of the enemy. The latter was found about 800 strong, occupying the crests of the ridges, and a spirited combat ensued, which was terminated by darkness. The 22d Inf. had twenty men killed and wounded in this affair. Among the wounded was Capt. Frank B. Jones, 22d Inf., commanding the battalion. The enemy fell back toward the south.
“The morning of March 19th, soon after daylight, Gen. Wheaton formed line, deployed in the extended order, facing to the south as follows: 22d U. S. Inf., six companies, center; 1st Washington Volunteer Inf., six companies, left. The line advanced and struck the enemy four miles south of Taguig; wheeling to the left the enemy was partly enclosed toward the lake and completely routed with great loss. The left of the line pursued him down the lake for fifteen miles from
VIEW OF BURNING OF TONDO DISTRICT, SHOWING DEPOT OF MANILA & DAGUPAN RAILROAD, Taguig as far as San Pedro Tunasan, all the houses along the lake to that point being burned. The enemy's entrenchments on the left and in front of the 1st Washington Volunteer Inf. were carried, the enemy leaving more than 200 dead upon the field. The command returned to the vicinity of Pateros and bivouacked there, receiving orders to return to their respective former encampments near
Manila, excepting that the 1st Washington Volunteer Inf. was designated to hold Pasig, Pateros and Taguig and adjacent country. This ended the operations of the “Provisional Brigade." In one week all the enemy's positions, that were attacked, were taken and his troops killed, captured, or dispersed. The towns,
from where he brought over troops or in which he resisted, were burned or destroyed; he burned them himself. The enemy's loss in killed, wounded and captured was not less than 2000 men.
“Gen. Wheaton was ably supported and assisted by the several regimental commanders through the series of operations. He calls attention to the energetic conduct of Col. J. H. Wholley, 1st Washington Volunteer Inf., and the gallant conduct in action of Maj. William P. Rogers, 20th U. S. Inf., and Maj. J. J. Weissenburger, 1st Washington Volunteer Inf., and to the gallant and meritorious services of Capt. Frank B. Jones, 22d U. S. Inf., 2d Lieut. E. D. Scott, 6th U. S. Art., rendered most efficient service with his guns, showing skill and intrepidity. He also calls attention to the very gallant conduct of Capts. Herbert S. Foster, James A. Irons and Benjamin Alrord, 20th U. S. Inf., in the storming of Pasig and in the combat of Cainta. First Lieuts. F. D. Webster and Chas. R. Howland, 20th U. S. Inf., Aides, gave valuable assistance, also 1st Lieut. Wm. D. Connor, Corps of Engineers, Acting Aide. Service, both efficient and gallant, was rendered by Capt. Elmore McKenna and Lieut. Charles E. Kilbourne, Volunteer Signal Corps.”
About Manila, all was quiet, with the exception of a little skirmishing, until the morning of March 25th. During this time the insurgent army had massed its forces at Malolos, and Gen. MacArthur, by command of Major-General Otis, was preparing for an advance for the capture of that stronghold.
RE-ORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY CORPS.
At this time the American force was re-organized as follows: Major-General H. W. Lawton on March 18th, replaced Gen. Anderson in command of the first division, the latter returning to the United States according to orders. Gen. Lawton's Division consisted of the following: The Washington, North Dakota and California Volunteers, under Gen. King; six troops of the 4th Cav., the 14th
Regiment, the Idaho Volunteers and a battalion of the Iowa troops, under Gen. Ovenshine; the 3d and 22d Regiments Inf., and the Oregon Regiment, under Gen. Wheaton, and Dyer's and Hawthorne's Light Batteries.
Gen. MacArthur's Division,—two batteries of the 3d Art.; the Kansas and Montana Volunteers, under Gen. H. G. Otis; the Colorado, Nebraska and South Dakota Regiments, and six companies of the Pennsylvania Regiment, under Gen. Hale; the 4th and 17th Regiments; the Minnesota and Wyoming Volunteers, and the Utah Art., under Gen. Hall.
A separate brigade was assigned to provost guard duty, consisting of the 20th Regiment, and eight companies of the 23d Regiment Inf.
THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. President McKinley, by appointment, had created a "Philippine Commission." This consisted of five members as follows: Admiral Dewey; Gen. Elwell S. Otis; President J. G. Schurman, of Cornell University; Prof. Dean C. Worcester and Chas.
“LAGUNA DE BAY" BOMBARDING CONVENT OF GUADALUPE. This was the largest of four small boats, known as the “ mosquito fleet," used to patrol the lake and rivers,
where they did most effectual work. Denby. This commission was advisory to the Executive Department of the government, and was vested with the authority to proclaim to the people of the Philippine Islands a Modus Vivendi in their civic affairs, pending the action of Congress in the premises. This was a strong commission and well constituted to deal with the matter in hand. Mr. Denby had thirteen years' experience, as Minister to China, in dealing with Oriental questions. Prof. Worcester had spent years in the Philippines in the study of the people and the country. Pres. Schurman was deeply learned in civic affairs and constitutional questions, and the military and naval situation could not have been in abler hands.
This commission could not exceed the prerogative of the President, and the Executive only had such power as accrued by the treaty of peace and the military occupation of the country. The most this commission or the President could do was to arrange a temporary government, leaving to Congress the future government or final disposition of the islands, and to make a general study of the situation, for the information of the President and Congress in determining our ultimate policy with reference to the islands. Nothing came of any effort to establish a temporary government, and the report of the commission on the general situation was not published when these pages were printed. The commission arrived in Manila, March 4, 1899, and on March 20th, organized in session with Pres. Schurman, President, and T. R. McArthur, Secretary. On April 4, 1899, the commission
FLAGS OF TRUCE IN STREETS OF CALOOCAN. issued a procla
The appearance of some of the streets resembled a back yard on washday. mation to the Filipinos and after many recitals therein, showing the obligations of the government to establish and maintain order in the islands and its good wishes and desires in the interest of the people, it declared the intentions of our government as follows:
1. The supremacy of the United States must and will be enforced throughout every part of the archipelago. Those who resist can accomplish nothing except their own ruin.
2. The amplest liberty of self-government will be granted which is reconcileable with just, stable, effective and economical administration, and compatible with the sovereign rights and obligations of the United States.
3. The civil rights of the Filipinos will be guaranteed and protected, their religious freedom will be assured, and all will have equal standing before the law.
4. Honor, justice, and friendship forbid the exploitation of the people of the islands. The purpose of the American government is the welfare and advancement of the Philippine people.
5. The United States government guarantees an honest and effective civil service, in which, to the fullest extent practicable, natives shall be employed.
6. The collection and application of taxes and other revenues will be put upon a sound, honest and economical basis. The public funds, raised justly and collected honestly, will be applied only to defraying the proper expenses of the establishment and the maintenance of the Philippine government, and such general improvements as public intentions demand. Local funds collected for local purposes shall not be diverted to other ends. With such prudent and honest fiscal administration, it is believed the needs of the government will, in a short time, become compatible with a considerable reduction in taxation.
7. The establishment of a pure, speedy and effective administration of justice, by which the evils of delay, corruption and exploitation will be effectively eradicated.
8. The construction of roads, railroads, and other means of communication and transportation and other public works of manifest advantage to the people, will be promoted.
9. Domestic and foreign trade and commerce and other industrial pursuits, and the general development of the country, in the interest of its inhabitants, will be the constant objects of solicitude and fostering care.
10. Effective provision will be made for the establishment of elementary schools, in which the children of the people will be educated. Appropriate facilities will also be provided for higher education.
11. Reforms in all departments of government, all branches of the public service, and all corporations, closely touching the common life of the people, must be undertaken without delay and effected conformably with common right and justice, in a way to satisfy the wellfounded demands and the highest sentiments and aspirations of the Philippine people.
The Filipino Junta, at Hongkong, issued in reply its manifesto, in substance denying the rights, claimed by the American commission, on the part of the United States, to govern or control the islands, or that the United States acquired any right with reference thereto by virtue of the treaty of peace, and said further: “The proclamation is a tissue of generalities, bristled with pharisaism and cant, and vaguely promises much and grants nothing to the l'ilipinos, who are tired of promises and servitude, what Spanish promises seem to the Americans."