Page images



heavily on their necks! Shame to kings who to herself alone the privilege of religious proallow themselves to be in bondage to Jesuitism! selytism.

What could the Waldenses do? They had The Waldenses were constrained to be solno force to oppose their oppressors, and they diers; but they could not, whatever their peryielded to despotism, lifting their hands to sonal merit, attain to the grade of officers. God, the protector of the feeble and the inno. They were punished for the same things for cent. The clergy resorted to trick after trick. which others were rewarded. They were forThey would fain have compelled the restora- bidden to reside more than three days out of tion of the whole amount of taxes which had the territory, in any town whatever, of Piedbeen levied on the property of the Romish mont, as if they had been infected with the Church, by the French government. If this plague! Orders were given to them, at diffedemand had been enforced, the Waldensian rent times, to sell the property which they had pastors and their docks would have been re- purchased under the French government, beduced to utter beggary. But the intendant of yond their immediate homes. In a word, the the province, more generous than the members three small valleys which they cultivated were of the clergy, prevented these extravagant transformed into a sort of dungeon. They claims from being allowed.

must remain there shut up, like Jews in cerWe will not recite all the exactions which tain quarters of German cities; and as all the have annoyed the Waldenses from 1815 to the population could not find employment nor subpresent time.

The bishops of Pignerul (the sistence in so narrow a space, many of the principal city of these valleys), undertook anew Waldenses had no other resource but to quit to contert the heretics in their manner. They for ever their native soil. They went away published pastoral letters full of false argu- weeping, and sought among strangers the means ments against Protestantism, and distributed of subsistence. them to every family. Observe, that the Wal- Such was their situation- not in the bardensian pastors had no right to publish in barous dark ages—not in a time of universal their turn any reply; for the law restricting fanaticism—but only a few months ago. It the press authorized the attacks, but forbade would have been worse still, if they had not any defence. The Waldenses had not even been .protected at the court of Turin by the leave to introduce Protestants books from fo- Protestant princes of Europe. Count de Wal. reign countries; and if they succeeded in pro- bourg, Prussian ambassador, had received from . curing some, it was by means of the British king Frederick - William special instructions and Prussian ministers. Roinanists call loudly concerning the Waldenses. He was their for the liberty of the press among nations constant friend. He went to visit them, noted where they are in the minority; but every- their wants, pled often their cause with the where else, they refuse it as long as possible to king of Sardinia, and collected subscriptions to their adversaries.

found an hospital in the valleys. This estabAnother kind of tyranny which was renewed lishment was indispensable; for if a sick Walin the valleys, consisted in exercising a con- densian entered a Popish hospital, he was stant proselytism, without shame or restraint. annoyed till his last breath by odious intrusions A convent was rebuilt at the very centre of of priests. the Waldensian population, under the name of England showed also to the Waldenses a the Priory of the Sacred Religion. Eight monks kind sympathy. The British ambassador was, were installed there, with the express design of like the Prussian, their advocate at Turin. labouring for the rooting out of heresy. The English Christians, touched by their pitiable poor Waldensians knew by long experience lot, made large collections for them. We ought how Popish monks effect contersions, and they to mention, in particular, the honourable Colonel were now satisfied that these violent and Beckwith, who, after nobly doing his duty in fraudulent methods had not been abandoned. the British army, had taken up his residence The concerters went from family to family, to among the Waldenses. An influential and intimidate some, to make fine promises to generous man, he devoted a part of his forothers, and they succeeded in seducing some tune to diffuse instruction in these mountains iguorant or unprincipled persons. Thus, in a which he adopted as his country. He consingle year, in a time of famine, they added tributed to found more than eighty schools; to the Romish Church about twen indivi- and his memory will be ever blessed among duals. Who are they? ignorant and worth that people, to whom he has been a most de

But no matter : Popery looks voted friend. less at quality than quantity. The Waldenses Still the Waldenses experienced no favourhad not the right, on their part, to make pro- able change in their lot, when, all at once, the Relytes. If they tried to lead a Roman Ca- cry of reformation was sounded from one end of tholic to their communion, they were punished Italy to the other, and repeated by all classes severely. Rome did in these valleys what of the people. “ Reform of all old abuses and the Czar Nicholas is reproached for doing in superannuated laws! Civil and political reform! Russia against Papists : namely, she reserved Reform in the rights of princes and privileges

less persons.

of the clergy!” This was what was called for, upper and more intelligent classe , the acclama. with common consent, at Rome, Florence, tions were redoubled, the demonstrations be Naples, Turin—by the whole Italian nation. came more earnest. I saw priests, on our Many honourable inhabitants of Piedmont, route, throw their hats in the air, and cry at the head of whom figured four Romish with all their might: Lide our brothers the Wal. bishops, addressed a petition to the king, denses ! Charles Albert, to request the emancipation “ When the banners borne by the train of the Jews. Surely the Waldenses could defiled one before the other, the scene be. not be overlooked in this movement for ge- came still more touching. Imagine what we neral freedom. When the Jews could be felt at the sight of these people, met togeadmitted to the rights of citizenship, why ther from the ends of the kingdom, and many should the disciples of Christ be held in a of whom had never heard the Waldenses state of humiliating inferiority? It would spoken of but as abominable heretics. Now have been the most shocking contradiction. they reached to us cordially the hand, called So, the inhabitants of the Waldensian val. us their brothers, and rejoiced with us that

leys were included in the act of civil und the chains which had held us in oppression political emancipation, published the 25th Feb for so many ages were broken. How are ruary last in the official Gazette of Turin. the times changed ! How many prejudices

It would be impossible to depict the tears of has this great act of justice overthrown in a joy which flowed from all eyes, when this glad moment ! news circulated, like lightning, among the “It was especially when, called in our turn Waldenses. What thanksgiving, what con- to pay our respects to the king, we had to pass! gratulations, what prayers ! Six hundred years amidst the body of students and merchants, of pains and sufferings were at last repaired! | that the grasping of hands, mutual embracings, At night, bonfires were kindled by the inhabi- and shouts of congratulation, became truly ectants on the summits of their mountains, and static. To the cries, a thousand times repeated, produced, by their reflection upon the snows of of Live our brothers the Waldenses! was associated the Alps, a magnificent effect. The village of then the words (unheard of before in Turin) La Tour was illuminated, and the Roman Ca- Lire liberty of worship! Lide liberty of conscience! and tholics themselves joined at Pignerol in these the like. demonstrations of joy.

“At this moment we arrived on the Place du But this was only the beginning of the great Chateau. This ground which, more than once, festival. It was agreed that a national solemnity had been covered with innumerable crowds to should be held at Turin, and that the delegates witness the punishment of a Waldensian here.

of all the communes of the kingdom should tic committed to the flames, presented then al attend. The Waldenses were assigned a pro- very different spectacle. The place was filled; minent place in the procession, marching under the balconies, the windows, the turrets of the a distinct banner. Listen to the narrative of an castle, showed dense rows of heads one above eye-witness; we borrow the following account another. But from the bosom of this vast crowd from a letter of a Waldensian, published in a was no longer heard the old cry: Death to the Swiss journal :

heretic! on the contrary, the cry which escaped “.. The committee appointed to conduct from all mouths was the same we had heard the festival, decided by acclamation that the already so many times: Lide our brothers the Waldenses should be placed at the head of the Waldenses !

corporations of the capital. They hare long “... During the rest of our march, the enough been the last,' said they; let them for once, scenes were repeated which I have already deat leust, be first!' The banner under which we scribed. I will only say that, from this day marched, wrought by our brethren of Turin, forward, Piedmont is truly a country for us, and, bore, on a blue velvet ground, this simple in the Piedmontese are brethren. All our pasti scription in large silver letters: 'A Carlo-Alberto pain is forgotten. Our people seem to breathe Vidaliesi riconoscenti—The grateful Waldenses in another air. Fathers feel that a new proto Charles-Albert.'

spect is opened to their children, and bright joy “ While we were on the parade ground a de- pervades all faces.” | legation from the city of Genoa offered us the What can we add to this narrative?

armest congratulations on our emancipation. bush burned but was not consumed.” Let us From the moment when we began to march render glory to God who does such great things through the streets of Turin, for four hours the for his children. The Waldenses possess liberty loud and constant cry was repeated: Lide our of conscience, and it is to be hoped they will brethren the Waldenses! Let the Waldenses be never lose it more. Popish intolerance is es. emancipated! This cry was uttered by the dense tinct for ever, and Popery itself is doomed to crowd through which the procession passed: it vanish soon before the holy and eternal reliwas echoed aloud from the windows, the bal- gion of God the Saviour. “ The rod of the conies, the terraces, with marks of the liveliest wicked shall not always rest upon the lot of sympathy. In the streets inhabited by the the righteous.”

« The




we see that at Bethel Abram “ pitched his tent."

The tents in present general use in the East, by On! there are pleasures in the world that mingle Mohammedans and European travellers, whether in with the soul,

Syria or India, are formed of canvass or coarse cloth, Joys that, through every swelling vein, in tides of occasionally dyed green by the Moslems, and deco

rated with stars and crescents of crimson embroidery; rapture roll;

but the pastoral tribes and mountaineers about the And there are realms of fancied bliss, that fadeless Afghan passes form their tents of goats'-hair spun seem and free;

by their women, the advantages of warmth and But what are all those fleeting joys, and all their facility of transit being considerably greater than charms to me?

attaches to the tent of cotton cloth; and as this speWith girded loins and sandal'd feet, my staff within

cies of movable house is supported on bamboos to

be found in every Eastern forest, and may be fastened my hand,

either to the thorny shrubs of the desert or stones of I am at best a pilgrim here, and seek a better land.

the hill side, its advantages are undeniable; and con

sidering the early period in which Abram journeyed Oh! there are agonizing views of hell's destructive from Haran, and his patriarchal character, it is propower,

bable that the tent he pitched at Bethel was of hair And doleful, dark, malignant cares, that prison every

woven from the produce of his flocks, by Sarai and hour;

her maidens. And there are dread, foreboding thoughts of sorrows

In the 13th chapter and the 2d verse, we are told

that “ Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and yet to be,

in gold.” The whole history of the patriarch's That cling around the sinking soul; but what are domestic condition is precisely similar to that which they to me?

might be given of an Afghan or Belooche pastoral With girded loins and sandal'd feet, my staff within

chief of the present day. I remember an instance in my hand,

Shēr Mohammed, who came to negotiate affairs in I am at best a pilgrim here, and seek a better land.

the province of Shikarpoor, and pitched his tent, with those of his wives and servants, on the desert.

He was a fine-looking man, with a handsome beard In all the pleasures and the pains that anxious mor

descending to his girdle; a ponderous turban of white tals know,

cotton encircled his head, and silver ornaments of I hear a voice that cries aloud—“Go forward, pil- rude but massive workmanship adorned his neck, i grim, go;

arms, and hands-for he, like Abram, was " very rich Pass onward to that heavenly clime where sorrows

in cattle, in silver, and in gold.” And he carried his rise no more;

wealth of metal on the person of himself, his wives,

and bis children, as the custom is with Orientals; Fulness of joy will there be found, and pleasures and his flocks and herds travelled with him, with

their herdsmen, and were confined in pens about the With girded loins and sandal'd feet, thy staff within

tents. Shēr Mohammed and his family subsisted thy hand,

on the milk and ghee they produced; and when I Go forward, pilgrim, on thy way, and find that hea- quitted the tent, the chief, with true Belooche hos

pitality, pressed on my acceptance a kid of the goats, Venly land.”

with butter in a brazen vessel.

In the 16th chapter and 3d verse, we see that RECOLLECTIONS OF THE EAST, ILLUS- Sarai, Abram's wife, took Hagar her maid, the TRATIVE OF THE PENTATEUCH, Egyptian, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the

land of Canaan, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife."

I recollect a fact very In the 12th chapter of the Book of Genesis, from the similar to the giving of the Egyptian maiden to 4th to the 10th verses, we read of the journeying of Abram, in the family of his highness the Nuwaub of the patriarch Abram from Chaldea to Canaan- | Junaghār in Western India. The prince, according to * And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his bro- the privilege of Moslems, having four wives, but ther's son, and all their substance that they had being still unblessed with offspring, at length the gathered." The people of the East ever thus travel, chief wife gave her slave girl to the Vuwaub, and a they and their families, with their substance. It has son was born. This infant was introduced to me asi frequently occurred to me to see movements of a the child of the Burrah Beebee, and was always similar kind, sometimes the result of scarcity, when treated and spoken of in the harem as such by the men have travelled from a province devastated by other wives. The mother, indeed, nursed the boy, famine, to eat bread; sometimes the effect of political but herself called it the son of her mistress, and agitation, when the possessors of great flocks and it was only after inquiry that I discovered he was herds among the pastoral tribes feared foray from in fact the offspring of the Beebee's bondwoman. their own military chiefs, or attack from bodies of A similar circumstance occurred in the family of the horse sweeping down upon them from the enemy. Rao of Cutch; but when the prince married the This was particularly the case in Beloochistan, during daughter of a Rajpoot chieftain, who bore him a son, the period of the late Cabul campaign, and the a little lad whom I saw, like the son of Jacob, clad Kuijack and other shepherd tribes of the hills coat of many colours," the bondwoman and her brought their families down to the plains and villages son were cast out, or at least the son of the bondwoof Cutchee for protection. While travelling, the man was no longer considered as heir to the Musmud bead of the family commonly rode upon a camel, his of Cutch, with the son of the free woman. . .. sons and brethren, armed with sword and matchlock, In the 12th chapter of Numbers and the 10th verse, following on foot and guarding the women, who were, we read, “ And Aaron looked upon Miriam, and, with their servants and children, mounted on ponies; behold, she was leprous.” And again in the 14th bullocks bringing up the ear with tents, water- verse,

'« Let her be shut out from the camp seven Fessels, grain-bags, and all “ their substance.” And days." The plague of leprosy in India is lamentably



in a



common, and among the lower classes the “ reddish seedlings and the tender herbs, the gardener watches spot" upon the dark skin, showing uncleanness, may its progress, and as it flows along he, with his foot, be constantly observed. I recollect looking from my breaks away in rotation a morsel of the embankment window at Anjar in Cutch, when ihe door of a hut of each plot, and thus suffers the water to flow graopened, and a woman came forth, whiter than a dually into it, and soak round the roots of the plants. European, to wash her cooking vessels. I imagined As each bed receives sufficient moisture, he replaces she might be a soldier's wife, perhaps deserted in with his foot the earth previously removed, and the this miserable village, and sent to inquire; but in little stream, turned back to its course, flows on to answer found that she was a Hindu, who had thus the next line of plots, which in similar manner the become “ leprous, white as snow." On the Guzerat gardener waters with his foot, and “the garden of i peninsula of Western India, I visited the temple of herbs " looks fresh and green under the burning sun, the “Datar Chelah." This man had been a great although the “rain of heaven” may not have fallen priest, and enjoyed the reputation of a saint for his on it for a period of eight months. benevolence, which the word datar, or giver, conveys. In the 20th verse of the same chapter we readThe power of the saint is supposed to be peculiarly " And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of felt in this spot. To it those afflicted with leprosy thine house, and upon thy gates." This command resort, their clothes rent and their “head bare," to concerned the statutes or “ words " given as combeseech healing from the saint. The temple is sur- mandments to the children of Israel, that they should rounded with a dense forest, and in these wild soli- have them always in remembrance, and by every tudes lepers from every part of India “ dwell alone," possible means consider, speak of, and meditate on until they are cleansed, or devoured by wild beasts, them, at all times and in all places, as we are told in with which these jungles abound. I felt it to be a the preceding verse. While residing in the family of very touching sight; these unclad lepers, with their Meer Jaftur Ali, a Mohammedan nobleman in Bomemaciated bodies and streaming hair, in earnest bay, I was much struck by the manner in which the prayer, beseeching that “the merciful and good words of the Koran, with prayers and invocations to datar would restore them to their children, and to the Deity, were constantly used by the persons about their beloved but far-distant homes." For thus, un- On the books the Meer read was commonly less they would bring a curse on their descendants to inscribed, " In the name of God the most merciful. the third and fourth generation, must these poor He entered his carriage with a prayer for safety, and creatures, afflicted with the plague of leprosy, “dwell descended from it uttering a thanksgiving.

For without the camp" until they are cleansed, or death several hours during the day, and at midnight, he relieves them from their misery.

read the Koran, and meditated thereon. A verse of In the llth chapter of Deuteronomy, and at the the Koran was, in a beautifully written character, 10th and Ilth verses it is written, For the land inclosed in a golden amulet, which the Meer wore whither thou goest in to possess it, is not as the land on his arm: “ Bind them for a sign upon your hand," of Egypt, from whence ye came out, where thou was the order of the Jews; and though devoid of all sowedst thy seed and wateredst it with thy foot, as a other knowledge, a Moolah taught the Koran garden of herbs. But the land whither ye go to pos- earnestly day by day to the Meer's little daughters, sess it is a land of hills and valleys, and drinketh as we suppose a righteous Jew, by means of a rabbi, water of the rain of heaven.” The minute descrip- might have obeyed the injunction, “ Ye shall teach tion of the method of irrigation, in a land depending them your children.” On the sides of wells, over for its supply of water either on springs or the inun- the doors of houses, on the gates and guard-rooms of dations of a river, deserves attention. Neither in Moslem cities, we see, looking like arabesque ornaEgypt nor in Sindh, countries in the same latitude, ments, verses of the Koran; the tent of his highness can rain ever be expected to fall, and the crops of Meer Ali Moorad had a succession of such words fine jowarree, to be found equally on the banks of wrought in seed pearl round the interior of a tent in the Nile and the Indus, depend on irrigation from the which I saw that chief at Mobarickpoor in Upper river. In both countries the cultivation forms but a Scinde. The large court-yard of the Jumma Musjid belt on either side of the stream, and beyond it the at Ahmedabad in Guzzerat is richly painted with eye falls on an arid waste; but in India and Arabia, such sentences; over the door of a house they are which are lands of hills and valleys, that drink water supposed to ward away the evil eye, and thus, inof the rain of heaven, the traveller sees the whole stead of a “bell and a pomegranate," very common face of the country studded with clumps of trees, decorations in the rich wood carvings of the old plats of cultivation, fields of waving corn. After the Hindu houses, we see in Mohammedan cities embla.! 1 inundations of the Nile and Indus, on the rich alluvial zoned verses of the Koran, in blue, and gold, and deposit, the farmers scatter their seed, and it is then scarlet, as we suppose in the cities of Syria cunning watered with the foot " as a garden of herbs;" the painters may have written “on the door-posts" of method pursued for this mode of irrigation I have the Jewish houses, and upon the “gates " the ordi-, seen constantly practised in my own gardens in India. nances of the God of Jacob. The ground sown with seed, or planted with young Among the curses for disobedience in the 28th plants, is divided into square plots, and round each, as chapter of Deuteronomy, we read, at the 40th rerse in England we might place a bordering of box or -"Thou shalt have olive-trees throughout all thy thrift, is raised a little division of earth. Similar coasts, but thou shalt not anoint thyself with the embankments inclose a water-course leading from oil.” The Hindus always anoint themselves with! the well, which every garden possessed: at dawn, the fresh oil; they believe it to protect the skin from the Moat Wallah, as he is called, brings his bullocks, heat, and also to preserve it from the bites of insects yokes them to the machinery, and then sitting easily and stings of mosquitoes. The vegetables and trees on the ropes, urges and encourages by turns his well- of India produce large quantities of berries and fruits | trained beasts, as raising the full water-bags they yielding oil; and every village has its oil-mill, turned quickly descend the inclined plain; and after a brief by a camel or a bullock. The oil of the castor-tree halt, the sparkling, gurgling, frothing water falls over is much used, and mustard-oil in large quantities; into a trough, hollowed usually from the hewn stem these are perhaps most frequently employed by the of a palm-tree, and thence Hows along the small natives for anointing their bodies, while the finer channels I have described; but, as the rush of water cocoa-nut oil they store for lights and cooking. Sanwould otherwise wash away and destroy the young dalwood oil is also used for anointing the person, by




men of rank, ladies of the barem, and dancing- nor those accused to“ stand idle in the market, women; but the anointing of themselves with oil whom no man hath hired.” Many would leave after ablution, by all ranks, seems so essential to esse, health, and comfort in the East, from the beg' the university sooner, if called into the country gar to the prince, that no curse could perhaps more

on tolerable conditions. beavily afflict a native of India than depriving him 2. Because ministers are to subsist in a free, of the means for doing this, as it doubtless did afflict liberal, and comfortable way. Balaam, the the Israelites when they were told that their olive- false prophet, rode with his two men; God's ! trees should each “cast his fruit." And yet there Levite had one man. Oh, let not the ministers came even a heavier curse upon them, as we read in of the gospel be slaves to others, and servants the 424 verse—“ All thy trees and fruit of thy land shall the locust consume." I have already alluded to themselves! They are not to pry into gain to my observation of the devastating effect of a locust through every small chink. It becomes them band in Catch, which came so thickly, that the ser- rather to be acquainted with the natures of vants in going out to the bazaar were constrained to things than with the prices, and to know them roll their heads up in heavy cloths, and arm thensselves with staves, to avoid being hurt and wounded market : otherwise, if his means be small, and

rather as they are in the world than in the by the flying of these insects against their faces. During the day, by means of tomtoms and shrill living poor, necessity will bolt him out of his! trumpets, the locusts were prevented from settling, own study, and send him to the barn when he but at night devoured every green thing in the fields should be at his book, or make him study his of the poor cultivators, remaining as a curse on the receipt book more than all other writers. | land for three days and nights, while the want and Hereupon, some wanting what they should misery that followed were indeed great, for those have at home, have done what they should not who had taken much jowarree seed into the field, gathered in but few ears at harvest, for the locust abroad. had consumed it in the blade.- Kitlo's Journal of 3. Because hospitality is expected at their Sacred Literature.

hands. The poor come to their houses, as if

they had interest in them, and the ministers OF MINISTERS' MAINTENANCE. can neither receive them nor refuse them. BY THOMAS FULLER.-1660.

Not to relieve them were not Christianity, and MAINTENANCE of ministers ought to be plentiful, to relieve them were worse than infidelity, becertain, and iu some sort proportionable to their

cause therein they wrong their providing for | deserts.

their own family. Thus sometimes are they I. It should be plentiful

forced to be Nabals against their will; yet it 1. Because their education was very charge- grieveth them to send away their people empty. able to fit them for their profession, both at

But what shall they do, seeing they cannot school and in the university: their books very multiply their loaves and their fishes! Besides, dear; and those which they bought in folio clergymen are deeply rated to all payments. shrink quickly into quartos, in respect of the Oh, that their profession were but as highly price their executors can get for them. Say prized as their estate is valued ! ! not that scholars draw needless expenses on

4. Because they are to provide for their pos. themselves by their own lavishness, and that terity, that, after the death of their parents, they should rather lead a fashion of thrift than they may live, though not in a high, yet in an one of riot; for let any equal man tax the bill honest fashion, neither leaving them to the of their necessary charges, and it amounts to a

wide world nor to a narrow cottage. great sum, yea, though they be ever so good

5. Because the Levites in the Old Testament husbands. Besides, the prices of all commodi- had plentiful provision. Oh, 'tis good to be ties daily rise higher; all persons and profes

God's pensioner, for he giveth large allowance. sions are raised in their manner of living;

They had cities and suburbs (houses and glebe scholars, therefore, even against their wills, lands), tithes, free-will offerings, and their must otherwhiles be involved in the general parts in first-fruits and sacrifices. Do the miexpensiveness of the times; it being impossible nisters of the gospel deserve woise wages for that one spoke should stand still when all the bringing better tidings? wheel turns about.

6. Because the Papists in time of Popery Objection.-But many needlessly charge them- gave their priests plentiful means—whose beneselves in living too long in the university-they factors, so bountiful to them, may serve to conare never a whit the wiser for it; whilst others, demn the covetousness of our age towards God's not staying there so long, nor going through ministers, in such who have more knowledge, the porch of human arts, but entering into divi- and should have more religion. nity at the postern, have made good preachers, Objection.—But in the pure primitive times providing their people wholesome meat, though

the means were least, and ministers the best : not so finely dressed.

and now-a-days, does not wealth make them Answer.-Much good may it do their very lazy, and poverty keep them painful! Like hearts that feed on it. But how necessary a hawks, they fly best when sharp. The best competent knowledge of those sciences is for a way to keep the stream of the clergy sweet and perfect divine, is known to every wise man. clear, is to fence out the tide of wealth from Let not men's sufferings be counted their fault, coming unto them.

« PreviousContinue »