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recruit in the missionary army to follow a
It must have been your study differen' one.
beforehand how yo. are to pass from the II Here it seems right to tell you about mythological tale to divine truth; and then the subutunc of evangelisticaddres898. You you ply them lovingly with the living will no' be surprise i to learn hut we find Word. This, and indeed every point reit of little use to begin, as in a Christian ferred to, might be enlarged upon ; but I country, by giving out a text. The two must proceed to tell of what foilows, after conc'u-ive reasons that persuade to this a reference to the invaluuble help of the course a e, that many of your audiences converts with you. As a general rule, it is know nothing about the Bible; and that, best for one of them to begin. He has the even if thy are aware of sich a book advantage of being a fellow-countryman; existing, they do not bow to its authority. and curiosity about the while mali'- ap. Have faith in the self-evidencing power of proaching words is meantime whetted. God's Word by all means, and fail not to Nothing has seemed more telling than ad uce texis; but do so in the course of when the convert narrat+s his own exyour address, not at the beginning. Inter. perience, tells of his former faith and pracweave them into the texture of your tice, how the light came to him, how he preaching, ro that, introduced and followed struggled against it, how, at last, it preby appropriate remarks, they may enjoy a vailed, and what he has found in Christ as right setting, inay be as apples of gold set a mighty, graci'us Saviour. in pictures of silver.
Mild and winning, or, at the least, inI have found it attractive to begin by offensive as this may appear, it cannot fail telling about our little British I-lands, so to wound deep-seated prejudice, and so far across the sea from my auditors, but occasion hostile feeling. The convert has the home of their acknowledged rulers, and to tell that he has forsaken the hoary, therefore obj cts of curiosity to them. ancestral idol-worship, that he has broken From our climate, country, and produc- caste, and that he has given up the Kutions, the step is an easy one to our dumy, or sacred lock, which is an integral churches and worship, as contrasted with part of the Hindu religion. It is impostheirs; and arrived there, you are at the sible for these statements to be made, threshold of your sunject, namely, the clearly implying, as they do, that all who simple procla nation of the Gospel of embrace Christianity must pursue a similar Christ. The whole thing flows along in a course, without sharply paining a sincere, natural course, the surrounding Hindus zealous Hindu. Truth, however, requires nerer, so far as my memory serves me, them, and the effects must be left with failing to listen to it with unswerving at- God. tention.
One convert having begun, sometimes Another useful plan is, to make use of another follows, though not precisely in any sight or incident that has met you on the same strain ; or the European misyour approach to the village. A marriage sionary may occupy the second place. Do procession, a dead body at the burning. not, however, imagine that native converts ground, the idol-car (if there be one), never go forth on this work alone—that a stones smeared with vermillion at the en- European is always with them. Such is trance to a grove, the harvest, the village- far from being the case, but I prefer deschool ; these, and things similar, if you scribing the Briton's experience, as being are ready and apt, may be made to slide that about which you must naturally be into your prepared address with great pro- most desirous to know. priety.
Sometimes one is permitted to 'say all A'most effective kind of introduction is that was intended in peace and quietness; a reference to some story extracted out of but frequently no such privilege is enjoyed. their own popular literature. You know, Long ere you have made a full declaration of course, that this literature teems with of truth, perhaps very soon after your legends. While many of these are wild, first words bave been uttered, a sudden, bad, and unemployable for your purposes, bold, insolent interruption takes place. others, by their moral point, their touching Some man, either assuming to be, or tacitly character, or their romance, are easily acknowledged by the audience as a chamavailable for what you aim at. One thing pion and defender of the faith, loudly arrests is certain, the Hindu will always be im- your further progress, and, with vehement mensely taken with such an opening. You gesture, thrusts in his objections. These, begin thus (in the vernacular), “I was as might be expected, generally belong to a reading the other day in the History of given number, which are found repeating King Nala, or in the Scanda Purana, or in themselves in one place after another. the Ramayana, and came upon the fol. Briefly expressed, they run thus :lowing story.” Then follows the narrative, 1. Show us your god; we believe only and meantime you have your audience by what we see.
2. Your religion is new; ours is very pu' emphasis upon the word “illustrated," old.
because this, as already implied, meets a 3. Pure spiritual worship is all very good strong out-tanding peculiarity of the H ndu for philosophers; we need the idole, as mind. And there is the patisfaction of ladders, to help us up to God.
knowing that, although the Hindu is subtle 4. Your faith for you; ours for us. in evading arguments, yet when these are
5. We must follow in the steps of our really well put, wharply, perhaps epigramforefathers.
matically expressed, and driven home with 6. Many roads lead to one palace; we suitable analogies, both the champion and shall all meet at last.
listeners will feel the force of them. 7. Do a miracle. Show us a sign.
It is worth mentioning that in the syste8. Our miracles are superior to those of matic preparation of answers, and in the your religion.
general work of getting up addresses suit9. Who has seen vice and virtue ? Not able to the people whom they reach, the
Baptist missionaries in Cuttack, not far 10. Everything is determined. Fate from Calcutta, have set a worthy example. rul-s all. Vishnu's writing is on every | In note-books set apart for the purpose, mun's skull.
they treasure up proverbial sayings, good 11. Transmigrationexplains all-will put colloquialisnis, nay, telling expressions
make common prope ty of them by com12. Pantheism is the real thing; all is pari:on of what they have acquired, and in divine.
this way go forth as thoroughly equipped 13. There is nothing in our present as possible. existence but Maya, or illusion.
III. And now it is surely time to tell you Sometimes a short, pointed answer will something about the experiences through silence an opponent; but much more fre- which one passes in this kind of work. quen ly he follows one of two courses. If Starting from your residence in the early boisterous, rough, and unprincipled, he will nfterno in, as soon as the sun admits of try to roar you down. Insults to you, travelling, and having previously fixed upon calumnies or blasphemies against ihe Chris- your destination, some few miles off, you get tian faith, wild, rash assertions, mingled there perhaps by sun-down, or possibly quite perhaps with obscenity, will be vomited after it, when the moon is up. Nothing can forth against you in a most painful way. I be done that night but pitching your tent on Sometimes you can do nothing but sorrow- some bit of sward, near or among trees, fully retire. But whether you do so or not, if possible, and not far from the villages you must pray beforehand, and struggle on that you intend visiting. In the various the spot not to give way to anger. Any processes of putting your tent on the such manifestation on your part does no bullock-cart, lifting it off, planting the present good, gives the bystanders an oc- centre pole, stretching the canvas, unloosing casion of triumph, and lowers you in your the cords, driving in the tent-pins, hoisting own eges, besides being no proper repre- the structure, and then making fast the sentation of the Master whom you serve. ropes, you had better, as before hinted, not
If the insolent, rude plan be not adopted, only superintend, but put to your own then an effort will be made to get you into hand-, both for the sake of expedition and the meshes of speculative discussion. Wild security. theories, wire-drawn distinctions, untenable Rising early next morning, and getting moral positions will be advanced, and you a cup of coffee, you start with your assismay, before long, wish that you had rather | tants for the nearest village. The practice got insult than have been plunged into such is a good one, I think, in the prayer a quagmire. While your solid arguments with your assistants before setting out, will go for nothing, a well-hit-off illus- for each one going on the enterprise to tration, struck out by themselves, will be offer a short supplication, rather than for clung to and worked up as if it were an the head missionary to do it all bimself. irresistible syllogism.
Very probably your approach to the How then, you say, is one to act ? My village, at or shortly after six o'clock in the matured opinion, based on my own ex- morning, is heralded by the boys of the perience and that of men who have known place. On the outlook for things in general, this work far more widely than I have, is, like boys all over the world, they rush in that one should go into the field with care- among their seniors with the astounding fully prepared answers to all the ordinary intelligence that a white gentleman is at defences and attacks that are presented. hand, about to enter their place of residence. From one's own knowledge, from study, Out turn the people and gaze inquisitively from consultation with tried men, one as the little band quietly goes along several should get up short, pointed, illustrated streets, looking for a good central rostrum. replies, and issue them when needed. I It is found in the shape of a mound at
the base of a tree, a low wall, or an eleva- the subsequent hours, and early next tion without any tree. A hymn, in native morning you take down your tent and metre, and to a native tune, if possible, is emigrate elsewhere. sung; a short prayer is offered, and then But a word on town-preaching. For one of the converts begins. According to this purpose buildings are erected with a the size of the place, twenty, thirty, or forty good frontage on places of resort or busy people have assembled, and ere long they streets (not bazaars, however). Several may increase to sixty or seventy. In the doors provide an easy entrance. There, outskirts of a town your audience may after prayer, you begin by singing or readamount to several hundreds. The nature ing (perhaps both). The passing natives, of the discourses, each, eay, twenty minutes hearing their own tongue, come in to listen, long, has been already described. Some- and ere long, if you are, or have with you, times you are heard to the end, tracte are an effective speaker, the floor is covered distributed, you invite to your tent, and, with one or two hundred people. The the sun now growing injuriously hot, you kind of speaking required being one de. retire thither. On other occasions dis- manding considerable energy, several should cussion, such as has been indicated, takes be prepared to follow in rapid succession. place. And from time to time--a fact also Sometimes discussion is evoked, and at chronicled before this-you are furiously others, after tracts have been circulated, interrupted at the very beginning, never the auditors walk quietly away, getting your snapped thread re-tied. In IV. Relative position of this kind of any case, you must ere long repair to your work and its results. tent and rest a little. Sometimes, indeed, Here I must compress a good deal into the villagers follow you thither at once. little space. Looking to the country at But generally it is before and after high large, there are two ways of conducting noon that their visits are paid. One party evangelistic work. One is for a man or comes for nothing but discussion, being men to go over large districts, content with primed with the usual defences of their own sowing the seed broadcast, but, of course, faith, and perhaps some objections to Chris. scattering it but thinly. Another is to tianity. Another set have been reading the select a small workable circuit, and systetracts or gospels distributed, have lighted matically repeat one's visits to the villages upon some passage requiring elucidation, there. The latter bas been done in several and come to get it. An engaging party of places by the Madras Free Church Mission, boys surround you just to get books, the and is going on at present. So far as our clean white paper and distinct printing of European missionaries are concerned, none our literature contrasting favourably with being to spare for anything like exclusive the green Palmyra leaves and stylus- dedication to this work, and that not bescratched letters of their own native books. ing, in my judgment, desirable, even if A fourth group, not of boys, but men, within our power, its true place seems to comes merely from curiosity. They want be that of a useful alterative from tuition. to see the inside of the tent, to bold inter- Pleasant as educational work among Hindu course with a European, to see how he boys is, one needs a change from it, and a talks their vernacular, and (perhaps slightly) more thorough one I hardly know than to hear what he has to say about the religion that of going, at fit times of the year, out of their conquerors and rulers. It must to the villages. Whether you go by budgebe yours to improve such opportunities, to row (covered canal boat), by rail way, or by pour in instruction, to deal with the con- bullock-cart, the change is a marked one science, to convince of error, and to com- from the city life; and then the village mend Christ, so far as you can. More work as already described) calls forth a books are generally given on such occasions, different set of faculties, bodily and mental, and even though eager diecussion takes from those required in the class-room. My place, you should try to part pleasantly and own experience for more than a year was amicably with your visitors.
that of having a fortnightly expedition of Snatching time for a little rest in the this kind, and I found it equally agreeable afternoon, without which one would never to pass from teaching to the tent, and, rebe able for the evening's work, you again turning, to revert to my regular scholastic prepare for the field at about four o'clock. occupation. Sallying out between that and five, you get As to results in conversions from village to the same or another village, and repeat work, our Madras Mission has had scarcely the process described as having taken place any. Our successes, resulting in the upbuildin the morning. When it grows dark ing of a Native Church, have sprung from our (always between six and seven), you must schools. This fact, however, has come out retire, no Hindu villagers being willing to in connection with regular hall-preaching listen when the shades of evening settle in the city, that inquirers, whose convicdown. More visitors probably come during tions had arisen at the daily Bible instruc
tion in the school, have gone thither for the in the political, social, and intellecsolution of doubts, the deepening of im- tual habits of the people.' And though pressions, and the gaining of more light. I could wish that I had more strength Not well able to come to the mission-house, to do justice to so great a subject, I assure lest they should be found out before they you that I undertake the duty with the were prepared to take the great step of greatest pleasure. First, because it is separation, they have quietly slipped in well that from time to time the earnest among the numerous auditors at one or Christian community of this country should other of our evangelistic balls, and there hear from competent eye-witnesses (and have drunk in the living water, thus being more especially, if possible, from laymen) gradually fitted for entering
the kingdom of how the work of Missions is progressing; God.
and, secondly, because, in my judgment, When I speak of “no results in conver- the words of this Resolution most happily sions," my reference is simply to village and truthfully describe the present situawork. If the contrast be between teaching tion in India. The battle of India has and preaching, we dare not say that the now been fought. Clive's battle of Plassey, latter has been unfruitful. The stated
in 1757, founded the British empire; but vernacular Sabbath preaching for many 1857, and the total re-organization of the
it was not completed till the Sepoy war of years by the Rev. P. Rajahgopaul and native army, and increase of the European Venkataramiah, has been blessed of God to the awakening of inquiry, as well as to the army, which succeeded that great effort to fostering of spiritual convictions in various the mercenary soldier; all classes, from
expel us. All ranks, from the rajah to Hindus, who are now converts and members the millionaire banker 'to the tiller of the of our Native Church. I have now done, but let me say a word Parsee, native Christian, and European
soil; all creeds, Hindoo, Mohammedan, to you. Few of you are likely to engage in Christian, alike feel this to be the case, the work now described in India. But you and act upon it; some with disappointmay have to carry on open-air preaching in ment, some with relief, some with fear, Australia, Canada, or within our own some with hope, but all with a borders. Let me advise you to prepare for impulse and conviction. The native chiefs this by trying it ere your studies are done. are now busy in securing or extending A minister in a country town lately said their rights under English title-deeds. in my hearing, that no part of his work had The military classes see their occupation been eo manifestly fruitful as this. People slipping away, and are betaking themselves on their death-beds had told him that their to other callings. Capital, of which the first impressions had been gained at his open- timidity is proverbial (and which we air services. Others, smitten at the same have just seen spreading its affrighted place, had come to him, seeking the way of wings in Ireland at the approach of salvation. This is surely a strong induce- Fenianism), has unlocked its hoards in ment to acquire such a power. Another India since 1857, and is trading no longer strong reason lies in the fact that nowhere village with village, and province with better than on the street can we know province, but with all the countries of the whether or not we have the power of reach- world. And what is to be noted is the ing hearts, and holding them under the novel association of natives and Europeans continuous strokes of the Gospel hammer. in large schemes of commerce, which forms
a new bond of union. One of the most Preaching is diflicult, solemn work, requiring many kinds of preparation. This is marked results of an assured state of one, to the practice of which I heartily in- peace is the extraordinary struggle for
sand which is now going on in India, as if vite you.- From the Free Church Record.
the whole population were animated by an instinct to take root, and perceived that it
must be done now PROGRESS OF CHRISTIANITY IN squatter of unquiet times is now engaged
Every BRITISH INDIA.
in obtaining from the English courts a
title derived from occupation; every old At the annual meeting of the Church Missionary Society, Colonel Sir H. Ed- proprietor, who had left the paternal acres wardes spoke as follows on the progress reappearing at his homo, and spending his
to go off soldiering at native courts, is now of Christianity in British India :
last rupee in trying to oust the squatter, " The Resolution which I have been and establish a title from hereditary right. asked now to move is as follows :—That Every tenant-at-will is trying to convert the speedy triumph of Christianity in himself into a landlord, and every landlord British India becomes every day more is trying to evict his tenant-at-will. The hopeful, if the proclamation of the Gospel struggle is intensified by two classes, the be viewed in connection with the moment native merchants and bankers and the ous changes which are going forward European settler. The native merchant,
like the merchant in England, desires the are in all 30,000,000 of children in India status in the country which land carries who should be at school. Of these, miswith it; and the European settler, believ- sionaries educate 100,000, and the State ing in a prosperous and peaceful future, only 127,513.' The State schools were wants land for tea, coffee, sugar, cotton, costing £250,000 a year; and the State flax, and indigo, and calls on the Govern- also gave grants in aid to the mission ment of India to redeem the land-tax in schools amounting to £16,500 more. This perpetuity, that there may be no fetters on seems very little ;— less than 300,000 chilhis enterprise. Then we have the telegraph dren at school out of 30,000,000. But it is from every corner of India to the three as large as the leaven which raises a capitals, and froin the capitals to Europe, baking of bread. (Applause.). After all spreading intelligence, encouraging enter- it is only a small knot of thinkers prise, awakening human sympathies, and who ever raise their country out of carrying with it political education. The ignorance. (Hear, hear.) And what great system of railroads projected under we have to look to is not so much the East India Company is now rapidly the number of the scholars, as the kind approaching development in the union of of ideas which are being taught and spread all the capitals with each other and with abroad in the country. Now, what are the farthest frontiers; bringing province the ideas of the educated natives of the into communication with province in a day? Let us take the Hindoos, for they way unknown before to the stagnant East, are nine-tenths of the population of India ; and raising the prices of all agricultural are the most thoughtful race, and are produce for the benefit of the people; doubtless the race through whom India while it places in the hands of Government will be regenerated. It may surprise a fresh security for peace throughout the many of you-but no one who knows empire. New works of irrigation are India of to-day will deny what I now increasing year by year the area of culti- state—that a school of thoughtful and vation. Great public works are raising proselytising Reformers has sprung up, the demand for labour; so that one of the who are actively engaged in what they most thickly-populated countries in the call the Reformation of Hindooism. The world can no longer afford to send coolies points on which they mainly insist are, to the Mauritius or the West Indies, but --renunciation of idolatry and polywants every man at home. I do not theism, and adoption of a pure Deism ; expatiate upon these changes which are abolition of caste; abolition of polygamy; going on in the political life of India. I abolition of infant marriages ; female do but hastily marshal them before you. education, and general introduction of You are well able to think them out for women into society ; purity of morals. yourselves; and all I ask you to realize is (Great applause.) A still more advanced that the great mutiny of 1857 fell like a school have a dawning consciousness that landslip from the mountains across the even Deism is but a halting-place, and current of British power; that by God's real reformers must push on to a higher help the dammed-up flood rose and rose faith. The centre of all this movement till it prevailed; and clearing its way has been the association called the Brahmo through piled-up rock and forest, Somâj in Calcutta ; and what marks the scattered them in broken splinters over vitality of their impulse, is their misthe land, and is now flowing on in broader, sionary zeal. (Applause.) The Brahmo deeper, swifter streams than ever of Somâj are most active proselytisers, and fertility, progress, and civilization. Let have sent missionaries of their own to us now turn and see what changes are the other two capitals of India to preach going on in the social and intellectual the reformation they have in hand. habits of the people. They are so inter- | (Hear.) To bring home to you what is twined together that I will not attempt to thus being done, I will read to you from separate them. The great fact that stands the Missionary News of April 14th the out from all others is this, that Western covenant which is subscribed by every education has begun to tell at last upon Hindoo who joins the movement at the Eastern mind; and that after centuries Madras :of stagnation it may now be said joyfully “«1. I shall worship through love of of the intellect of India, as the hearty Him, and the performance of the work English crowd shouted the other day at He loveth, the Supreme Being, the the launch of the Northumberland, 'She's Creator, Preserver, the Destroyer, the off! she's off!'. In using the term “Wes- Giver of Salvation, the Omniscient, the tern education’ I speak advisedly, in order Omnipotent, the Blissful, the Good, the to include education of all kinds, secular Formless, the only one without a second, and religious, that given by the State and and none of the created objects, subject that given by Missionary Societies. The to the following conditions :latest statistics I can obtain are from the “«2. I shall labour to compose and Friend of India, which states that “There gradually bring into practice a ritual