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men of rank, ladies of the harem, and dancingwomen; but the anointing of themselves with oil after ablution, by all ranks, seems so essential to ease, health, and comfort in the East, from the beggar to the prince, that no curse could perhaps more heavily afflict a native of India than depriving him of the means for doing this, as it doubtless did afflict the Israelites when they were told that their olivetrees should each "cast his fruit." And yet there came even a heavier curse upon them, as we read in the 42d verse-" All thy trees and fruit of thy land shall the locust consume." I have already alluded to my observation of the devastating effect of a locust band in Catch, which came so thickly, that the servants in going out to the bazaar were constrained to roll their heads up in heavy cloths, and arm themselves with staves, to avoid being hurt and wounded by the flying of these insects against their faces. During the day, by means of tomtoms and shrill trumpets, the locusts were prevented from settling, but at night devoured every green thing in the fields of the poor cultivators, remaining as a curse on the land for three days and nights, while the want and misery that followed were indeed great, for those who had taken much jowarree seed into the field, gathered in but few ears at harvest, for the locust had consumed it in the blade.-Kitto's Journal of Sacred Literature.

OF MINISTERS' MAINTENANCE. BY THOMAS FULLER.-1660. MAINTENANCE of ministers ought to be plentiful, certain, and in some sort proportionable to their deserts.

I. It should be plentiful

1. Because their education was very chargeable to fit them for their profession, both at school and in the university: their books very dear; and those which they bought in folio shrink quickly into quartos, in respect of the price their executors can get for them. Say not that scholars draw needless expenses on themselves by their own lavishness, and that they should rather lead a fashion of thrift than one of riot; for let any equal man tax the bill of their necessary charges, and it amounts to a great sum, yea, though they be ever so good husbands. Besides, the prices of all commodities daily rise higher; all persons and professions are raised in their manner of living; scholars, therefore, even against their wills, must otherwhiles be involved in the general expensiveness of the times; it being impossible that one spoke should stand still when all the wheel turns about.

Objection. But many needlessly charge themselves in living too long in the university-they are never a whit the wiser for it; whilst others, not staying there so long, nor going through the porch of human arts, but entering into divinity at the postern, have made good preachers, providing their people wholesome meat, though not so finely dressed.

Answer-Much good may it do their very hearts that feed on it. But how necessary a competent knowledge of those sciences is for a perfect divine, is known to every wise man. Let not men's sufferings be counted their fault,


nor those accused to "stand idle in the market, whom no man hath hired." Many would leave the university sooner, if called into the country on tolerable conditions.

2. Because ministers are to subsist in a free, liberal, and comfortable way. Balaam, the false prophet, rode with his two men; God's Levite had one man. Oh, let not the ministers of the gospel be slaves to others, and servants to themselves! They are not to pry into gain through every small chink. It becomes them rather to be acquainted with the natures of things than with the prices, and to know them rather as they are in the world than in the market otherwise, if his means be small, and living poor, necessity will bolt him out of his own study, and send him to the barn when he should be at his book, or make him study his receipt book more than all other writers. Hereupon, some wanting what they should have at home, have done what they should not abroad.

3. Because hospitality is expected at their hands. The poor come to their houses, as if they had interest in them, and the ministers can neither receive them nor refuse them. Not to relieve them were not Christianity, and to relieve them were worse than infidelity, because therein they wrong their providing for their own family. Thus sometimes are they forced to be Nabals against their will; yet it grieveth them to send away their people empty. But what shall they do, seeing they cannot multiply their loaves and their fishes? Besides, clergymen are deeply rated to all payments. Oh, that their profession were but as highly prized as their estate is valued!

4. Because they are to provide for their posterity, that, after the death of their parents, they may live, though not in a high, yet in an honest fashion, neither leaving them to the wide world nor to a narrow cottage.

5. Because the Levites in the Old Testament

had plentiful provision. Oh, 'tis good to be God's pensioner, for he giveth large allowance. They had cities and suburbs (houses and glebe lands), tithes, free-will offerings, and their parts in first-fruits and sacrifices. Do the ministers of the gospel deserve worse wages for bringing better tidings?

6. Because the Papists in time of Popery gave their priests plentiful means-whose benefactors, so bountiful to them, may serve to condemn the covetousness of our age towards God's ministers, in such who have more knowledge, and should have more religion.

Objection. But in the pure primitive times the means were least, and ministers the best: and now-a-days, does not wealth make them lazy, and poverty keep them painful? Like hawks, they fly best when sharp. The best way to keep the stream of the clergy sweet and clear, is to fence out the tide of wealth from coming unto them.

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Answer. Is this our thankfulness to the God of heaven, for turning persecution into peace, in pinching his poor ministers? When the commonwealth now makes a feast, shall neither Zadok the priest, nor Nathan the prophet, be invited to it? that so the footsteps of primitive persecution may still remain in these peaceable times, amongst the Papists, in their needless burning of candles; and amongst the Protestants, in the poor means of their ministers. And what if some turn the spurs unto virtue into the stirrups of pride-grow idle and insolent let them soundly suffer for it themselves, on God's blessing; but let not the bees be starved, that the drones may be punished.

hast competent means, comfortably to subsist upon, be the more thankful to God the fountain, to man the channel, painstaking in thy place, pitiful to the poor, cheerful in spending some, careful in keeping the rest. If not, yet tire not for want of a spur; do something for love, and not all for money-for love of God, of goodness, of the godly, of a good conscience. Know, 'tis better to want means than to detain them; the one only suffers, the other deeply sins; and it is as dangerous a persecution to religion to draw the fuel from it as to cast water on it. Comfort thyself that another world will pay this world's debts, "and great is thy reward with God in heaven." A reward, in respect of his promise; a gift, in respect of thy worthlessness; and yet the less thou lookest at it, the surer thou shalt find it, if labouring with thyself to serve God for himself, in respect of whom even heaven itself is but a sinis ter end.


II. Ministers' maintenance ought to be certain, lest some of them meet with Labans for their patrons and parishioners, changing their wages ten times; and at last, if the fear of God doth not fright them, sending them away empty. III. It is unequal that there should be an equality betwixt all ministers' maintenance, except that first there were made an equality betwixt all their parts, pains, and piety. Parity in means will quickly bring a level and flat in (From Speech by the Rev. Hugh Stowell at a Biblelearning; and few will strive to be such spiritual musicians, to whom David directeth many psalms, "To him that excelleth," but will even content themselves with a canonical sufficiency, and desiring no more than the law requiresmore learning would be of more pains, and the same profit, seeing the meddling goeth abreast

with the best.

Objection.-But ministers ought to serve God merely for love of himself; and pity but his eyes were out, that squints at his own ends in doing God's work.

Answer.--Then should God's best saints be blind; for Moses himself had "an eye to the recompense of reward." Yes; ministers may look not only on their eternal, but on their temporal reward, as motives to quicken their endeavours. And though it be true, that grave and pious men do study for learning's sake, and embrace holiness for itself, yet it is as true that youth (which is the season when learning is gotten) is not without ambition, and often will not take pains to excel in anything, when there is not some hope of excelling others in reward and dignity. And what reason is it, that, whilst Law and Physic bring great portions to such as marry them, Divinity, their eldest sister, should only be put off with her own beauty? In after ages men will rather bind their sons to one gainful than to seven liberal sciences; only the lowest of the people would be made ministers, who cannot otherwise subsist; and it will be bad, when God's Church is made a sanctuary only for men of desperate estates to take refuge in it.

However, let every minister take up the resolution, "To preach the word, to be instant in season, out of season, reprove, rebuke, exhort with all long-suffering and doctrine." If thou

Society meeting.)

BISHOP BEDELL narrates in one of his letters, that

he once heard a monk preaching from the text, "What is truth?" After a good deal of elaborate discussion, darkening counsel by words without knowledge, he drew somewhat cautiously from his pocket a copy of the New Testament, and said, "This only shall I say: I have found truth at last within the leaves of this book; but," said he, replacing it coolly in his cassock pocket, "it is prohibited." Prohibited! Does the pope prohibit yon sun to light up the cottage casement any more than the glorious dome of St Peter's at Rome? Who dares prohibit God's lamp that he sends out to shine in the world? Ah, poor, weak man! poor, infatuated Church! That very prohibition will be your door if you do not blot it out. I heard a noble lord near me say-and I was struck with the observation-that the Bible Society is the most revolutionary society in the world.

And it is the most revolutionary society. But it is such a revolution that it seeks to work as the Spirit and the Word of God wrought on chaos at the beginning, when, moving upon the dark and the dead and the lifeless mass, it formed out of that mass the beautiful heavens and the earth, over which the morning stars sang and the sons of God shouted for joy. So still, where the Word and Spirit of God revolutionize this wretched chaotic world, it is only so to revolutionize, as out of chaos to bring order; out of darkness to bring light; out of death to bring life; out of defilement and shame, glory to God in the highest, peace on earth, and good will toward men.

Such a revolution we cannot but pray for; and when we see empires overturning, thrones tottering, nations restless as the strong deep, we trust in God that these are but the preliminary harbingers of that new moral and social creation, the new heavens and the new earth, the restitution of


all things, which prophets have foretold, saints have prayed for, confessors have gloried in, martyrs have died for, and the zeal of the Lord of Hosts shall fulfil in its time.

My Christian friends, there is one revolution that must be raised: there must be a cry for another kind of liberty. Set free the Bible! The cry has been raised-Liberty for the French! Liberty for the Poles! Liberty for the Neapolitans! Liberty for the Italians! But another cry must be raised. Slavery is abolished in France: we must abolish the slavery of the soul, set free the captive Bible. All the sovereigns in Europe should lift up the cryLiberty for the Bible! Set the Bible free! Let the revolutionizer, and regenerator, and emancipator of the world be free as the air we breathe, or the sun that illuminates our dwellings! We read in the thrilling narrative of the expedition that went out to free from Algerian pirates the captives from many nations, who were held bound in the dark dungeons of Algiers, a flag of truce was sent to the commander. They asked what was wanted. His simple answer was-" Bring up the prisoners." They tried to evade the demand; but still the bold British sailor replied "Give up the prisoners." At last the cannons opened their fire. Again they asked-"Will you be satisfied with such a ransom, or such terms?" "No," said the admiral; "give up the prisoners." And at last, in the extremity, the dark holds were thrown open to day-light; rusty chains in many instances were knocked off from the poor prisoners; the dark dungeon doors were thrown wide open; and there, in the face of our brave British deliverer, sprang up the Spaniard, the talkative Frenchman, and our own fair countryman, shedding tears, and some falling on their kness, and all crying out, "Liberty! liberty! we are free! " And so, my lord, we must say to the dark dungeon over which the despot of Rome presides, whatever terms he would make-" Give up the prisoner! give up the prisoner!" And if he would ask us to compromise the matter, and accept some political or other advantages, still I trust we shall answer"Give up the prisoner! give up the prisoner! And when that blessed prisoner is set free, we may imagine that all the sons of earth-at least all the hundreds of millions from which Popery at present keeps out the free use of the Bible-would leap and rejoice as the roe, because the grand emancipator of all was set free.


It is thus that a writer of the olden time sets himself to plead with such as you:-Never did Jacob with such joy weep over the neck of his Joseph as thy heavenly Father would rejoice over thee upon thy coming in to him. Look over the story of the prodigal. Methinks I see how the aged father lays aside his state, and forgetteth his years. Behold, how he runneth! Oh, the haste that mercy makes! The sinner makes not half that speed. Methinks I see how his bowels, turn, how his compassions yearn.


How quick-sighted is love! Mercy spies him a great way off, forgets his riotous courses, unnatural rebellion, horrid unthankfulness (not a word of these), receives him with open arms, clasps his neck, forgets his rags, kisses his lips, calls for the fatted calf, the best robe, the ring, the shoes, the best cheer in heaven's store, the best attire in heaven's wardrobe. Yea, the joy cannot be held in one breast. Others must be called in to share. The friends must meet and make merry. Angels must wait, but the prodigal must sit at table, under his father's wing. He is the joy of the feast, the object of the father's delight. The friends sympathize; but none knows the felicity the father takes in his new-born son, whom he hath received from the dead. Methinks I hear the music and the dancing at a distance! Oh, the melody of the heavenly choristers! I cannot learn the song, but methinks I overhear the burden, at which all the harmonious choir, with one consent, strike sweetly in, for this goes round at heaven's table, "This my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found."

It is no toilsome pilgrimage on which he asks you to set out, in order to reach his dwelling. He himself has come to you, nay, sits by your very side, as did Jesus by the side of the woman of Sychar. He does not bid you climb to heaven in order to find grace there. Neither does he tell you to go down into the deep in order to obtain it there. He has opened the fountain at your very side. He takes up the vessel and presses it to your lips. "The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth and in thy heart; that is, the word of faith which we preach; that if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, THOU SHALT BE SAVED."— (Rom. x. 8, 9.)

To thee, thou lover of pleasure, thou dreamer of earth's dreams, God is telling this day the story of his free love, that, receiving it, thou mayst not perish, but have everlasting life. That free love thus received into your heart in believing, would fill you with joy unspeakable. It would be like fragrance from the flowers of Eden, like sunshine from the very heaven of heavens. It would be better to you than pleasure, or gold, or lust; better than all the joys of earth poured into one jewelled cup. It would demand no price of you, neither would it call on you to wait till you had made yourself ready for receiving it. It would come into you at once, like sunlight into your lattice, without insisting that your chamber be adorned for its reception. It would cost you nothing but the giving up of that which is far better lost, and the gain of which would be a poor recompense for a ruined soul, and an eternity of hopeless sorrow.-Story of Grace.

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stance is thy stock, mine interest is for thy service. I lay all at thy feet: there thou hast them, they are thine. My children I enter as thy servants. My possessions I resign as thy right. I will call nothing mine but thee. All mine are thine. I can say, My Lord and my God, and that is enough; I thankfully quit my claim to all things else. I will say no more, My house is mine, or my estate mine; I myself am not mine own. Yet it is infinitely better for me to be thine, than if I were mine own. This is my happiness, that I can say, My own God, my own. Father. And, oh, what a blessed exchange hast thou made with me! to give me thyself, who art an infinite sum, for myself, who am but an insignificant cipher.

And now, Lord, do thou accept and own my claim. I am not worthy of any thing of thine, much less of thee. But since I have a deed to show, I bring thy Word in my hand, and am bold to take possession. Dost thou not know this hand? wilt thou not own this name? wilt thou not confirm thine own grant? It were infidelity to doubt it. I will not disparage the faithfulness of my Lord, nor be afraid to aver, and stand to what he hath said and sworn. Hast thou said thou art my God, and shall I fear thou art my enemy? Hast thou told me thou art my Father, and shall I stand aloof, as if I were a stranger? I will believe. Lord, silence my fears; and as thou hast given me the claim and title of a child, so give me the confidence of a child. Let my heart be daily kept alive by thy promises, and with this staff let me pass over Jordan. May these be my undivided companions and comforters. When I go, let them lead me; when I sleep, let them keep me; when I awake, let them talk to me. And do thou keep these things for ever upon the imaginations of the thoughts of the hearts of thy people, and prepare their hearts unto thee. And let the heart of thy servant be the ark of thy testament, wherein the sacred records of what hath passed between thee and my soul may for ever be preserved.-Alleine.


PROFESSORS of religion who are of the largest size, who are not so strict to their rule but they can dispense with duty, nor so forward in point of zeal and activity but they can remit and abate, as occasion serves, may escape this persecuting world the better; but he that will be faithful, whoever escape, is sure to be made a prey. This also must be well considered, I will follow Christ, but can I drink of the cup that he drank of? can I be baptized with the baptism, the baptism of blood, that he was baptized with ?

There are persons who sometimes take up the profession of religion, and resolve all on a sudden they will follow Christ, not understanding what there is in it, or what Christianity may stand them in; who, by the time they have looked a little farther, and find it another manner of difficulty than at first they imagined; and withal, find the armies of the aliens to fall on, the dogs to tear, the wolves to worry, the eagles and the vultures, and all the birds of prey, to pitch upon them; and begin in earnest to feel the smart of religion, in those persecutions that are raised upon them for it, presently make their retreat, and go back; Where am I? What have I chosen? Is this to be a Christian? Doth Christ look for all this from his followers, and will he leave them to such violence and rapine, as the reward of their faithful

ness to his name? I never thought it had been suct. hot service, and if I cannot be a saint at a cheaper rate than this, follow Christ who will for me; let those who have nothing to lose, or can bear so much labour, and pains, and violence, take it up, if they! please: for my part, I must look to myself, I must not be undone.

"Master, I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest," said the scribe, Matt. viii. 9. Man, thou understandest not what thou sayest. Dost thou know whither I am going, where my dwelling, where my lodging is? "The foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests, but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head." And, behold! there is an end of the scribe's Christianity, we hear not one word

more about it.-Ibid.


SOME months ago, three young men in the vicinity of, went out sailing on the Sabbath. All of them were warned against it, and one of them had been repeatedly warned against similar conduct. This last replied, he would go if he went to the bottom of the river; and all went. By a sudden turn of wind the boat was upset, and all three found a watery grave!

On the last Sabbath of April last, accidents happened on six out of the seven railroads between Albany and Buffalo. On all property was destroyed and life endangered; and on one a fatal accident occurred, causing several deaths, in most distressing circumstances. Several persons were killed outright; one was crushed under a boiler, the friends of another were picking out his mangled limbs from the ruins of a shattered car, and three individuals nearly dead were carried to a neighbouring farm-house; and cars, baggage, mail bags, and locomotives, were mingled in the fearful wreck, while the smoke of the half-extinguished fires of the locomotives threw a dismal sadness over the scene.

Such events, if not special, certainly are warning providences, speaking in terror to the violators of God's holy day. When will men learn to feel that God is in earnest, when he commands all to "Remember the Sabbath-day?"-American paper.

UNHAPPY HAPPINESS. SOME men are so unhappy in having happy wits, that they make their wit their happiness-jesting themselves out of all that is earnest, and like fools make pity it is that men so witty should have no more wit sport of every thing, even sin itself. Alas! what than to destroy themselves! A jesting lie, or a lie in jest, may make a man to lie in hell in earnest.— Venning.


The Christian's feeling himself weak, makes him strong.

Genuine benevolence is not stationary, but peripatetic. It goeth about doing good.

Some things, which could not otherwise be read in the book of nature, are legible enough in it when the lamp of revelation is held up to it.

It is easier to do a great deal of mischief than to accomplish a little good.






As" none of us liveth to himself, and no man dieth to himself," it is right and seemly that this principle of devotion to the Lord should be impressed on the domestic organization. The Christian household is not for itself; by grace it may be as a city set on a hill. Family worship is a means of carrying out this influence. Good and evil are constantly and rapidly propagated from house to house. What we denominate public opinion and public character, are very much dependent on this agency, which is not less certain than the silent but mighty transmission of the electric fluid in the material world. The dialect of towns and provinces is thus originated and fixed; modes of dress, and furniture, and living, are carried from circle to circle; extravagance and vice circulate by the same channels; as do likewise political opinions, and even religious sentiments. Such are the action and re-action between man and an, that we never go into a neighbour's house, or receive a neighbour into our own, without giving or receiving some imperceptible impression; and by the sum of these are our character and manners formed.

Families differ very widely in respect to their freedom of intercourse. While some are shut up within themselves, others keep open doors, and are frequented by numbers of visitors and guests. When the friend whom we cherish is under our roof, he should be made to discern the reigning principle of the place. In a dwelling where there is no worship he may be pardoned if he say, "Surely the fear of God is not in this place." But in a religious household, even the casual visitor must sometimes be made sensible that there is a perpetual reference to another world. Suppose him to be under the Christian roof at the appointed hour of prayer. It is well in every such case if the service is not omitted or postponed. He may be a stranger to such solemnities: he may be even careless or profane. Yet when he sees the whole family gathered, with stillness and decorum; when he hears the Word of God read, and joins in the psalm of praise, and kneels with the rest in an act of worship, it 20. +

will not be marvellous if he be drawn to some new and serious reflection. The impression may be greater than we suppose, from the very influence of novelty. These acts of divine service will have a tendency to show him, that here, at least, is a circle in which God is continually recognised. If a householder himself, he will necessarily be led to contrast with this the condition of his own domestic affairs; and if he is a professing Christian, living in neglect of this duty, he will doubtless experience a pang of conscience. Example is powerful: he may see his way more clear, to make his own habitation a house of prayer.

"Some years ago," says Mr Hamilton of London, "an Irish wanderer, his wife, and his sister, asked a night's shelter in the cabin of a pious schoolmaster. With the characteristic hospitality of his nation, the schoolmaster made them welcome. It was the hour for evening worship, and when the strangers were seated, he began by reading slowly and solemnly the 2d chapter of the Epistle to the Ephesians. The young man sat astonished. The expres sions, dead in trespasses and sin,' 'children of wrath,' 'walking after the course of this world,' were new to him. He sought an explanation. He was told that this is God's account of the state of man by nature. He felt that it was exactly his own state. In this way I have walked from my childhood. In the service of the god of this world we have come to your house.' He was on the way to a fair, where he intended to pass a quantity of counterfeit money. But God's Word had found him out. He produced his store of coin, and begged his host to cast it into the fire, and asked anxiously if he could not obtain the Word of God for himself. His request was complied with, and next morning, with the new treasure, the party, who had now no errand to the fair, returned to their own home. Perhaps by this time the pious schoolmaster has met his guest within the gates of the city, outside of which are thieves, and whatsoever maketh a lie. But I cannot enumerate all the conversions which have occurred at the Church in the house."

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