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member of the committee, while editing might soon belong to Mexicans instead of the Madero newspaper, organized public being in the possession of foreigners. meetings at which extreme doctrines were Greatly alarmed by existing conditions, expounded and opposition leaders attacked. men of all classes turned to Reyes and to A regular band of a few hundred men was De la Barra, as the only men who could employed to assist at these public meetings, rescue the country from anarchy. De la which generally ended with the stoning of Barra, in accordance with his proclamation one or more houses and with the hurling of on assuming office, refused to accept the violent epithets against persons who had in- nomination for president or for vice-presicurred the displeasure of the committee. dent, but his adherents hoped to force him, This was called the expression of public in spite of his refusal. opinion.
General Reyes offered to withdraw and Upon his return from Europe, General leave the field to De la Barra, if Madero Reyes proclaimed his adherence to the prin- would do the same. But by this time Maciples of the revolution: “effective suffrage dero's ambitions had broken all bounds and and no reëlection.” Madero offered him the committee needed him. His name was the ministry of war, in case he, Madero, used and abused to cover every act of pershould be elected.
secution. The masses, slower to understand and to Reyes abandoned the race, and his party move, began to show signs of dissatisfaction, issued a statement saying that because of when the Progressive Party, in its conven- persecution that prevented organization tion, nominated Pino Suarez for the vice- and political work, the followers of General presidency. Francisco Vasquez Gomez, Reyes would not take part in the elections. often called the “brain of the revolution,' The Evolutionist party also declared its was the popular candidate. Like his brother intention of not going to the polls. Hence Emilio, he was completely eliminated by the claim made later by Madero's friends the Maderist faction. Pino Suarez was that he received 90 per cent. of the vote. unknown in the political or in any other Madero was inaugurated on November 6. field. His only recommendation was the fact There are to-day, throughout the Mexican that he was an intimate friend of Madero. Republic, more armed men than there
Madero had revealed himself volatile were at the time of Diaz's resignation. and easily influenced, a man lacking all un- Madero led the people into a revolution derstanding and grasp of the situation. With on the principles of "effective suffrage," the same facility with which he had accep- no reëlection, and equal chance for every ted the platform of the Catholics, he accepted one in business opportunities. Besides this, that of the Liberals and the Masons. His he promised a division of lands among the levity aroused popular indignation. Arriv- Indians and better wages for the workinging in the city of Puebla a few hours after a battle between the federal and the Mader- Now, the masses are clamoring for the ist forces, and unspeakable atrocities had promised lands, higher wages, and "effective been committed, he was the guest of honor suffrage.” While many are hungry and at a banquet at which the merry-making disappointed, most of the one hundred and lasted late into the night.
more relatives of the president have found All efforts for pacification and concilia- their way into public office, an uncle and tion were thwarted by the Progressive two cousins being in his cabinet. committee. At Vera Cruz, one of Madero's That Mexico's present government is adherents made a violent speech attacking unable to bring about such harmonious and all foreigners, who, he said, were robbing the peaceful conditions as will satisfy her people country. Madero applauded. At a dinner and all concerned in her financial prosperity, given to Pino Suarez, the vice-presidential seems to be well established in the minds of candidate, Madero expressed the wish that those thoroughly familiar with the state the rich lands of Tabasco and Campeche of affairs existing in the southern republic.
ized, popularized, led, and won the peo- ing backward, built up a complete system ple's fight to prevent the New Haven from of bookkeeping. At that time, the New absorbing the Boston & Maine Railroad. Haven wanted to appear a highly profitable For that sort of activity he is regarded as property, amply able to take over and troublesome.
develop a poorer one, the Boston & Maine. Then he turned around and became coun- Studying out its recent absorption of subsel for the organized employees of the New sidiaries and the burden they imposed, I Haven system, in establishing coöperative saw that it could not possibly be on such stores to reduce the cost of living. For a basis as it assumed.” that sort of service he is known, beloved, and accounted the most useful citizen.
THE TEN-HOUR CASE For neither service did he accept any
That Boston & Maine financial anatomy fee. That is one of his eccentricities. No story shows the Brandeis business-legalpublic cause in New England need be with- analytical mind at work. Now turn to out the best of counsel, whether it has a another phase, in which the Brandeis pastreasury or not, because Brandeis is there sion for sociological information and proto advocate it, if it looks good to him. digious research enabled him to win a brace
of other lawsuits for the people. No fees A PRACTICAL ALTRUIST
this time, either. Not otherwise. You can hire Brandeis Oregon had passed a law prchibiting if you haven't a dollar, provided the case employers from working women over ten interests him and promises contribution to hours daily. Awful fool law, that; interfered his general purpose of social betterment. with the sacred right of contract. You know, You can't hire him at all if he doesn't the right of contract is the touchstone of want your sort of case. When you do hire the Tory, the ark of conservatism's covenant. him, if it's one of the sort of cases he takes You musn't legislate to improve the confor pay, you will find yourself paying at ditions under which the people work, to the end as stiff a fee as any other lawyer shorten their hours, or do anything else would have the face to charge.
for them, because that would interfere with This man is a practical altruist-mighty their sacred right to contract to sell their labor practical. You don't mostly associate al- on any basis they like. The Duke of Welltruism with percentages, fixed charges, ington once solemnly assured parliament cost sheets, and scientific efficiency. That's that it must not legislate to ameliorate the why Brandeis is a different sort of altruist. condition of women who worked in the He does. He is one of the greatest lawyer- mines, creeping on all-fours to haul cars, business men in the country. Go to him eating, sleeping, living under ground for with a proposition in business or financial months without a look at daylight and the difficulties, and instead of getting down a blue sky, because, he said, it would interdusty book and reading you what a judge fere with those women's right of contract, once wrote, he will start inquiring into your and Magna Charta would fade from every business.
parchment on which it had ever been written In investigating affairs and trying causes, if such a thing were done! Some Tory, he seems to know all about everything. was the duke; but when Oregon legislated Once President Mellen, of the New Haven a ten-hour limit on women workers, the road, accused him of using private detectives united laundry operators interposed that to ferret out secrets of the ad's affairs. very same objection, and the friends of The truth was that Brandeis had simply the legislation found that the decision of taken a financial statement of the system the courts in this enlightened America, as regularly given to the public, analyzed it, "this so-called twentieth century”—I wonand done a stunt in financial anatomy that der who invented that delicious characrecalls the exploit of Cuvier, who could terization:—were such that they were likely take a single bone of some prehistoric animal, to have it held unconstitutional. and from it construct an entire skeleton of They sent for Brandeis. He looked up the beast.
the law, and made a brief utterly unique. That financial statement was a big bone. It covered 104 pages. Three were devoted “I took those few published figures,” Mr. to law; 101 to a summary and recital of Brandeis explained afterward, "and, work- the world's medical, social, and anatomical information about the effects of long work- Again Brandeis was turned to as the man ing hours on women, and the various legis- who not only could make the fight best, but lative efforts, for centuries, to protect
who would make it for nothing. women. He didn't say a word about
The brief this time contained 600 right of contract. A conventional
pages of medical and sociologilawyer would have had 104 pages on
cal experience and information, that and would have forgotten the
and the same old three pages duty of the community to its women
of law; and again the Supreme and itself.
Court bowed in acquiescence and Brandeis followed that case to
renewed its felicitations to the the Supreme Court, which
man who could see that there completely sustained him
was something more than and the law. More: it
mummified precedent to be wrote his name—an
used in buttressing a legal almost unprecedented
argument. The Illinois compliment–into the
law stood; and now opinion, and paid
Brandeis on the same splendid tribute to
terms, as to compensathe social service that
tion-is helping the athe had done!
torney-general of Ohio But Brandeis knew
sustain a still more adbetter than the court.
vanced law of that state. “We haven't had
These incidents tell time to do this brief
pretty accurately what thoroughly," he said.
manner of humanist “We will need a bet
Brandeis is, and what ter one in some other
sort of a mental mechancase, and now is the time
ism he works with. They to make it."
do not suggest the mulSo, with never an idea
tiplicity of the causes to when it would be needed,
which he has devoted he set his investiga
himself from sheer tors at work to ex
love of service. pand that brief
Look at one to cover the
year's labors of whole sum of
this tireless knowledge on
man for the the subject.
public interHe had
est. He beeighteen
gan in 1910 readers at
as attorney work on it
for Louis R. for months,
Glavis in his sister-in
the famous law, Miss
Pinchot case. Goldmark, be
The country ing his chief
need not be aide.
reminded of the The Illinois leg
brilliant performislature presently
ance that built up passed a law to pro
that case and won a tect women work
complete victory in the ers, and it in turn
great court of public was assailed on
opinion. In the midst that same old right
of that investigation, "Scientific management," says Brandeis, "is the square of-contract plea. deal that gives the worker a proper share of profits he produces" he had to go away to argue the Illinois ten-hour case; at its like service. He gave facts, figures, names, end, though utterly worn out, he was im- dates, details. He wound up by say that portuned to hurry away to New York and the railroads, by efficient methods, culd help settle the garment-makers' strike. It save a million dollars a day, and woula. 't had been on for months, involving incredible need to raise rates. sufferings to workers and loss to employers.
HOW HE DOES IT They called in Brandeis when everybody else had given it up as utterly beyond ad- He won that case, too! The rates were justment.
not advanced, and the railroads did not As usual, Brandeis had an idea just then. even dare appeal from the Inter-state ComIt was the preferential union shop. The mission's decision against them. employees wanted organizations preserved; The idea, the significance, the possithe employers would have none. Brandeis bilities, of scientific efficiency had been proposed that the shops be open, but that introduced to the people of the United preference be given, on certain terms, to States. That was Brandeis' primary purmembers of the union. Then he invented pose. Now the country is fairly stumbling the Joint Board of Sanitary Control, on over itself in the effort to get efficient. which employers and employees are repre- Brandeis' appreciation and seizure of a sented in maintaining good conditions in dramatic opportunity did it. Incidentally, factories. He devised an arbitration and it won his case--and no fee. conciliation board to adjust wages, hours, How does he manage to do it all? A big, and the like. And, finally, he got both trained brain, and an acute public consides to agree to it.
science, driven by the motors of limitless
energy and a vigorous constitution. SAVING A MILLION DOLLARS A DAY
About that brain. Recently, a Harvard The strike was settled. It had involved law professor was asked for the best expo1,500 establishments, and 60,000 employees. sition of a certain case, famous in the annals Mr. Brandeis regards it as the most grati- of American jurisprudence for two generfying work he ever did.
ations. Settling that strike in this permanent “That,” replied the professor, “was fashion was the mid-summer's work of Mr. written by a student of this class, when he Brandeis. He got no vacation--and no was twenty years old. Two generations of fee. In the autumn, he was summoned into great lawyers and judges have discussed that the advanced rate cases, to lead the Sea- case, but the analysis of Louis D. Brandeis board Shippers' association in fighting the when he studied in this class still stands nation-wide advance of rates that the as the greatest.” railroads had undertaken.
Thirty-odd years after that performance, Again, Brandeis had an idea. He had Louis D. Brandeis appeared before a conlong been wanting a chance to proclaim his gressional committee to present views on industrial efficiency doctrine from a high the trust question. That was only a few place, that all might hear. This was the days ago. Three days he was on the stand, time. He analyzed railroad management, discoursing facts, law, world experience, with reference to efficiency and economy, commercial facts--everything that could as he had analyzed the question of working be drawn from his wonderful reserves for women's hours with reference to social illumination of such an issue. When he effects. He never intimated concern about was done, Senator Cummins said to me: the argument that the railroads would be “This has been the greatest demonstraconfiscated if they weren't allowed to raise tion I have ever seen of the possible achieve· rates. He didn't talk law, or precedents, ments of the human intellect.” or cases, or decisions. He told how the Brandeis, a youthful prodigy, graduated Santa Fé system had applied scientific from Harvard's law course at twenty. They efficiency methods in its management, and had to grant a special dispensation to let him saved millions; how the Missouri Pacific get his degree under twenty-one. He became had not, and had lost millions. He told a lion in the straitest sect of Boston's best how the Pennsylvania's expense for certain intellectual society. He was the ingrained specific services was vastly less per unit aristocrat; loved culture, art, books; dethan that of the New York Central for spised the untrained intellect; believed the