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heat. In the Helion lamp it has been begin all over again in order to arrive found that light representing 1,000 at the result which he had almost candle power costs about twenty cents an achieved. On several other occasions hour, while the same degree of illumina- impure materials lost to the experimenttion in the ordinary carbon filament in- ers a filament and it was necessary to candescent light would cost seventy cents retrace the line from the beginning. Now, an hour. One remarkable characteristic however, they have reduced their work to of the new filament is that the efficiency an exact science and the filaments can be of the Helion lamp increases with the made by a formula which they have pretemperature and shows a white light at a served and which is absolutely exact.
MR. CLARK FUSING A FILAMENT.
degree where a carbon filament would be perfectly black or merely a dull red and with the increase of the temperature there is an increase of both brilliancy and efficiency, the lamp giving off a dazzling white light.
During the course of the experiments many discouraging setbacks were met by the two men. In one case Professor Parker left a test tube for exactly forty seconds to answer the telephone, but in that seemingly trilling space of time was ruined the work of days and he had to
In addition to the Helion lamp enclosed in a bulb similar to that of the Edison, the inventors have added one that burns effectively without such enclosure. The filament is imbedded in fused quartz and glows uninterruptedly amid the heaviest of commotions. It has been tried aboard several of the United States warships during target practice with the heaviest guns and has been unaffected by the terrific concussions, which shattered all the Edison lamps in their immediate neighborhood.
COPYRISNT, 1907, BY FREDERIC COLBURN CLARKE
In appearance the Helion lamp is similar to the incandescent lamps now in use, except when burning, when, instead of a yellow glow it gives out a white light. The filament is apparently impervious to ordinary heat, for when a current sufficient to fuse the copper leading-in wires has been introduced the filament showed not the slightest indication of fusing and when accidentally broken by force it welds itself when the ends are again brought into contact.
In a series of demonstrations at Columbia University recently, at which the writer was MR. CLARK AT MICROSCOPE AND PROF. PARKER BEHIND HIM. present, a Helion lanıp
Examining filament by means of microscope. was attached to the same wire that lighted an Edison of 16 can- assured themselves by exact scientific dle power. Placed side by side on the tests that they can go no farther in their table, when the Edison lamp was turned search for efficiency. If they can now off the diminution of light was not notice- produce a dazzling white light, showing able to the unaided eye, but when the a spectrum exactly like that of the sun Helion was turned off and the Edison and giving off that light in a proportion left burning the table could scarcely be of three, four or five to one, as compared seen. The test showed a power of eighty with the Edison and at an expenditure of candles for the Helion to sixteen for the energy of one watt per candle power, Edison, with a voltage of about ninety. they believe that they can go still farther
Ordinarily, the Helion will emit three- than this and thus decrease the cost to and one-half times as much light as the the consumer. Every watt saved, at no Edison, - of an improved efficiency by loss of efficiency in light, means a lessenreason of its spectrum color, as against ing of the cost, a goal toward which electhe yellow of the Edison.
trical inventors have been for years strivFlashlight photographs of the Helion ing. and Edison taken side by side show dis The present rate of manufacture, there tinctly the heated Helion filament while being only two men in all the world who the coil in the Edison is hardly visible. can make the Helion filament, Professor In one of the photographs shown, Mr. Parker and Mr. Clark, is not greater than Clark is working beneath the glow of a a dozen lamps daily. A company has Helion lamp while on the table beside him been organized, however, and preparais an ordinary gas flame. In the light of tions are being made to begin the manuthe new lamp the gas flame is not dis- facture of the filament at the starting tinguishable except for its shape and the point of a thousand or two daily. As imtip from which it burns.
provements may be discovered by the inIn a recent conversation with the ventors, this output will be increased and writer, both Professor Parker and Mr. the public will have at its disposal the Clark said that they were by no means best electric light, or, for that matter, the content to rest where they are at present best light of any kind that has ever been but that they will go on until they have discovered at a cost below old makeshifts.
Prairies Spout Great Riches
By Geo. W. Harper
HE mad rush of frenzied Central, were contemplating measures
wealth-seekers i hat has for a better exploiting of the oil discoverfollowed the amazing ies of the county, the boom burst upon oil and gas develop the little city, with such force that every ment in Crawford train that passed through the town from County, Illinois, during any direction was so crowded that standthe past ten months ing room in the cars was at a premium. finds a counterpart only But this was not all. Freight trains in the mining regions were loaded down with tools and maof Cripple Creek and chinery for drilling, with piping and all other places of note necessary supplies and paraphernalia con
where gold has been nected with the oil business. At one time found, when the news that went abroad the sidings of the Big Four railroad in created great rushes for a new Eldorado. Robinson held eighty-one loaded cars, With the coming of the spring of 1906 with consignments in the yards at Paris, when the people of Robinson, the county Terre Haute, Indianapolis and one or two seat of Crawford County, at the crossing smaller points awaiting room for enterof the Cairo Division of the “Big Four" ing there. and the Effingham Division of the Illinois Six miles west of Robinson was a little
flag station on the Central called Stoy. It was two miles north of the first wells drilled in southwest of Robinson, and is the location of the receiving tanks. There had been no agent at this place. When pipes were laid there, and shipping of supplies demanded a local agent, a wire was put into a box car and a telegraph and station office opened. On the 10th day of the month the business opened and totaled a little in excess of twenty thousand dollars for the remainder of the month. With the two roads at Robinson the oil business for that month ex
ceeded seventy-five Pool of OIL ADJOINING TANKS.
thousand dollars. The well at this point is flowing one hundred barrels per hour.
Harry Martin, a man
of seventy-five years, had a little farm of well for water at the home farm, about eighty-four acres, which he would will- six miles southeast of Robinson, the ingly have sold for $2,500 before the oil Creswell brothers encountered a strong boom. He leased it for one-eighth of vein of gas at a depth of less than the oil. It has paid him as high as one two hundred feet. They were so well hundred dollars per day, and he has re- satisfied with it that they piped it to their fused $1,000 per acre for the fee.
David Guncheon has leases on a block of four hundred acres four miles west of Robinson, on which he has a fine gas
CHICAGO well, and a few oil wells. He has refused $200,000 for his leases, which he holds at half a million.
It is estimated that over $25,000,000 have been spent in the oil and gas business in this county.
The population of Robinson has doubled in the past year, many persons living in tents, and one-half the residents of the city have roomers. Eating-houses and boarding-houses are numerous. A
.SPRINGFIELD $35,000 hotel is in course of erection. Carpenters sufficient to erect the houses demanded could not be had the past sea
ROBINSON COUNTY son. Business rooms are in great demand. A half dozen or more machine shops have been put in operation. A glass factory is contracted for, and a refinery
doing business before the boom increased over a million dollars, and a third bank has just commenced business.
There are some fifteen hundred wells in the county, and less than a hundred dry holes. For ten miles west of Rob
WHERE THE OIL IS FOUND.
is almost directly south of Chicago, a distance of
about 210 miles, on the Indiana border line.
tral, and in the north and southwest oil sections of the County, the derricks are so thick as to present the appearance of old-time deadenings of timber.
Like many other points in the United States, Crawford County got the oil craze
homes, where the gas continues to be used for heating and lighting purposes At about the same time gas was found in drilling a well at the home of L. N.
of the Civil War. Companies were formed ago a local company was formed here to and wells put down, but no success of mo- drill for coal, oil and gas. An expert ment crowned these early efforts. In from the east, with machinery was boring deep wells for water, gas was en- brought here, and drilling commenced on countered in different parts of the county the Marbry farm. Two veins of coal at different times, in years following and, were found at 600 and 800 feet, and some as gradually the gas fields of Indiana be- little gas between .800 and 900 feet. A gan to prove such a great incentive for strong vein of salt water was encountered the location of factories, the hopes of at some 900 feet, and the well was abanfinding gas in sufficient quantities for doned, and other experiments of similar fuel and manufacturing purposes raised character produced no satisfactory rehigh hopes among the Crawford County sults. people.
In the fall of 1904 a company was About ten years ago in drilling a deep formed at Palestine, and an expert driller
and machinery was imported. A find of men, which was in Oilfield, proved a gas which furnished the town a tem- good gasser, but not much oil. A second porary supply, was the chief result. well was completed and shot in October,
In the summer of 1865 a company 1904, with an initial production of thirtyformed in Clark County, which joins five barrels per day. This was sufficient Crawford on the north, found some gas to attract the attention of other operators and enough of a showing of oil to give from the east, and leasing became quite to the place the name of “Oilfield," active, as well as drilling. Several good though the work was abandoned because wells as pumpers were brought in, but of caving.
there were no gushers. The work then In 1903 the facts relating to the op- extended southwest, and Casey soon beerations of nearly forty years previous came known as the center of operations. were brought to the attention of Messrs. The average depth in Clark County for J. J. Hoblitzel & Son, of Pittsburg, oil oil is about 650 feet. operators of prominence and much ex- As about all the territory that looked perience. The representations made to desirable, and which could be leased for them were sufficient to enlist them in an an oil royalty was taken up, leasing over enterprise to experiment with modern the line into Crawford County began. methods. The first well drilled by these In August, 1905, drilling was com
menced on the Athey farm, Licking Township, twelve miles northwest of Robinson, In the Illinois field there is what is known as gas and oil sand that takes the place of the Trenton rock of Indiana and Ohio. This well on the Athey farm was designed to be a test well for the benefit of the lessee only. The intention was. if a showing of gas or oil, or both, should be found, then operations should stop and the hole be plugged until such time as the lessees had. secured surrounding ter
ritory on favorable ternis. Big OIL Pool ADJOINING WELL.
But the drill, at a depth