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sorrows, the good or the bad fortunes, of their genuine friends and their undissembled benefactors.'


When God gave the power of thought to man, he evidently designed it to be free. Tyranny may fetter the legs or handcuff the arms, but it cannot impose chains on the interior operations of the mind. It may restrain the freedom of intellectual agency through the medium of the press; but, in the present condition of man, no restraint of this kind can well be efficacious. And my heart vibrates with joy, when I reflect that tyranny itself is on the point of expiring in almost every part of the European world. The Holy Alliance, though made for the purpose, can hardly keep it alive. Its extinction is decreed; and some members of the selfish faction may have leisure to write its epitaph.'.



I have the most unfeigned satisfaction in receiving this affectionate Address from the people of Birmingham and its vicinity.

The losses that I have sustained during my long absence upon the Continent, have been irreparable. But as, in the constitution of the moral world, there is never any evil without some subsequent or concamitant good, I have derived no small degree of solace from contem plating the probable benefits of which my afflietions are likely to be productive to the people of these realms. If I had experienced no suffering, and been treated with no indignity, that union of mind and heart would Dever have been seen which now binds the nation from one extremity to another, in the sacred cause of legal right and of constitutional liberty.

To my wrongs, therefore, the nation may ultimately be indebted for the recovery of its rights; and the vile attempt to effect my degradation may exalt the people to a higher pitch of freedom and prosperity.


No Queen was ever the subject of so many and such barbarous persecutions as I have experienced. But while these persecutions have had little effect in ruffling my serenity, or in marring my happiness, they have proved a bed of thorns to my adversaries.

The spirit of malignity is never a spirit of repose. It is the serpent gnawing the heart; and if there be at this moment one who, more than another, is an object of pity for the suspicions to which he is a victim, or for the inquietude to which he is a prey-for the innumerable vexations which he is hourly, nay, momentarily, feeling-for the recollections of lost happiness and of deserted virtue-for the consciousness of malice that has been rendered impotent, and of vengeance that has missed its aim,-such an object of pity is, perhaps, to be seen at the head of my adversacies. The moralist of after-times, when he wants exareples of abortive malice or unsuccessful treachery to give effect to his lessons or to breathe a living energy on his page, will not long be at a loss to know from what part of our history to extract an impressive proof, that couning, malevolence, and perfidy, excité nothing but scorn, and are productive of nothing but misery.'


On Monday last the above event was celebrated at the Crown and Anchor Tavern; and the principle novelty was the following address deli vered by Mr. Hayes:

"I am au Irish Catholic priest. I received my education at Rome; and have been from my infancy a sworn friend to liberty and a determined foe to oppression. In the year 1815, I was deputed by the Catholics of Ireland to oppose at Rome that scheme of the British Government, which, by obtaining for the Crown the appointment of the Irish bishops, sought to render them, like their brethren of the Established Church, the subservient followers of power. Such an union between Christ and Belial: it is an union which converts the priesthood to priestcraft; an union which has ever been alike in Catholic and in Protestant countries-the most powerful engiue of tyranny-the adamantine chain of slavery. The State draws the sword to protect the interests of its pensioned clergy; the clergy abuse their sacred influence to hold the people in political bondage; so matters proceed under such an union, until, maddened by the double tyranny, popular indignation explodes at last, and the altar and the throne are whelmed in utter destruction. To preserve my country from such horrors, and to preserve the purity of our clergy, by keeping them dependent upon the opinion of the people, I went to Rome; and, after a contest of two years, I baffled the intrigues of the British Ministers and of the Boroughmongering aristocracy, which existed at Rome. I met my reward. By the Ministry of the cowardly, the treacherous, lock-picking Ompteda, and that abject slave of the Holy Alliance, Cardinal Gonsalvi, I was imprisoned for two months; and afterwards, by a guard of soldiers, dragged beyond the frontiers of the Roman territory. When Napoleon, that colossus of power, who, were it fit that mankind should submit to a despot, was the only despot worthy to be endured; when he, who, like the genius of the storm, chained to a rock, with the ocean for his cage, and with Monarchs for his gaolers, now looks with stern composure on the political convulsions which agitate theworld; when he, at whose command nations gave way and Kings resigned their sceptres-when he was to be humbled, the trembling Sovereigns of Europe cried for help to the people. Their prayer was granted. The people, in the language of Omnipotence, said, "Let Napoleon fall;" and Napoleon did fall. How were the people requited? Ungrateful rulers broke their promises, disappointed the hopes which they had raised; every beneficial institution of Napoleon's they abolished, every evil which had stained his course they added to the stale vices by which their own conduct was already disgraced. Ungrateful to mankind, they swore at Vienna to enslave their benefactors; blasphemers in the face of heaven, they formed a foul conspiracy, contrary to each precept of religion or morality, and impiously termed it their " Holy Alliance." Lucifer! thou hast heretofore arrayed thyself as an angel of light; but I defy even thee, demon, to match such infernal hypocrisy. The indignation of Europe was general, was universal; and never was it more strongly or more simply expressed, than in the words which I heard from an Italian peasant: Napoleon," he said, "had his faults; but under him the people had bread and justice; now they have neither."

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In the sixth chapter we have a description of a seraphim and a vision somewhat humorous.

"In the year that King Uzziah died I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple. Above it stood the seraphims: each one had six wings; with twain he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly. And one cried unto another, and said, Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory. And the posts of the door moved at the voice of him that cried, and the house was filled with smoke. Then said I, Woe is me! for I am undone; because I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips:' for mine eyes have seen the King, the Lord of hosts. Then flew one of the seraphims unto me, having a live coal in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar. And he laid upon my mouth, and said, Lo, this hath touched thy lips; and thine iniquity is taken away, and thy sin purged. Also I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, Whom shall I send, and who will go for us? Then said I, Here am!; send me. And he said, Go, and tell this people, Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understood with their heart, and convert, and be healed. Then said I, Lord, how long? And he answered, Until the cities be wasted without inhabitant, and the houses without man, and the land be utterly desolate, Aud the Lord have removed men far away, and there be a great forsaking in the midst of the land. But yet in it shall be a tenth, and it shall return, and shall be eaten: as a tall tree, and as an oak, whose substance is in them, when they cast their leaves: so the holy seed shall be the substance thereof."

I am inclined to think that the Jews borrowed their notions of a Cherubim and Seraphim from the ornaments which decorated the thrones of the Persian monarchs, which were some kind of beasts with wings, for instance, the Cherubim represented the bull with wings, and what beast the Seraphim re presented is not known, but our dictionaries describe it as an order of angels! They were of the brute kind I believe! VOL. IV. No. 6.

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There is a vision of Ezekiel's, related in the first chapter of his book, that strongly corroborates the idea I have broached. I bring it forward:


"Now it came to pass in the thirtieth year, in the fourth month' in the fifth day of the month, as I was among the captives by the river of Chebar, that the heavens were opened, and I saw visions of God. In the fifth day of the month, which was the fifth year of king Jehoiachin's captivity. The word of the Lord came expressly unto Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the river Chebar; and the hand of the Lord was there upon him. And I looked, and, behold, a whirlwind came out of the north, a great cloud, and a fire infolding itself, and a brightness was about it, and out of the midst thereof as the colour of amber, out of the midst of the fire. Also out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was their appearance; they had the likeness of a man. And every one had four faces, and every one had four wings. And their feet were straight feet; the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf's foot: and they sparkled like the colour of burnished brass. And they had the hands of a man under their wings on their four sides; and they four had their faces and their wings. Their wings were joined one to another; they turned not when they went; they went every one straight forward. As for the likeness of their faces, they four had the face of a man, and the face of a lion, on the right side: and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an eagle. Thus were their faces: and their wings were stretched upward; two wings of every one were joined one to another, and two covered their bodies. And they went every one straight forward: whither the spirit was to go, they went; and they turned not when they went. As for the likeness of the living creatures, their appearance was like burning coals of fire, and like the appearance of lamps: it went up and down among the living creatures; and the fire was bright, and out of the fire went forth lightning. And the living creatures ran and returned as the appearance of a flash of lightning. Now as I beheld the living creatures, behold one wheel upon the earth by the living creatures, with his four faces. The appearance of the wheels and their work was like unto the colour of a beryl; and they four had one likeness: and their appearance and their work was as it were a wheel in the middle of a wheel. When they went, they went upon their four sides and they turned not when they went. As for their rings, they were so high that they were dreadful; and their rings were full of eyes round about them four. And when the living creatures went, the wheels went by them; and when the living creatures were lifted up from the earth, the wheels were lifted up. Whithersoever the spirit was to go, they went, thither was their spirit to go: and the wheels were lifted up over against them: for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels. When those went, these went; and when

those stood, these stood; and when those were lifted up from the earth, the wheels were lifted up over against them: for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels. And the likeness of the firmament upon the heads of the living creature was as the colour of the terrible crystal, stretched forth over their heads above. And under the firmament were their wings straight, the one toward the other: every one had two, which covered on this side, and every one had two, which covered on that side, their bodies. And when they went, I heard the noise of their wings, like the noise of great waters, as the voice of the Almighty, the voice of speech, as the noise of an host: when they stood, they let down their wings. And there was a voice from the firmament that was over their heads, when they stood, and had let down their wings. And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone: and upon the likeness of the throne was the likeness as the appearance of a man above upon it. And I saw as the colour of amber, as the appearance of fire round about within it, from the appearance of his loins even upward, and from the appearance of his loins even downward, I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and it had brightness round about. in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightAs the appearance of the bow that is ness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of one that spake."

Nonsensical as this chapter reads in itself, yet it argues strongly for my assertion. It is well known, that in all ornamental decorations, whether of wood, of clay, of stone or of metal, figures of supposed monsters have been displayed, by mixing the various figures and likenesses of animals, or a part of one with a part of another, and even the ingenuity of the artificer has set out the figures of animals that never did exist, such as dragons, scorpions, and devils. Thrones have rally been decorated with images of this kind, and the original genecause I conceive to have been, that it was calculated to give a fierce aspect and appearance to the person who sat on them. I have never seen such a bauble as the throne of a king, but I understand that the English throne, besides the coat of arms, is decorated with the heads or bodies of lions, and that there is the figure of a lion on each side of its base, at least, so I have seen it in print. Even the English coat of arms has an animal depicted on it, of which no existence can be traced, I mean the unicorn. This animal has nothing monstrous in its appearance, it is simply a horse with a long straight horn, and of what it is emblematical I cannot say.

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