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notaries or physicians. Their children were often abducted by priests, and when they complained, they were answered with threats and insults. A shameful proselytism was carried on among them. The Popish clergy had opened by the side of their churches a so-called house for catechumens, where they fed and clothed those unhappy persons who consented to sell their consciences for money. Heavy taxes were laid on the Waldenses, and they could hardly, by their diligent labour, supply them

Iselves with the means of subsistence.

When the great revolution of 1789 burst upon Europe, like a thunderbolt, the poor oppressed people of Piedmont hoped that their lot would be amended. But they were still deceived in their expectation for several years. Their sovereign called them to fight under his banner against France. The Waldenses did their duty bravely and faithfully; they shed their blood on the battle-field to defend a country which had not allowed them the rights of citizens. But with all their zeal they were basely calumniated. As they met with some reverses in their contests with the French troops, the Popish clergy accused them of treason and of being accomplices with the enemy. The Romish population of Piedmont were rendered fanatical by these slanders; and, horrible to relate! a plot was formed to execute another St Bartholomew against the Waldenses! The crime was to be perpetrated in the night of 14th to 15th May 1793. A band of assassins, to the number of 700, had sworn to attack the communes of Saint John and La Tour, and to put all to fire and sword. It was the easier for Papists to effect this massacre, as all the Waldenses, capable of bearing arms, were encamped then upon the summits of the mountains, to resist the invasion of the French. The conspirators would then have found all the women, children, old men, and they would have been able to butcher these without obstacle or resistance. Happily, this infernal plot was revealed opportunely by two Roman Catholics more humane than the rest. The Waldensian soldiers, being warned, returned in haste to their homes, and the conspirators dared not execute their design. The list of names of these wretches was produced in court at Turin, but the government did not institute a judicial prosecution: fearing, apparently, to involve many priests in this frightful conspiracy!

In 1797 the Waldenses obtained some concessions. But what were these? They were allowed to have physicians of their own religion. They were promised protection against the taking away of their children, and a diminution of part of the taxes with which they were loaded. They had leave, lastly, to repair their churches, and even to enlarge them, if this was judged absolutely necessary. This is all! No real liberty; no equality of rights between them and the Roman Catholics; all the prohi

bitions were continued, and yet the priests complained that the Waldenses had obtained too much! Detestable spirit of intolerance! it tramples under foot the first principles of jus tice! it calls evil good, good evil, and thinks it does God service when doing the work of Satan!

Two years after, in 1799, Piedmont passed under the French rule. Then, for the first time, since their origin, the Waldenses enjoyed real liberty of conscience and of worship. They became citizens like others, and could be appointed to all public offices. But, alas! this favour cost them dear. Their valleys, successively traversed by the French, Germans, Russians, &c., were completely devastated. The fields were uncultivated, the houses burnt, the churches destroyed. The most necessary articles of living were enormously dear. The rich could hardly subsist, and the poor died from want. The pastors especially found themselves in the most destitute condition. They no longer received pecuniary aid from England, Holland, and Prussia. War had interrupted all communications. How could ministers of the gospel supply their most pressing wants! The members of Consistory went from house to house, to solicit a morsel of bread for these spiritual guides, and the general poverty prevented often the satisfying of their wants. Some pastors then engaged in secular employ. ments, in order to support their families; others tried to bear patiently these severe pri. vations.

At last, the horizon became brighter. Napoleon visited Piedmont in 1805, and learning what was the condition of the pastors, he gave them a salary from the public treasury. The Waldenses were faithful to their new sovereign. They were doubly attached to him, by their oath and by gratitude. Some of them served with distinction in the French armies; they acquired high rank by their bravery, and showed that they were worthy of commanding others.

But the restoration of 1814 came. The king of Sardinia, Victor-Emanuel, recovered possession of Piedmont. The Waldenses hoped that they would be allowed the same rights as the Romanists. Vain hope! Victor-Emanuel returned with a numerous company of Jesuits and bishops; he had for his confessor a disciple of Loyola. These priests persuaded the prince that the laws of the French government were anti-catholic and wicked, that they ought to restore the old order of things, and that the Romish religion must alone prevail.

It is easy to imagine the surprise, the grief, the consternation of the Waldenses, when, by a royal edict, they were put back precisely in the state where they were fifteen years before. After having enjoyed liberty, they again became slaves! The iron yoke which had oppressed their fathers, weighed

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heavily on their necks! Shame to kings who allow themselves to be in bondage to Jesuitism! What could the Waldenses do? They had no force to oppose their oppressors, and they yielded to despotism, lifting their hands to God, the protector of the feeble and the innocent. The clergy resorted to trick after trick. They would fain have compelled the restoration of the whole amount of taxes which had been levied on the property of the Romish Church, by the French government. If this demand had been enforced, the Waldensian pastors and their flocks would have been reduced to utter beggary. But the intendant of the province, more generous than the members of the clergy, prevented these extravagant claims from being allowed.

We will not recite all the exactions which have annoyed the Waldenses from 1815 to the present time. The bishops of Pignerol (the principal city of these valleys), undertook anew to convert the heretics in their manner. They published pastoral letters full of false arguments against Protestantism, and distributed them to every family. Observe, that the Waldensian pastors had no right to publish in their turn any reply; for the law restricting the press authorized the attacks, but forbade any defence. The Waldenses had not even leave to introduce Protestants books from foreign countries; and if they succeeded in procuring some, it was by means of the British and Prussian ministers. Romanists call loudly for the liberty of the press among nations where they are in the minority; but everywhere else, they refuse it as long as possible to their adversaries.

Another kind of tyranny which was renewed in the valleys, consisted in exercising a constant proselytism, without shame or restraint. A convent was rebuilt at the very centre of the Waldensian population, under the name of the Priory of the Sacred Religion. Eight monks were installed there, with the express design of labouring for the rooting out of heresy. The poor Waldensians knew by long experience how Popish monks effect conversions, and they were now satisfied that these violent and fraudulent methods had not been abandoned. The concerters went from family to family, to intimidate some, to make fine promises to others, and they succeeded in seducing some ignorant or unprincipled persons. Thus, in a single year, in a time of famine, they added to the Romish Church about twenty individuals. Who are they? ignorant and worth less persons. But no matter: Popery looks less at quality than quantity. The Waldenses had not the right, on their part, to make proselytes. If they tried to lead a Roman Catholic to their communion, they were punished severely. Rome did in these valleys what the Czar Nicholas is reproached for doing in Russia against Papists: namely, she reserved


to herself alone the privilege of religious proselytism.

The Waldenses were constrained to be soldiers; but they could not, whatever their personal merit, attain to the grade of officers. They were punished for the same things for which others were rewarded. They were forbidden to reside more than three days out of the territory, in any town whatever, of Piedmont, as if they had been infected with the plague! Orders were given to them, at different times, to sell the property which they had purchased under the French government, beyond their immediate homes. In a word, the three small valleys which they cultivated were transformed into a sort of dungeon. They must remain there shut up, like Jews in certain quarters of German cities; and as all the population could not find employment nor subsistence in so narrow a space, many of the Waldenses had no other resource but to quit for ever their native soil. They went away weeping, and sought among strangers the means of subsistence.

Such was their situation-not in the barbarous dark ages-not in a time of universal fanaticism-but only a few months ago. It would have been worse still, if they had not been protected at the court of Turin by the Protestant princes of Europe. Count de Walbourg, Prussian ambassador, had received from king Frederick - William special instructions concerning the Waldenses. He was their constant friend. He went to visit them, noted their wants, pled often their cause with the king of Sardinia, and collected subscriptions to found an hospital in the valleys. This establishment was indispensable; for if a sick Waldensian entered a Popish hospital, he was annoyed till his last breath by odious intrusions of priests.

England showed also to the Waldenses a kind sympathy. The British ambassador was, like the Prussian, their advocate at Turin. English Christians, touched by their pitiable lot, made large collections for them. We ought to mention, in particular, the honourable Colonel Beckwith, who, after nobly doing his duty in the British army, had taken up his residence among the Waldenses. An influential and generous man, he devoted a part of his fortune to diffuse instruction in these mountains which he adopted as his country. He contributed to found more than eighty schools; and his memory will be ever blessed among that people, to whom he has been a most devoted friend.

Still the Waldenses experienced no favourable change in their lot, when, all at once, the cry of reformation was sounded from one end of Italy to the other, and repeated by all classes of the people. "Reform of all old abuses and superannuated laws! Civil and political reform! Reform in the rights of princes and privileges

of the clergy!" This was what was called for, with common consent, at Rome, Florence, Naples, Turin-by the whole Italian nation. Many honourable inhabitants of Piedmont, at the head of whom figured four Romish bishops, addressed a petition to the king, Charles Albert, to request the emancipation of the Jews. Surely the Waldenses could not be overlooked in this movement for general freedom. When the Jews could be admitted to the rights of citizenship, why should the disciples of Christ be held in a state of humiliating inferiority? It would have been the most shocking contradiction. So, the inhabitants of the Waldensian valleys were included in the act of civil and political emancipation, published the 25th February last in the official Gazette of Turin.

It would be impossible to depict the tears of joy which flowed from all eyes, when this glad news circulated, like lightning, among the Waldenses. What thanksgiving, what congratulations, what prayers! Six hundred years of pains and sufferings were at last repaired! At night, bonfires were kindled by the inhabitants on the summits of their mountains, and produced, by their reflection upon the snows of the Alps, a magnificent effect. The village of La Tour was illuminated, and the Roman Catholics themselves joined at Pignerol in these demonstrations of joy.

But this was only the beginning of the great festival. It was agreed that a national solemnity should be held at Turin, and that the delegates of all the communes of the kingdom should attend. The Waldenses were assigned a prominent place in the procession, marching under a distinct banner. Listen to the narrative of an eye-witness; we borrow the following account from a letter of a Waldensian, published in a Swiss journal:—


The committee appointed to conduct the festival, decided by acclamation that the Waldenses should be placed at the head of the corporations of the capital. They have long enough been the last,' said they; let them for once, at least, be first!' The banner under which we marched, wrought by our brethren of Turin, bore, on a blue velvet ground, this simple inscription in large silver letters: A Carlo-Alberto Vidaliesi riconoscenti-The grateful Waldenses to Charles-Albert.'

"While we were on the parade ground a delegation from the city of Genoa offered us the warmest congratulations on our emancipation. From the moment when we began to march through the streets of Turin, for four hours the loud and constant cry was repeated: Live our brethren the Waldenses! Let the Waldenses be emancipated! This cry was uttered by the dense crowd through which the procession passed: it was echoed aloud from the windows, the balconies, the terraces, with marks of the liveliest sympathy. In the streets inhabited by the

upper and more intelligent classe, the acclama. tions were redoubled, the demonstrations became more earnest. I saw priests, on our route, throw their hats in the air, and cry with all their might: Live our brothers the Wal denses!

"When the banners borne by the train defiled one before the other, the scene be came still more touching. Imagine what we felt at the sight of these people, met together from the ends of the kingdom, and many of whom had never heard the Waldenses spoken of but as abominable heretics. Now! they reached to us cordially the hand, called us their brothers, and rejoiced with us that the chains which had held us in oppression for so many ages were broken. How are the times changed! How many prejudices has this great act of justice overthrown in a moment!

"It was especially when, called in our turn to pay our respects to the king, we had to pass amidst the body of students and merchants, that the grasping of hands, mutual embracings, and shouts of congratulation, became truly ecstatic. To the cries, a thousand times repeated, of Live our brothers the Waldenses! was associated then the words (unheard of before in Turin) Lice liberty of worship! Live liberty of conscience! and the like.

"At this moment we arrived on the Place du Chateau. This ground which, more than once, had been covered with innumerable crowds to witness the punishment of a Waldensian heretic committed to the flames, presented then a very different spectacle. The place was filled; the balconies, the windows, the turrets of the castle, showed dense rows of heads one above. another. But from the bosom of this vast crowd was no longer heard the old cry: Death to the heretic! on the contrary, the cry which escaped from all mouths was the same we had heard already so many times: Live our brothers the Waldenses!

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.. During the rest of our march, the scenes were repeated which I have already described. I will only say that, from this day forward, Piedmont is truly a country for us, and the Piedmontese are brethren. All our past pain is forgotten. Our people seem to breathe in another air. Fathers feel that a new prospect is opened to their children, and bright joy pervades all faces."

What can we add to this narrative? "The bush burned but was not consumed." Let us render glory to God who does such great things for his children. The Waldenses possess liberty of conscience, and it is to be hoped they will never lose it more. Popish intolerance is extinct for ever, and Popery itself is doomed to vanish soon before the holy and eternal religion of God the Saviour. "The rod of the wicked shall not always rest upon the lot of the righteous."



OH! there are pleasures in the world that mingle with the soul,

Joys that, through every swelling vein, in tides of rapture roll;

And there are realms of fancied bliss, that fadeless seem and free;

But what are all those fleeting joys, and all their charms to me?

| With girded loins and sandal'd feet, my staff within my hand,

I am at best a pilgrim here, and seek a better land. Oh! there are agonizing views of hell's destructive


And doleful, dark, malignant cares, that prison every hour;

And there are dread, foreboding thoughts of sorrows yet to be,

That cling around the sinking soul; but what are they to me?

With girded loins and sandal'd feet, my staff within my hand,

I am at best a pilgrim here, and seek a better land.

In all the pleasures and the pains that anxious mortals know,


we see that at Bethel Abram "pitched his tent." The tents in present general use in the East, by Mohammedans and European travellers, whether in Syria or India, are formed of canvass or coarse cloth, occasionally dyed green by the Moslems, and decorated with stars and crescents of crimson embroidery; but the pastoral tribes and mountaineers about the Afghan passes form their tents of goats'-hair spun by their women, the advantages of warmth and facility of transit being considerably greater than attaches to the tent of cotton cloth; and as this species of movable house is supported on bamboos to be found in every Eastern forest, and may be fastened either to the thorny shrubs of the desert or stones of the hill side, its advantages are undeniable; and considering the early period in which Abram journeyed from Haran, and his patriarchal character, it is probable that the tent he pitched at Bethel was of hair woven from the produce of his flocks, by Sarai and her maidens.

In the 13th chapter and the 2d verse, we are told that "Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold." The whole history of the patriarch's domestic condition is precisely similar to that which might be given of an Afghan or Belooche pastoral chief of the present day. I remember an instance in Sher Mohammed, who came to negotiate affairs in the province of Shikarpoor, and pitched his tent, with those of his wives and servants, on the desert. He was a fine-looking man, with a handsome beard descending to his girdle; a ponderous turban of white cotton encircled his head, and silver ornaments of arms, and hands-for he, like Abram, was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold." And he carried his wealth of metal on the person of himself, his wives, and his children, as the custom is with Orientals;

I hear a voice that cries aloud-"Go forward, pil- rude but massive workmanship adorned his neck, grim, go;

Pass onward to that heavenly clime where sorrows rise no more;


Fulness of joy will there be found, and pleasures and his flocks and herds travelled with him, with


With girded loins and sandal'd feet, thy staff within thy hand,

Go forward, pilgrim, on thy way, and find that heavenly land."



In the 12th chapter of the Book of Genesis, from the 4th to the 10th verses, we read of the journeying of the patriarch Abram from Chaldea to Canaan"And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother's son, and all their substance that they had gathered." The people of the East ever thus travel, they and their families, with their substance. It has frequently occurred to me to see movements of a similar kind, sometimes the result of scarcity, when men have travelled from a province devastated by famine, to eat bread; sometimes the effect of political agitation, when the possessors of great flocks and herds among the pastoral tribes feared foray from their own military chiefs, or attack from bodies of horse sweeping down upon them from the enemy. This was particularly the case in Beloochistan, during the period of the late Cabul campaign, and the Kujjuck and other shepherd tribes of the hills brought their families down to the plains and villages of Cutchee for protection. While travelling, the head of the family commonly rode upon a camel, his sons and brethren, armed with sword and matchlock, following on foot and guarding the women, who were, with their servants and children, mounted on ponies; bullocks bringing up the ear with tents, watervessels, grain-bags, and all "their substance." And

their herdsmen, and were confined in pens about the tents. Sher Mohammed and his family subsisted on the milk and ghee they produced; and when I quitted the tent, the chief, with true Belooche hos pitality, pressed on my acceptance a kid of the goats, with butter in a brazen vessel.

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In the 16th chapter and 3d verse, we see that Sarai, Abram's wife, took Hagar her maid, the Egyptian, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife." I recollect a fact very similar to the giving of the Egyptian maiden to Abram, in the family of his highness the Nuwaub of Junaghar in Western India. The prince, according to the privilege of Moslems, having four wives, but being still unblessed with offspring, at length the chief wife gave her slave girl to the Nuwaub, and a son was born. This infant was introduced to me as the child of the Burrah Beebee, and was always treated and spoken of in the harem as such by the other wives. The mother, indeed, nursed the boy, but herself called it the son of her mistress, and it was only after inquiry that I discovered he was in fact the offspring of the Beebee's bondwoman. A similar circumstance occurred in the family of the Rao of Cutch; but when the prince married the daughter of a Rajpoot chieftain, who bore him a son, a little lad whom I saw, like the son of Jacob, clad in a "coat of many colours," the bondwoman and her son were cast out, or at least the son of the bondwoman was no longer considered as heir to the Musmud of Cutch, with the son of the free woman..

In the 12th chapter of Numbers and the 10th verse, we read, "And Aaron looked upon Miriam, and, behold, she was leprous." And again in the 14th "Let her be shut out from the camp seven verse, days." The plague of leprosy in India is lamentably


common, and among the lower classes the "reddish spot upon the dark skin, showing uncleanness, may be constantly observed. I recollect looking from my window at Anjar in Cutch, when the door of a hut opened, and a woman came forth, whiter than a European, to wash her cooking vessels. I imagined she might be a soldier's wife, perhaps deserted in this miserable village, and sent to inquire; but in answer found that she was a Hindu, who had thus become" leprous, white as snow." On the Guzerat peninsula of Western India, I visited the temple of theDatar Chelah." This man had been a great priest, and enjoyed the reputation of a saint for his benevolence, which the word datar, or giver, conveys. The power of the saint is supposed to be peculiarly felt in this spot. To it those afflicted with leprosy resort, their clothes rent and their "head bare," to beseech healing from the saint. The temple is surrounded with a dense forest, and in these wild solitudes lepers from every part of India" dwell alone," until they are cleansed, or devoured by wild beasts, with which these jungles abound. I felt it to be a very touching sight; these unclad lepers, with their emaciated bodies and streaming hair, in earnest prayer, beseeching that "the merciful and good datar would restore them to their children, and to their beloved but far-distant homes." For thus, unless they would bring a curse on their descendants to the third and fourth generation, must these poor creatures, afflicted with the plague of leprosy, "dwell without the camp" until they are cleansed, or death relieves them from their misery.


In the 11th chapter of Deuteronomy, and at the 10th and 11th verses it is written, For the land whither thou goest in to possess it, is not as the land of Egypt, from whence ye came out, where thou sowedst thy seed and wateredst it with thy foot, as a garden of herbs. But the land whither ye go to possess it is a land of hills and valleys, and drinketh water of the rain of heaven." The minute description of the method of irrigation, in a land depending for its supply of water either on springs or the inundations of a river, deserves attention. Neither in Egypt nor in Sindh, countries in the same latitude, can rain ever be expected to fall, and the crops of fine jowarree, to be found equally on the banks of the Nile and the Indus, depend on irrigation from the river. In both countries the cultivation forms but a belt on either side of the stream, and beyond it the eye falls on an arid waste; but in India and Arabia, which are lands of hills and valleys, that drink water of the rain of heaven, the traveller sees the whole face of the country studded with clumps of trees, plats of cultivation, fields of waving corn. After the inundations of the Nile and Indus, on the rich alluvial deposit, the farmers scatter their seed, and it is then watered with the foot "as a garden of herbs;" the method pursued for this mode of irrigation have seen constantly practised in my own gardens in India. The ground sown with seed, or planted with young plants, is divided into square plots, and round each, as in England we might place a bordering of box or thrift, is raised a little division of earth. Similar embankments inclose a water-course leading from the well, which every garden possessed: at dawn, the Moat Wallah, as he is called, brings his bullocks, yokes them to the machinery, and then sitting easily on the ropes, urges and encourages by turns his welltrained beasts, as raising the full water-bags they quickly descend the inclined plain; and after a brief halt, the sparkling, gurgling, frothing water falls over into a trough, hollowed usually from the hewn stem of a palm-tree, and thence flows along the small channels I have described; but, as the rush of water would otherwise wash away and destroy the young


seedlings and the tender herbs, the gardener watches its progress, and as it flows along he, with his foot, breaks away in rotation a morsel of the embankment of each plot, and thus suffers the water to flow gradually into it, and soak round the roots of the plants. As each bed receives sufficient moisture, he replaces with his foot the earth previously removed, and the little stream, turned back to its course, flows on to the next line of plots, which in similar manner the gardener waters with his foot, and "the garden of herbs" looks fresh and green under the burning sun, although the "rain of heaven " may not have fallen on it for a period of eight months. In the 20th verse of the same chapter we read"And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thine house, and upon thy gates." This command. concerned the statutes or "words" given as commandments to the children of Israel, that they should have them always in remembrance, and by every possible means consider, speak of, and meditate on them, at all times and in all places, as we are told in the preceding verse. While residing in the family of Meer Jaffur Ali, a Mohammedan nobleman in Bombay, I was much struck by the manner in which the words of the Koran, with prayers and invocations to the Deity, were constantly used by the persons about On the books the Meer read was commonly inscribed, "In the name of God the most merciful. He entered his carriage with a prayer for safety, and descended from it uttering a thanksgiving. For several hours during the day, and at midnight, he read the Koran, and meditated thereon. A verse of the Koran was, in a beautifully written character, inclosed in a golden amulet, which the Meer wore on his arm: "Bind them for a sign upon your hand," was the order of the Jews; and though devoid of all, other knowledge, a Moolah taught the Koran earnestly day by day to the Meer's little daughters, as we suppose a righteous Jew, by means of a rabbi, might have obeyed the injunction, "Ye shall teach them your children." On the sides of wells, over the doors of houses, on the gates and guard-rooms of Moslem cities, we see, looking like arabesque ornaments, verses of the Koran; the tent of his highness Meer Ali Moorad had a succession of such words wrought in seed pearl round the interior of a tent in which I saw that chief at Mobarickpoor in Upper Scinde. The large court-yard of the Jumma Musjid at Ahmedabad in Guzzerat is richly painted with such sentences; over the door of a house they are! supposed to ward away the evil eye, and thus, instead of a "bell and a pomegranate," very common decorations in the rich wood-carvings of the old Hindu houses, we see in Mohammedan cities embla zoned verses of the Koran, in blue, and gold, and scarlet, as we suppose in the cities of Syria cunning painters may have written "on the door-posts" of the Jewish houses, and upon the "gates" the ordinances of the God of Jacob.

Among the curses for disobedience in the 28th chapter of Deuteronomy, we read, at the 40th verse

"Thou shalt have olive-trees throughout all thy coasts, but thou shalt not anoint thyself with the oil." The Hindus always anoint themselves with fresh oil; they believe it to protect the skin from the heat, and also to preserve it from the bites of insects and stings of mosquitoes. The vegetables and trees of India produce large quantities of berries and fruits yielding oil; and every village has its oil-mill, turned by a camel or a bullock. The oil of the castor-tree! is much used, and mustard-oil in large quantities; these are perhaps most frequently employed by the natives for anointing their bodies, while the finer cocoa-nut oil they store for lights and cooking. Sandalwood oil is also used for anointing the person, by

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