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feelings in a man and he ideas in her;- be the only kind that will be thought worth this is the great and happy sign of the times. having in the future. The way of evolution is to demand of love In the ideas of the Church, the incapacity all that friendship affords—and infinitely of one party for marriage freed the other more.
from the duty of fidelity. In the more It should be evident that the question spiritual view of the future, it will be equally of divorce is the pursuance of the line of evident that the same righ exists to disdevelopment of Protestantism. The Refor- solve a marriage that has remained unmation succeeded in asserting the rights of consummated in a spiritual sense. the senses in human life. It is now the It is, however, especially when a man or rights of the soul in sexual life that are in woman is divorced in order to marry again question.
that an outcry is raised. Even those who The Catholic Church maintains—and have hitherto found a married couple rightly from its point of view—that, since extremely ill suited, forget at once that they even marriages entered into with the did so should either of them “allow a third warmest love and under the most favorable party to come between them.” They forget circumstances may turn out unhappily, not only their former judgment, but also it is impossible to base the morality of the fact taught by experience that when marriage upon the emotion of love. Noth- two married people are wholly one, there is ing that is founded upon emotion can be no room for a third between the bark and permanent. Nay, the richer, the more the tree. In the contrary case, a third comes individually and universally developed a between them sooner or later. Sometimes personality is, the less immutable will be it is the child, sometimes a life's work, the state of its soul. Thus even the highest sometimes a new feeling. But something need an inflexible law, an irremovable tie, always comes, thanks to nature's “abhorto prevent them from being at the mercy of rence of a vacuum,” which is never more their emotions; while inferior beings need fatal than in marriage. Within the dithe same restraints so as not to be driven mensions of the soul, as within those of by their desires.
space, no one can take the place of another, But marriage, which the Church made but can occupy only that space which ana sacrament and indissoluble, was already other has left vacant or has been unable to the legal expression of the husband's right retain. of ownership over his wife and children. The advocates of free divorce know well The course of development (including the enough that it will involve abuses. But concessions of Protestantism) has consisted whatever abuses free divorce may involve, in a continuous transformation of this they can not often be worse than those religio-economical view; and development that marriage has produced and still procannot stop until the last remnant of this duces-marriage, which is degraded to the conception has been destroyed.
coarsest sexual habits, the most shameless Therefore the believers in Life refuse to traffic, the most agonizing soul murders, the admit either the half admissions of Protes- most inhuman cruelties, and the grossest tantism, or the logical compulsions of Cathol- infringements of liberty that any departicism. They demand that the step from ment of modern life can show. Moreover, authority to freedom shall be taken out- those who thoughtlessly separate when right, since they know that the external greater facilities are given, will be the same authority that simplifies life does not create class of people who now, in coercive marthe higher morality. Compulsion fetters
Compulsion fetters riage, secretly deceive one another. legal action, but thereby only makes secret Here, too, is the place to point out the crime a social institution.
one-sidedness of the notion that nothing is In love, the idea of personality has now more important than that the parents should brought us to the view that “property is remain together for the sake of the children theft”; that only free gifts are of value; -since everything must finally depend upon that the rights of connubial “rights” and how the parents remain together and upon “duties” are to be exchanged for the great what they become through remaining toreconstructive thought that fidelity can gether. never be promised, but that indeed it may The more degrading cohabitation is to be won every day. A fidelity thus won will the personality of each parent, the less
valuable will be the influence of the parental It follows that the ideal form of marriage relation for the children.
must be considered as the perfectly free Only one who sees in marriage a system union of a man and a woman who, through directly ordained by God can maintain the mutual love, desire to promote the happiness proposition that the good of such a system of each other and of the race. must necessarily outweigh its defects. But, as development does not proceed Those who maintain that the maintenance by leaps, no one can hope that the whole of marriage is always the sound and moral of society will attain this ideal otherwise course, must take upon themselves the than through transitional forms. These burden of proving that the dull connubial must preserve the property of the old habits of divided mates are a pure source form—that of expressing the opinion of for the origin of new beings; that their society on the morality of the sexual relamutually conflicting influences are better tions and thus providing a support for the able to further the welfare of the children undeveloped-but at the same time must than a tranquil bringing up by one of be free enough to promote a continual them; and that the happiness of one of development of the higher erotic consciousthem in a new union is more dangerous to ness of the present time. the children than his unhappiness in the Society is the organization that results former one.
when human beings set themselves in motion Not until the diversity of souls becomes to satisfy their needs and exercise their in our ideas a truth as real as the diversity powers in common and it must adapt of our bodies, shall we perceive that of all itself to new needs as they arise and give dogmas monogamy has been that which play to new powers as they are developed. has claimed most human sacrifices. And This has now taken place in the erotic it will one day be admitted that the auto- sphere. Indeed, many of those emotional da-fes of marriage have been just as value- needs and powers of the soul that were less to true morality as those of religion were formerly nourished by and directed toward to the true faith.
religion, are now coming to be nourished The Grand Inquisitors of the past prob- by and directed toward love. Love is ably resembled those of the presenı day in thus becoming more and more a religion, that, when confronted by a particular case and as such demands new forms for its within the circle of their own friends and practice. relations, they found easily enough ex- But while the individualist can be satistenuating circumstances which they did not fied only with the full freedom of love, he otherwise admit. But we must learn to see is compelled by the sense of solidarity, at that every case is a separate case and that, least for the present, to demand a new law therefore, sometimes a new rule—and not for marriage, since the majority is not yet merely an exception to an old rule—is ready for perfect freedom. And the sense necessary. We cannot any longer maintain of solidarity and the claims of individualism this double standard for known or unknown, have equally weighty reasons for condemnfor friends or enemies, for literature or ing the existing institution of marriage. life. It must be abolished by an earnest It forces . upon human beings, who are desire for genuine morality.
seldom ideal, a unity that only an ideal This double standard shows us, however, happiness renders them capable of supportthat even among the orthodox upholders ing. It fulfils one of its missions—that of of monogamy the impossibility of carrying protecting the woman--in a way that is now out a monogamous morality that shall humiliating to her dignity. It performs its apply to all is beginning to be perceived. second function—that of protecting the But the effort, nevertheless, in some degree children-in an extremely imperfect fashion. to attain the impossible now stands in the While its third function—that of setting up way of realizing that possibility which is an ideal of the morality of sexual relations germinating here and there—the attainment -it performs in such a way that this moral of the morality of love. And only those ideal is now become a hindrance to the who do not perceive the power of the new further development of morality. spring are afraid that the earth will not be The marriage law now in force is a geoable to dispense with its protection of logical formation, with stratifications bewithered leaves.
longing to various phases of culture now concluded. Our own phase alone has left selves alone, but also to the whole comfew and unimportant marks upon it.
munity, because of the life and of the work It has been perceived in our time that that their happiness may give to the race love ought to be the moral ground of mar- or that their unhappiness may withhold. riage; and love rests upon equality. But This is the rich promise that the new the law of marriage dates from a time when path offers. But the majority cannot see the importance of love was not recognized. the promise, on account of the possible It, therefore, rests upon the inequality new dangers. It is this dread that still between a lord and his dependent.
paralyzes the courage to dare the untried in Our time has given to the unmarried order to win the valuable. woman the opportunity of making her own It is astonishing that those who tremble living, a legal status, and civil rights. But for the future never seek consolation in the marriage law dates from a time when the past. When the family was losing its woman had none of these things. The mar- position of match-maker, there were proried woman thus, under this law, now oc- phecies of exactly the same "dissolution cupies a position in sharp contrast to the of society and the family" as are now independence of the unmarried.
dreaded in freer forms of matrimony. Our time has displaced the ancient di- But the same people that now laugh at the vision of labor, by which the wife cared for former forebodings, are convinced that the the children and the husband provided latter will be realized. Man believes in maintenance. But the law of marriage nothing so reluctantly as in the powers of dates from a time when this division held his own nature to replace outward bonds full sway and when it was, therefore, almost by inner ones. Yet nothing is more certain impossible for woman to receive protection than that if feelings were no better than for herself and her child otherwise than in laws, there would never be new laws; and matrimony. Now society has begun to that long before the new forms are ready, provide protection for unmarried mothers, there is an abundance of the new feelings and the renunciation of liberty by which that are to fill them. the wife purchases the protection of mar- This, in the succinct statement of a rough riage is seen to be not only more and more outline, is the ideal that is held out to us as unworthy, but also unnecessary.
not only capable of ultimate realization, Our time has recognized more and more but as even now worthy of being striven the importance of every child as a new toward, as calling for our open and active member of society and the right of every support, and as warranting the running of child to be born under healthy conditions. risks in social experiment, even though, as But the law of marriage was framed when the writer says as her final word “those who this aspect of the matter had not entered believe in the perfectibility of mankind for the consciousness of mankind; when the and through love must learn to reckon, not illegitimate child was regarded as worthless, in hundreds of years, and still less in tens, however superior in itself, and the legitimate but in thousands." child as valuable, whatever might be its It is not the plea of self-indulgence. Now hereditary defects. It therefore maintains as always, the self-indulger makes no pleas. that most crude injustice, the difference be- He indulges himself—and makes excuses tween legitimate and illegitimate children. if caught. It is, on the contrary, a voice It frees unmarried fathers from their natural boldly and honestly seeking to make articresponsibility, and drives unmarried mothers ulate the ethical sense of the time; asking to infanticide, to suicide, and to prostitution. how Love, which is one of the great lords
When every life comes to be regarded of life, can take its freedom from the hands as an end in itself from the point of view of society any more than Death, the other, that it can never be lived again and must, can do so; and answering with the magnifitherefore, be lived as completely and greatly cent faith of man's new religion, which as possible; when every personality is regards humanity as climbing out of chaos valued as an asset in life that has never instead of as fallen into sin, "that while existed before and will never occur again; there is only one death, there are many sorts then also will the erotic happiness or un- of love. Death never plays. When all love happiness of human beings be treated as of becomes equally serious, it will also possess greater importance. And not to them- Death's right to choose its own time."
By Elbert Hubbard
We Americans will be just as hungry this year as last. So what is the use of fearing dull business in a presidential year, queries Mr. Hubbard. He tells us we can trust the American people, but he has his doubts about their politicians who propose to boycott the Trusts and married women teachers. For instance, these big men are at odds about woman suffrage, and have remembered to investigate the guinea-hen, but have forgotten the child. It is worth your while to read how
Fear and Politics
and even in the midst of prosperity, many
people find it difficult to pay their bills and HERE is only one thing to be to get enough money to buy all the things afraid of, and that is fear. they would like to. Fortunately, most of
Inertia tugs at us, and the "cussedness of troubles never come to pass. things” is on every hand. As election time
And occasionally we go right approaches, we just quit work, lay off, and through a time of trouble and forget to say, "Nothin' doin' until after election.” shudder until we get out on the broad high- This state of mind comes to us from way where the road is clear and the auto- a time when kings ruled the world, and mobiling good.
a change of government was effected only Some of our griefs we have cured, and through death, violence, and revolution. the sharpest we have survived, but what The grand chamberlain, who stood in the torments of pain we endured from the evils window of the palace and called aloud to the that never arrived!
multitude, “The King is dead-long live the The world has fallen heir to a great legacy King!” while all around were soldiers standof fear. We are all more or less imbued ing at “present arms,” and the air bristled with it.
with bayonets, is in our minds. If this were not so, I would not be writing Government for us is not a thing that on the subject now, and the fact that I am rules—it is merely a matter of business. writing on it proves that I have not got The real fact is, the public business at the microbe fully out of my system.
Washington is not conducted by the PresiBut this I do believe-that the lions are dent or his cabinet. There is a big force of always chained, and usually they are only able men who have held their positions long, plaster-of-Paris lions.
and these are the men who do their work Among our superstitious fears is the idea
and hold their peace. that a presidential year is ever a bad year The President's power is largely in the for business.
line of publicity. He stands in the lime-light, Many good people always imagine that but the work goes right along without him. the party in power is oppressing the people, We are ruled by the spirit of the times, the and that when there is a change in presi- Zeitgeist is supreme, and no order, even of dents, butter will be ten cents a pound, eggs the Supreme Court, is operative unless it is three dozen for a quarter, with everything backed up by public opinion. else cheap in proportion, and wages twice as In America to-day, we have a more stable high as they are now.
public opinion than ever before in the history This idea probably comes from the fact of the world. The new spirit of the times that the average man reads only one news- demands honesty in business and in all paper, and that the one that mirrors his public service. own prejudices.
No man who could be elected president Every president is a disappointment, and could do us much harm, even were he so the hope of a change comes as a glad and inclined, and there is no possibility of our welcome relief.
electing a ruffian, a renegade, or a dictator For most of us, the times are always hard, to the office.
Buyers of government supplies must sit
in judgment, and then having convicted, punish. This sounds like a plan proposed by William D. Haywood, of the Industrial Workers of the World, who advocates what he calls “a passive strike.”
Instead of the strikers walking out and quitting work, Haywood
On the other hand, no president can really do us any great special personal good. We have got to work and earn anything we get It is up to us to keep our health and preserve our good nature.
The country is safe, and what we all should do is to put the snuffers on this talk of poor business in a presidential year.
We all need food, shelter, and clothing, just as much as in other years.
The sun shines, the waters run, the winds blow, the clouds chase each other across the blue, the birds nest, the flowers bloom and blossom, and the crops, when we sow and cultivate the harvest, will be found big
Captain Roald Amundsen, the with fulfillment.
Norwegian who reached the Out upon this foolish fear South Pole on December 14,
1911, the goal of five national that something is about to
expeditions during the last year happen!
To sit around and moon is to lose just that much time. And time lost is lost forever.
To your knitting, girls, to your knitting!
Government by Boycott PUNISHMENT by boycott, legally devised and ar
ranged, is a new suggestion in jurisprudence. This policy has been brought forward by Senator La Follette in a bill introduced in the Senate.
It provides that the Government shall refuse to buy from trusts.
Also, that all patents owned by trusts shall be forfeited.
Not only must the buyer test the quality and verify the count, but he must look up the personal record of the maker; and if he is not of the orthodox commercial faith, pluck him.
What is a trust? The buyer must decide and of course he will be open to argument.
So the buyers of government supplies must be a part of the police system of the state; and not only that, but a branch of the judiciary, and a cross-section of the executive.