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his respecin was the cause of
over the rafts or floats. This system of tect the delicate larvae from injury by shafting, deriving its power from a being thrown against the container or gasoline engine sheltered in the house- ventilating paddles. In the making of boat, transmits through bevel gears, the the ventilating paddles only by years power necessary to drive the circulation of study was it possible to arrive at the propellers in each of the hatching bags. proper angle for the blades of the padTo conform to the undulating movement dles to impose against the water, it of the floats, the shaft from the engine being found that an infinitesimal varihouse is connected to the floats by a ation in this respect was the cause of flexible joint and the shafting used on total failures, resulting in the death of the floats is of such small diameter that a large number of fry and poor larvae. the motion of the water bends it without The current given by the paddles must tearing off shaft hangers or breaking the be just strong enough to keep the food shafting. Two floats are used, one on in motion, prevent cannibalism by coneach side of the houseboat, and from stant circulation, and keep the larvae these are suspended twenty-eight rear from collecting at the bottom of the bag ing bags ten feet square and four feet and rolling over with the food silt and deep.
diatoms that have collected there. The The engine gives a speed of 360 revo strength of current also affects molting, lutions and this is reduced by belting to which is the process of growth in the forty and finally, through gearing, to crustacea, the growth being accomplished twenty and ten, the last named being between the time of casting off the old the revolutions per minute that the shell and the hardening of the new coat. "fans” run during the culture of the The lobster fry eat ravenously in all lobsters. The paddles are painted white, stages and the feeding assumes great imas the young lobsters tend to avoid all portance as the young lobsters molt white surfaces, and the white sides and three times in from ten to fourteen days. bottoms of the hatching receptacles pro- Under such conditions the feeding is
constant and regular. Scrambled hen's With this method developed to the fine eggs, liver, and beef are used for food point it has been at the Wickford Station, in a finely cut form to allow the gentle it has been accurately calculated, not current of water to carry it within easy "estimated," that from forty per cent. to reach of the larvae, and the feeding is seventy per cent. of the eggs yielded by attended to every two hours throughout the egg lobster reach the fourth stage of the full twenty-four of each day and development. As their most precarious night. To rear a lobster to the fourth period of existence is during the first stage for planting at the Wickford three stages, the fourth stage lobsters hatchery requires from ten to twenty-one have an infinitely greater chance to surdays, depending mostly on the tempera- vive against the natural enemies around ture of the water, and the young "lob- them than would be possible under any sterlings” are planted after reaching this circumstances with the first stage larvae stage of maturity known as the first as still liberated by the other state and "ground" stage because of the fact that government establishments. during the fourth stage the lobster takes After hatching is over the female lobup its abode among the rocks and grass sters are again consigned to the waters at the bottom for the first time. As fast from which they came and are put back as the lobsters reach this latter stage of in pre-determined localities with copper development they are dipped out, a few tags fastened to them giving a recorded at a time, and counted. They are then number. The fishermen are requested to put in a planting can and are due to be return the tag to the station with in"planted” in the briny deep. To allow formation as to the locality of the trap the fourth stage fry to take full advan it was caught in. By this method the tage of their hiding instinct for protec- egg bearing lobsters have furnished tion after planting, they are poured out valuable data regarding their moveat the water's edge where an abundance ments, after their period of usefulness at of eel grass and rocks tend to make a the station has expired. natural harboring place for the young The unique plant which this new lobsters till they attain their full growth. process of culture has successfully dem
THE CHAMPION COAL EATER.
making sixty-five miles per hour.
MACHINES TO FIRE LOCOMOTIVES
CHARLES FREDERICK CARTER
F official prophecies are entitled to sumed per mile will render it advisable credence the next great evolution in to provide mechanical means for firing railroad operation will be the gen- locomotives in order that they may deeral introduction of automatic stok- velop high sustained tractive effort and
ers to relieve locomotive firemen of render the service attractive to men who a task that has grown beyond the powers possess the qualifications to become sucof human muscles. For three consecutive cessful locomotive engineers. A successyears the standing committee on stokers ful automatic stoker should render locoof the American Railway Master Me- motive firing more attractive, raise the chanics Association has predicted the standard of the service, permit close atearly advent of the automatic, or me- tention to the economic handling of fuel chanical, stoker; and according to popu- and the reduction of black smoke, enable lar belief, “three times is the charm.” firemen to become better acquainted with
In 1908 the committee said in its re- the general duties of a locomotive enport to the annual convention, “Mechan- gineer and reduce tube and firebox ical stokers used on locomotives in this troubles." country up to the present time have at By the time the 1910 convention had least demonstrated the fact that freight assembled the stoker committee had beand passenger engines in road service come fully converted, as may be gathcan be successfully fired by mechanical ered from its report which contained this means. Mechanical stoking, however, declaration : "The committee is conhas not made much progress abroad.”. vinced that the mechanical stoker is des
In its 1909 report the committee grew tined to be a very important factor in the more bold, saying, “Results hold out operation of heavy locomotives in the not great hopes for the future, particularly very distant future.” : as the question has been taken up Railroad men have no occasion to read seriously by a number of railroads. .: the unemotional reports of the committee
"It is reasonable to assume that the av- to be convinced of the urgent need of a erage tractive power of locomotives will satisfactory automatic stoker; but since increase. It is within the possibilities, it is not the privilege of everybody to be therefore, that the increased fuel con- railroad men it may be well to give some