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OOD bye to Dobbin, the put the internal-combustion motor in a
faithful and sturdy old class by itself.
Instead he will fast supplanting the horse as a motive
simply turn on the second power for pleasure and business vehicles, speed of his agricultural motor-car and and is being widely adopted in factories go dashing up the lane to the farm house and work-shops. And now—the latest at the rate of twenty miles an hour. and one of the most important of its uses
What steam was to the nineteenth —it is being introduced in eleven councentury, the little gasoline or alcohol tries of the world as a substitute for the motor promises to be to the twentieth. farm-horse-pulling the farmer's plows,
The laws of steam are known. Its cutting and garnering his harvests, drawplace is settled. But the internal-com- ing his produce to market, driving his bustion motor is, as yet, an only half- threshing machines, grinding his grains, tamed monster, the possibilities of which cutting his straw and wood, pumping his are but guessed at. Daily it is displacing water and spraying his vineyards. Over steam and electricity and is fast invading a score of agricultural motors, as they every department of industrial and social are termed, operate in the rich alluvial life. The ablest engineers of a dozen valley of the Nile in Egypt, doing most nations are studying the laws which gov- of the farm work in districts where the ern its use and its capabilities are being heat prevents the use of horses, and tested in myriad fields. Even in its pres- where the scarcity of water is an adent unperfected state, its ability as a ditional bar to their use. In the cane power generator is paramount. And it is fields of Cuba, adjacent to Havana, one per horse power the lightest in weight of of these motors has done continual servany of the prime movers. These facts ice for upwards of twelve months, cul(16)
tivating the cane, cutting it, drawing it competitions of the season and carrying to the mills and conveying the final prod- off the gold medals from the horse in uct to the depots. On the boundless Rus- every contest. A machine made in Ensian plains, these little giants of the field gland has since that time been the leader have for two years been drawing the in the agricultural field, although several binders in the wheat harvest. In south- competitors have pushed it hard. In the ern Africa, the green fields around four years since its debut, it has demonBloomfontein as well as the diamond val- strated its worth in every part of Britain, leys of Kimberley already know of the as well as in the countries enumerated, agricultural motor. In distant Aus- and in every case it has convinced the tralia, for a couple of seasons, it has been most skeptical that it can perform the used. Tasmania in the southern Pacific varied farm work at half the expense of has agricultural motors; several culti- horses, in half the time, requiring but vate farms in Turkey; a few are found one-third of the men to look after it. in the Sandwich Islands; and on the con- Before considering, in detail, its pertinent of Europe, adorned with her formance in each of the varieties of farm
verdant slopes and valleys, farmers in work, a glance at its construction will Germany, France, Belgium, Holland, show wherein lies its economy over the Austria, and Hungary have them in daily horse, and what features make it so use; even hill-girt Switzerland employs adaptable to agricultural use, a field in upwards of a dozen. England is the na- which steam power has proven in most tive land of the new farmer's friend. cases an expensive luxury and often a
In the early months of 1902, what signal failure. A motor for farm use proved to be the first successful gasoline must combine lightness and high tractive agricultural motor appeared, contesting power. Ninety per cent of its work is at nearly all of the great agricultural over soft, plowed fields, where it must
exert such high pulling power is cular rubber tire to prevent side slipping, needed in plowing, cultivating the soil proves a competent guiding member. At and cutting and drawing grain to the the rear of the motor are two large drivbarns. Herein lies the secret of the gaso- ing wheels, exceptionally large in proline motor, it being possible to construct portion to the size of the vehicle, and a vehicle with an eighteen horse-power made with a diameter of forty inches and motor and yet not have the weight in ex- tires nine inches wide, a width sufficient cess of one and one-half tons, whereas a for the softest fields. To increase the vehicle of the same power using steam, traction of these wheels, the tires are fitsuch as a traction engine, weighs four or ted with transverse, or angular, strips of five times as much. The English ma- wood or metal, which grip the surface of chine, weighing 3,000 pounds, proves its the field or road. further adaptation for agricultural work, Apart from the wheels, the motor reby evenly dividing this weight over three sembles a large, very short wedge laid wheels which carry it. Of these a small on its end with the steering wheel at the front wheel for steering, with a twenty- apex, the driving wheels at the corners inch diameter and a flat tire nine inches and the driver sitting at the rear, with wide, carrying on its center a semi-cir- the gasoline and water tanks beside him.
All machinery is encased in a steel, dust ropean countries, alcohol is most generproof covering, protecting it from the ally used owing to its cheapness and the all-present dust of farm work. This cov- prohibitive cost of gasoline, it approachering removed, the heart of the machine ing fifty cents a gallon in places, whereas appears, it being a two-cylinder gasoline alcohol costs but ten cents. In many dismotor, each cylinder being five and one- tricts paraffin
to advantage, half inches in diameter, with a five-inch though tests have shown that the order piston stroke and running, at normal of merit of the three fuels is gasoline,
speed, at nine hundred revolutions per alcohol and paraffin with gasoline a minute. Each of the cylinders is placed leader by four per cent, alcohol second horizontally, and opposed to the other, and paraffin but two per cent behind so that the crankshaft lies transversely alcohol. The matter of cost is largely of the car and on its ends, outside of the responsible for the use of alcohol. In steel covering, carries large sized pulleys Europe, denatured alcohol, that is alcowhich can be used for driving by belt a hol with all qualities as a beverage or threshing machine, stone breaker, hay drink destroyed, making its taste absocutter, chopping mill, circular saw, elec- lutely obnoxious, is manufactured free tric dynamo, or any of the many other of a revenue tax and on January first, implements which are actuated by out- 1907, the revenue tax of two dollars
and forty cents per gallon in the United Fuel for the motor is either gasoline, States will be done away with, at once paraffin or alcohol, a special carbureter lowering the price of denatured alcohol being furnished which performs the diffi- from two dollars and a half per gallon cult task of mixing either of these liquid to a matter of ten or twelve cents. Alcofuels in the proper proportion with air to hol for this purpose can be made equally produce an explosive mixture. In Eu- well from corn, potatoes, beets and, in
short, any vegetable growth in which tor is very unlike the modern motor car, starch and sugar are present in large being rather a machine of burden, built quantities. This fact will go far towards with great drawing power and with every forcing the introduction of alcohol as part stoutly constructed. Close examinafuel for agricultural motors in this coun- tion of its several parts shows that it is try, the farmers themselves growing the not a complex machine but one marked vegetables or grains for its production. by simplicity, so simple in fact, that the In view of the rapidly advancing price of uneducated farm assistant has but little gasoline an additional interest is lent to trouble in mastering its mechanism. In this phase of the question. Three years its present form it is not an experimental
ago, nine and ten cents were common novelty, but a vehicle efficient for every retail figures for gasoline; now the price day in the year and capable of withstandis twenty and twenty-five, and, whereas ing rough usage and continual work. the wholesale figure five years ago was Plowing proved to be the first and as low as six cents, it is now twelve and most interesting phase of farm labor to fifteen.
which the agricultural motor was introFrom the crankshaft of the motor the duced, and at which, four years ago, it power is conveyed to the back drive made its initial reputation. Naturally wheels, through a counter shaft and side this was the best testing ground. Steam chains, a differential permitting one of the engines had proved too heavy for the drive wheels to turn faster than the other, soft land being plowed, and here the as may needed in rounding a corner. agriculturist expected to mire the internal The transmission allows of one speed combustion motor, but he signally failed. ahead and one for backing up or revers- For a plowing test among horses, steam ing. The steering is done with a hand- power and the gasoline motor, two and wheel similar to that employed in auto- three-quarter acres of very heavy clay mobiles, it having chain connections with soi! were selected. It was a condition the upright carrying the front wheel. that the furrows were to be nine inches Viewed exteriorly the agricultural mo- wide and six inches deep. At the first