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cialists which startle Europe on May day
do not, as a rule, appeal to the sympathies
of workingmen in the United States. Labor
day 1 his country is celebrated in an im-
pressivi inanner by great parades of union
workingmen and by open air gatherings of
a social nature, where addresses are made
by public men and others who have the re-
gard of labor unions. September 1 of the
present year found the labor organizations
in a strong position, with full ranks and
with their members employed regularly at
good wages. The very large number of
new unions which turned out for their first
Labor day parade gave evidence of the ag-
gressiveness of the union principle. The
processions in the chief cities were notably
large, larger than ever before. Among the
distinguished orators who addressed gath-
erings on that day was United Siates Sena-
tor Fairbanks of Indiana, who said to the
workingmen of Kansas City: "The unions
have increased wages, shortened hours, paid
millions of dollars in benevolences, abol-
ished or modified conditions in the sweat-
shops. They have stood against the abuses
of child labor and taught workingmen to
observe contracts. They have opposed an-
archy, which has no greater foe than the
labor union." General recognition of these
facts reconciles the public in a measure to
the many abuses of power of which work-
ingmen frequently are guilty in the name
of union labor. That the unions are grow-
ing better continually, are more wisely led
year after year, decry violence more gen-
erally as time goes by and show a better
temper in their dealings with their em-
ployers than in former seasons, is certain.
The successful leaders of union men are
the intelligent and conservative leaders.
They stand for arbitration and fair dealing.

These leaders set good examples at times GENERAL GOBIN, MADE FAMOUS BY HIS ORDER TO

to representatives of great corporations in His SOLDIERS TO “SHOOT TO KILL” STRIKERS.

the care with which they keep their agree(Photograph by N. Lazarnick.)

ments. A few years more of evolution demonstrations wholly separate from those should lead to the incorporation of the best held on llay. I, by labor organizations in of the labor unions, since they pride themthe great cities of Europe. American work

selves already on their orderly methods and ingmen's aspirations and ideals are not the

honorable dealings. A significant word was same as those which dominate some of the

spoken at Philadelphia on Labor day by associations of workingmen President Mitchell of the United Mine

The remarkable strikes of last Workers. “I hope to see the time,” said spring in Belgium -ud Sweden, for example,

Mr. Mitchell, “when no man who earns his were in behalf of form in the suffrage

bread by the sweat of his brow will be out' field side the ranks of the trade union. I look

forward to the time when the workers of of American effort. Demonsiratiơns of so


powerful abroad.

and therefore entirely outs



A group of miners discussing the strike and listening to an address by one of their leaders.

(From a photograph taken for THE WORLD TO-Day by N. Lazarnico.)

our country will take possession of their in drawing from President Baer of the
own country." This seems to be a prophecy Reading railway a long statement of his
that the labor unions will go into politics reasons for declining to comply with their
presently. If they do, let us have enough request. Governor Stone then began to
faith in the masses to believe that they will hoid consultations with representatives of
act conservatively and wisely. Patriotism
and education are mighty forces that may
be relied on in any crisis. In any event,
although the unions are so far ostensibly
non-political organizations, their solid vote
would be a tremendous force in politics.

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was made public last month. It suggests that the miners in the anthracite region form an independent union, making it by incorporation financially responsible for its agreements and thus putting it in a position to enter into binding contracts with the mine owners. Then a joint committee, says Mr. Wright, should be formed by miners and mine owners to investigate and remedy all grievances. This latter recommendation, together with others made by the commissioner regarding a nine-hour day and reforms in the weighing of coal, indicates that he sympathizes with the claim of the mine workers that substantial reforms are due them. In September the scarcity of coal and the very high prices resulting from it became a terrible hardship to the people, while the approach of winter caused grave forebodings of greater evils to come.

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In these days, to fill the posiWork of Cabinet

tion of member of the cabinet Officers. of the president of the United

States is no joke. While such enormous tasks as those resulting from the civil war are not likely to arise again, it is to be supposed that Secretary Root a year or so ago found the war in the Philippines

Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan and with President Mitchell of the United Mine Workers; rumors of an approaching settlement of the strike were numerous in consequence. The belief was very generally expressed that peace would be restored in some way or other and the miners put to work before the state election in November. Since so many thousands of men, if desperately dissatisfied with existing conditions when casting their votes, would be a grave peril to the success of the party in power, political expediency, in this case possibly more potent than considerations of justice, was believed to be likely to force a settlement of the strike. The long strain of the contest had caused numerous acts of violence to be committed in various parts of the anthracite region, though the almost complete paralysis of mine operation continued. The miners of West Virgiria, however, who went on strike a few weeks after the miners in the anthracite region, took up their picks once more early in September at practically the old rate of wages, having despaired of se. curing concessions from the mine owners. The report of the United States commissioner of labor, Carroll D. Wright, on conditions in the anthracite mining industry,

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the cabinet. There are reports current in Washington to the effect that the president intends the construction of the canal to fall on a commission of army engineers with General Leonard Wood at their head. While it is hardly likely that the gossips at the capital will be permitted to have their way in all things pertaining to the canal, at least they may not be very far wrong in this guess, though General Wood is a surgeon and not an engineer. The fact that he has proved himself a fine executive might very well excuse his lack of engineering knowledge, however,

Interesting political camEarly State

paigns in Vermont and Maine Elections. brought out an unusually heavy

vote. Vermont's election was held September 2, and the result was a great surprise. The republican candidate for governor, General McCullough, failed to get a majority of all the votes cast. Although he received a plurality, under the law of the state the election is thrown into the legislature. This has not happened before for about fifty years. As the legislature is heavily republican McCullough will be elected. His chief opponent before the people was Percival W. Clement, an

GEORGE F. BAER. President of the Reading Railroad, who refused to arbitrate

the differences between the coal roads and the strikers.

and the government of Cuba, together with his other duties, quite enough to keep his mind occupied during office hours. The other cabinet members also have heavy tasks and special duties in abundance to give variety to the routine. Attorney General Knox has been engaged of late in examining into the affairs of the French Panama Canal company to ascertain whether or not it can give to the United States a good title to the unfinished ditch on the isthmus and the other property of the stockholders whose interests it claims to represent. His researches in Paris, though interesting, must have tried his patience, in view of the bewildering complexity of French legal methods. It is to be supposed that he will be able to inform the president before the next session of congress begins whether or not the terms of the Spooner act can be complied with in regard to the Panama route. If the actual digging can begin within a few more months, Secretary Hay in the meantime having brought to a prosperous close his negotiations with Colombia, regarding the strip of territory to be occupied by the canal, the performance of the greatest engineering feat of the twentieth century will confront

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congressional districts elected republican members of congress. Arkansas held its election September 1, Governor Jefferson Davis being chosen for another term by a majority of about 40,000 votes. Democratic congressmen were elected in the seven districts of the state.

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Democratic state conventions Demo- in Iowa, Wisconsin and Calicratic fornia. held September 3, like Leaders.

a number of other state conventions of that party this year, de nounced in their platforms oppressive trusts and the high tariff, but maintained s'ence in regard to the Kansas City platform and Mr. Bryan. These omissions rendered all the more conspicuous the reference to the national campaign of 1900 contained in the platform of the Ohio democratic convention, held also on September 3 and controlled by Mayor Johnson of Cleveland. That patiorm reaffirmed the principles of the Kansas City platform, which were fully ard ably represented in the presidential

campaign by iam Jennings Bryan." Debarze fiberrederas be repeat Yet it is probable that the leadership of the

radical eement of the democratic party in energetic barker wear as an independent

rational attairs is slipping away from Wr. can lase.

Aboga serbicar, Cie Bryan and passing to Mayor Johnson. ment receive a great mary cemocra: ic

Whether or not this is with Mr. Bryan's tes se sha: ne puis: Mitega. consent is a dispated question. In any

Cement. 28.1;;; Jaietrick, event it is clear that Mr. Johnson is to Cemcar. 7.30: Sherbam, prohibitionist, Occupy a commanding position in demo 2.525. The chiei se ci the carpai,

cratic murse's from this time on. He is was the artistica: option and high * making a rigorous canvass of Ohio in Seine einzionawci lecce bare the interests of the ticket nominated by inz bee me a caj eet. Eb la

him, a huge tent having been brought into Coleman: air cate: se change, service to accommodate the audiences that battiment impresse marriers as being her to bear his views. The Rer. Hercamerken: ic awa wamen.

RS. Pigemdemocratic cantitate for Trecciair Warne k serama: 3 secretary of State, the highest position on ci 3

e gerator che sckes this rear, is also a campaigner the audias ci socialewer. The opinion is freely

errascincinio tha: Tehason will manca

acetoain tis ticket a significantly occars as a Part Tie. Trgoni, a hard headed. out

se Vera Sirken business manwho sas made a large Gesin e zier 3:

corear: none is derosing his time : Bocserels and a male aninarske task of securing tar rees are in ass

sarims aiready has drawn tarie 4:12

maar wing beyond the ཀ ན བ :: འ་ :: 、་ - : ་བ ༔ ཀ་ཀ་

is. He's an earnest advocate

- Har George and a man

**0 senge of the word. His

a leveland is distinctly an


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