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Serv.or Servt. Servant.
V. or v.
Against; See; Verb. Sess. Session.
Var. lect. Different reading.
Tf. or tf. Till forbidden (Printer's V.C. Vice-Chancellor; Victoria S.M. Short Meter.
v. dep. Verb deponent.
Ver. or ver. Verse; Verses.
V.G.or v.g. For example,
Verb intransitive. Sp. Spain, Spanish; Spirit. Ti.
Vid. or vid. See.
v. imp. Verb impersonal. of Cruelty to Animals, Tit. Titus; Title.
Verb irregular. S.P.C.C. Society for the Prevention TI.
Vis. or Visc. Viscount. of Cruelty to Children. Tob. Tobit; Tobacco.
Vitr. Vitruvius, S.P.C.K. Society for the Promotion Tom. Tome or volume.
Viz. or viz. Namely; To wit. of Christian Knowledge. Tonn.or tonn. Tonnage.
Voc.or voc. Vocative.
Vol.or vol. Volume.
Tr, or tr. Translation, Translator; Vols, or vols. Volumes. S.P.M. Short Particular Meter.
Transpose; Treasurer; / V.P. Vice-President, S.P.Q.R. The Senate and People of
V.R. Queen Victoria,
Verb reflexive. s.p.s. Without surviving issue.
Țranslation, Translator. V. Rev. Very Reverend.
Vs, or vs. Against.
V.S. Veterinary Surgeon.
Trigonometry; Trigono. | Vt. Vermont. SS. or ss. Namely Saints.
Vulg. or vulg. Vulgar; Vulgarly.
vv.ll. Various readings.
Typ.or Typo. Typographer.
W. tor of Sacred Theology. Ster.or Stg. Sterling.
W. Western (Postal District, Str. Steamer.
London); Wednesday; U.
Uranium. Subj. or subj. Subjunctive.
Welsh; William; War-
W, or w.
W.C. Western Continent; WestUniv. University; Universalist. Sup. Supreme; Superior; Sup
ern Central (Postal DisUniv. or univ. Universally. plement; Superfine; Su
trict, London). Unm.
W.C.T.U. Women's Christian Tem
United States Army.
W.f.or w.f. Wrong font.
Whf. or whf. Wharf.
Wk. or wk. Week.
West India; West Indies. U.S.M.A. United States Military
W. Long. West Longitude.
U.S.S. United States Senate;
Writer to the Signet, T.
Wt. or wt. Weight.
Xd. Examined; without divi. Tal. qual. or tal. qual. Just as they
dend. come; average quality. V.
Vanadium; Viscount. X. or Xt. Christ. Tan.or tan. Tangent.
Verb: Verse; Village; Vo. Xm, or Xmas. Christmas. Tart. Tartaric.
Xn. or Xtian. Christian,
Y. or yr.
Xnty.or Xty. Christianity.
Y.M.C.A. Young Men's Christian Y.W.C.A. Young Women's Christian Xper. or Xr. Christopher.
Z.G. Zoological Garden.
Zool. Zoology; Zoological.
Yttrium. Ym.or ym. Them.
Zirconium. See ABBREVIATIONS, Vol. I, pp. 26-29.
ABBREVIATORY SIGNS and symbols are ex- L/C Letter of credit. tensively employed in commerce and in various arts O. K.
All correct. and sciences. With brevity as the principal reason
Per. for their existence, many are of purely arbitrary # Number. origin. Others, of later adoption, possess a scien- TYPOGRAPHICAL SIGNS. See Table under Prooftific reason for their use. The principal abbrevia- READER, in these Supplements. tory signs may be classified as follows:
UNCLASSIFIED SIGNS. APOTHECARIES' SIGNS. The following arbitrary .
& or Eg And. signs indicate apothecaries' weights:
&c. Et cetera.
O County seat.
++++ Railroad. Roman notation, a small j being used for small i ABBT, THOMAS, a German writer; born at Ulm, in when final. Thus, 2 scruples are written Dij; 7 1738. In his twenty-third year he was appointed to drams, 3 vij; 12 ounces, 3 xij.
the chair of mathematics in the Rinteln University. Ancient apothecaries and physicians carefully con- In the same year he published On Dying for One's cealed from others all knowledge of the mixtures Fatherland; and the year before his early death his given as medicines, and hence Latin names were principal work, On Merit. He died at Bückeburg, given, and arbitrary signs used to express the quan- Nov. 3, 1766. tity.
ABD, an Arabic word meaning slave or servant. In apothecaries' Auid measure the following signs | It is generally used in a religious sense, and is placed are used:
as a prefix to the names of persons; as, Abd-allah, TTL Minim (about equal to a drop of water). “Servant of God”; Abd-el-Kader, “Servant of the f3 Fluid dram.
Mighty One”; Abd-ullatif, or Abd-allatif, “Servant f3 Fluid ounce.
of the Gracious One." The Hebrew and Syriac o. Pint. (Lat. octarius, one eighth.)
word used in the same sense is “Ebed.” C. or Cong. Gallon. (Lat. congius.)
ABD-AL-RAHMAN, ABD-EL-RAHMAN, ABD-ERIn medicine R means “take,” M (Misce) is used RAHMAN, OR ABDERAME; four Spanish Mohammedan for “mix," and ā or kā imports “of each” the same rulers. See SPAIN, Vol. XXII, pp. 310, 312, 313, quantity.
314. ASTRONOMICAL SIGNS. See ASTRONOMY, Vol. II, ABD-EL-HAMID, BEY, the adopted name of Du p. 771.
COURET, a noted French traveler; born at Huningue, CHEMICAL SYMBOLS. The elements are represented in the department of the Haut-Rhin, France, in by accepted abbreviations, termed symbols. See AB- 1812. His first tour of importance was through BREVIATIONS, S. V.
Egypt, the Nile country, Abyssinia, and the Red COMMERCIAL SIGNS.
Sea. He adopted the habits and customs of the $ Dollar.
East, changed his name, and became a Moham£ Pound sterling.
medan. Later, while traveling in Persia, he was | Shilling; as, 5/6=five shillings and sixpence. held as a prisoner of state, and was released only % Per cent.
upon the intervention of the French government, in 1. At; 2. To.
whose interest he next undertook an expedition to % Account.
the Soudan. In 1855 he published, in three volAI. First class.
umes, Médina et la Mekke, also Mémoire à Napoléon A/0 On account of.
III. Died in Cairo, Egypt, April 1, 1867. A/S Account of sales.
ABD-EL-LATIF. See ABDALLATIF, Vol. I, p. 30. B/E Bill of exchange.
ABDOMINAL SURGERY. See SURGERY, B/L Bill of lading.
Vol. XXII, pp. 690-91, and in these Supplements. B/S Bill of sale.
ABDUL-AZIZ, SULTAN OF TURKEY, born Feb. 9, ¢ Cent.
1830. In 1861 succeeded his brother, AbdulC. F. I. Cost, freight and insurance.
Medjid, who was the thirty-second sultan of the C/O Care of.
Ottoman Turks. His reign was weak and corrupt, D/S Day's sight.
characterized by numerous insurrections. F. A. A. Free of all average.
fessions of liberality upon accession to the throne F. P. A. Free of particular average.
lasted but a short time, and his people soon saw
that his promise of governmental reform would has attracted attention. He resisted every reform decome to naught. He taxed the people heavily, manded by the European powers and has been acand with the money equipped his army extrava- cused of ordering the massacre of Christians in cergantly, beautified the capital, and went on pleas- tain parts of his dominions. Outrage and rapine ure-seeking journeys or costly hunting expeditions. have followed his newly appointed governors to the In 1867 he paid a visit to western Europe, but disturbed provinces, and the civilized world has been his disappointed subjects gained no benefit from not only aghast, but supine, at the merciless persecuthe expedition. During his reign the neglected tions carried on by the present rule of the “ungovernment had
severe struggle to maintain speakable Turk.” its existence. First there broke out the Cretan ABD-ER-RAHMAN, sultan of Fez and Morocinsurrection; then came the struggle of Roumania co; born Nov. 28, 1778. He ascended the throne and Servia to secure independence, and lastly, upon the death of his uncle in 1822, and the first the treatment of Balkan Christians caused great four years of his reign were spent in settling domesdisturbance. In 1871 the sultan attempted to secure tic disputes. The piratical propensities of his subthe throne for his son in place of his nephew, to jects involved him in serious difficulties with the whom the Ottoman law of succession gave the right. European powers, which resulted in the abolition of At last his subjects became thoroughly dissatisfied, the blackmail, which for ages had been paid for imand in 1875, through his financial difficulties and munity from attack. The sultan afterward engaged the intrigues into which he had entered with Russia, in the religious war, under Abd-el-Kader, against revolts were raised in Bosnia, Herzegovina and Bul- the French in Algeria, which ended in the battle of garia. A conspiracy forced him first to dismiss his Isly (1844). He died August, 1859. ministers, and afterward, May 30, 1876, to abdicate ABDURRAHMAN KHAN, the reigning Ameer the throne. His death occurred mysteriously four of Afghanistan; born about 1830; is a nephew of the days later. See TURKEY, Vol. XXIII, p. 651. late ameer, Shere Ali, and the eldest son of Moham
ABDUL HAMID I, SULTAN OF TURKEY, twen- med Afzul Khan, grandson of Dost Mohammed. ty-sixth ruler of the pus of Othman, suc- For joining in a revolt against his uncle he became, ceeded to the throne in 1774, Turkey being then in 1869, a refugee in Russian territory. Ten years engaged in that war with Russia which terminated later he returned as a pretender, and being supported disastrously for her a year later. The sultan con- by the British was proclaimed Ameer in July, 1880. cluded peace by the treaty made at Kutchuk-Kain- The Ameer's leanings are essentially toward alliance ardji, by which Turkey lost the Crimea. The with the British, and against Russian encroachments encroachments of Catherine of Russia provoked so in the East. He was appointed a K.G.C.S.I. in much discontent in Turkey that Abdul Hamid was January, 1894, and in the following year sent his compelled by his subjects to declare war in 1787; second son, the Shazada Nasrullah Khan, on an but, Austria combining with Russia, the Turks were extended visit to England. See also AFGHANISTAN, defeated and Abdul - Hamid overthrown in 1788. these Supplements. . He was succeeded by Selim III. See TURKEY, Vol. ABDY, JOHN THOMAS, an English jurist and XXIII, p. 647.
writer; born July 5, 1822 ; educated at Cambridge ABDUL-HAMID II, the reigning Sultan or University, where he subsequently, in 1854, was ap
Padishah of Turkey, born pointed regius professor of civil law. For several
of Sultan Abdul- upon the Roman civil law.
ing that the merest rudimentary learning was un-
the twenty-eighth sultan journalist, dramatist and miscellaneous writer, son
A'BECKETT, Sir William, an Australian judge, It is mainly in relation to the Armenian question brother of G. A. A'Beckett (Vol. I, p. 33); was born (q.v.) that the present occupant of the Turkish throne in London and went to New South Wales soon after
his call to the bar. He was in succession solicitor- message ever transmitted by wire, May 11, 1846. He general, attorney-general and judge at Port Philip. died in Baltimore, Maryland, April 19, 1888. He served as chief justice of the colony of Victoria ABENAKIS OR ABNAKIS, a confederation of for many years, and returning to London, died there North American Indians, comprising the Penobscot, June 27, 1869.
Passamaquoddy, and Amalicite tribes. They were ABEEL, DAVID, American missionary, born at allies of the French, and occupied all the land comNew Brunswick, New Jersey, June 12, 1804. He prising the present state of Maine and the valley of graduated at Rutgers College, entered the ministry, the St. John's River, ranging as far northwest as the and became a missionary to China. He was one of banks of the St. Lawrence. Colonial writers and the the most successful of the early Americans in the autochthonal tribes of New England called the memmissionary field, but his health gave way and he re- bers of this confederation by the name of Tarrenteen turned to die, at Albany, New York, Sept. 4, 1846. Indians. Shortly after the downfall of French su
ABEGG, JULIUS FRIEDRICH HEINRICH, a German premacy in North America the majority of the Abewriter on jurisprudence, born at Erlangen, Bavaria, nakis withdrew to Canada. Their number does not March 27, 1796. From 1826 until his death in 1868 exceed 1,600 at the present day. he was professor at Breslau. His works on criminal ABENDBERG, a mountain in the canton of legislation are numerous and important, and have Berne, Switzerland, rising abruptly out of the south exercised considerable influence, especially in Ger- side of Lake Thun. Height, 4,124 feet. It is intermany and the Scandinavian peninsula. Died at esting as the site of an institution established in 1842 Breslau, Prussia, May 29, 1868.
by Dr. Gugenbuhl for the cure of cretinism, but long ABEL, Sir FREDERICK AUGUSTUS, an English since abandoned. chemist and expert on explosives, was born in Lon- ABER, an ancient word of Celtic origin, signifydon, 1827. His main study was the science of ex- ing the emptying of a smaller body of water into a plosives, in which he made numerous discoveries, larger one. It also means the mouth of a river, or a and in 1866 published them in a work called Gun- conflux of waters. Cotton. Subsequently, he wrote The Modern His- ABERBROTHOCK, same as ARBROATH. See tory of Gunpowder; On Explosive Agents; Researches Vol. II, p. 324. in Explosives, and in 1884, Electricity Applied to Ex- ABERCORN, a hamlet in Linlithgowshire, Scotplosive Purposes. He also wrote, with the assistance land, near the Firth of Forth, and about ten miles of Colonel Bloxam, a Handbook of Chemistry. After west of Edinburgh. Here stood the monastery of protracted experiments he produced, by solidifying Aebbercurnig, or Eoricorn, which, founded about blasting-gelatin, a very powerful and more easily 675, was from 681 to 685 the seat of a bishopric, manageable explosive. He was knighted in 1883, the earliest in Scotland. and the same year received at Oxford the degree of ABERCORN, JAMES Hamilton, First DUKE OF, D.C.L. He has been elected associate member of an English statesman, born Jan. 21, 1811. He held the ordnance committee, chemist to the war depart- the appointment of lord-lieutenant of Ireland from ment, and chemical referee to the government. Was 1866 to 1868, and again from 1874 to 1876. His made baronet in 1893.
administration was extremely successful, in spite of ABEL, KARL, a German comparative philologist; repeated Fenian plots. He died Oct. 31, 1885. born in Berlin, Nov. 25, 1837. He studied at the ABERCORN, JAMES HAMILTON, SECOND DUKE Universities of Berlin, Munich and Tübingen, and OF, an English statesman; born 1838, and succeeded for some time acted as the Berlin correspondent of to the title 1885; appointed lord-lieutenant of county the London Times and Standard. He held the posi- Donegal, which he represented in the House of tion of Ilchester lecturer at Oxford University for a Commons from 1860 to 1880. The Duke of Aberperiod, and is the author of several works on com- corn is chairman of the British South African parative philology, among which may be mentioned Company. his Linguistic Essays (1880).
ABERCROMBIE, JAMES, British general and ABELASIE, an aromatic tuber used as a food by statesman, born at Glasshaugh, Scotland, in 1706. certain of the inhabitants of Alexandria. It is He entered the army and became colonel in 1746, small, fleshy and somewhat oily, and is said to major-general in 1756, lieutenant-general in 1759,
stimulate the lacteal glands of females.
and general in 1772. On July 8, 1758, he attacked ABELITES OR ABELIANS. See ABEL, Vol. I, Fort Ticonderoga with 15,000 men, of whom 9,000 p. 33.
were colonial troops, and was completely defeated ABELL, ARUNAH SHEPHERDSON, an American by 3,600 Frenchmen under General Montcalm, losjournalist, founder of the Philadelphia Public Ledger ing about 2,000 followers. In 1759 he returned to and of the Baltimore Sun, was born at East Provi- England, and as a member of Parliament opposed dence, Rhode Island, Aug. 10, 1806, and learned the rights of the American colonists. He died at the printer's trade in the office of the Providence Stirling, Scotland, April 28, 1781.
, , Patriot. He worked for some time in Boston and in ABERCROMBIE, JAMES, American clergyman, New York, whence he removed to Philadelphia, and was born in Philadelphia in 1758. After graduation afterward to Baltimore. He was associated with at the University of Pennsylvania in 1776, he was Professor Morse in establishing the electric tele-compelled to forsake divinity for mercantile pursuits graph, published the first message sent over the until 1793. Then he was ordained and became aswires, between Washington and Baltimore, in 1844, sociate pastor of Christ Church in his native city. and received for publication the first presidential | He published several works, and, retiring from
ABERCROMBIE - ABERT
the ministry in 1833, died in Philadelphia, June question of temperance.
When Gladstone came 26, 1841.
into office in 1880 he appointed him Lord-LieutenABERCROMBIE, JOHN JOSEPH, an American ant of Aberdeenshire, and High Commissioner to general, was born in Tennessee in 1802 ; was edu- the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. cated at West Point, and served as captain of infan- In 1886 he was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Iretry in the Seminole War. During the Mexican War land, and in his few weeks of service gained an he distinguished himself at Cerro Gordo and at Vera immense popularity in that island. In 1893 Mr. Cruz, being wounded at Monterey. He was briga- Gladstone appointed him Governor-General of the dier-general of volunteers during the Civil War, and Dominion of Canada, where his government was was wounded at Fair Oaks. He died at Roslyn, New successful. Lady Aberdeen is noted for her interYork, Jan. 3, 1877.
est in the advancement of women, and in the Irish. ABERDARE, a manufacturing and mining town ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY was founded at in Glamorganshire, South Wales, distant about five Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1495 by Bishop Elphinstone miles southwest of Merthyr-Tydvil. There are many as a studium generale, in which he constituted a colcoal and iron mines in this locality. Population lege in 1505, known as King's College. In 1593 1891, 38,513.
George Keith, fifth Earl Marischal, founded MarisABERDARE, HENRY AUSTIN BRUCE-PRYCE, chal College there. These two universities were in LORD, was born at Duffryn, in Glamorganshire, 1860 united in one institution, and now form the April 16, 1815. He was called to the bar in 1837, University of Aberdeen. There are 23 professors and in 1852 was returned as a Liberal member for and upward of 700 students on the books of the Merthyr-Tydvil in the House of Commons. He university, which, with Glasgow, sends one reprewas home secretary under Gladstone in 1868, and sentative to Parliament. Co-education is in operacarried an important licensing act; raised to the tion, and degrees are conferred in arts, science, peerage as Lord Aberdare in 1873, when he became divinity, law and medicine. (See Vol. I, p. 39.) Lord president of the council. He was elected ABERDEVINE, same as ABADAVINE. See SISKIN, president of the Royal Geographical Society in 1880, Vol. XXII, p. 99. and was governor of the Royal Niger Company. ABERGAVENNY, a market · town of MonHe died Feb. 25, 1895.
mouthshire. Population 1891, 7,640. See Vol. ABERDEEN, a town, capital of Monroe County, I, p. 46. Mississippi, on the west bank of the Tombigbee ABERGELDIE CASTLE, the Highland seat of River, has considerable trade in cotton and general the Prince of Wales, on the Dee's right bank, 6 miles merchandise; is an educational center, and contains W. of Ballater, and 2 N.E. of Balmoral, in the county the Federal courthouse and the public buildings of of Aberdeen. Monroe County. Population 1890, 3,449.
ABERNETHY, JAMES, a celebrated English civil ABERDEEN, county seat of Brown County, South engineer; born in Aberdeen in 1815. Commencing Dakota, about 120 miles northeast of Pierre, and in his professional career as an assistant to his father, the northeastern portion of the state. It is a railroad on the engineering-works at the London docks exand trading center in a fertile region. Population, tension, he was soon after resident engineer in
a 1895, 3,335.
charge of the Aberdeen harbor-works. Later he was ABERDEEN, JOHN CAMPBELL Hamilton GOR- professionally connected with some of the most imDON, Seventh EARL OF, was born Aug. 3, 1847. portant engineering-works of the day, including the He was the grandson of the fourth Earl, under dock-works at Swansea, Newport and Hull. In 1874
whom, as premier, the he superintended the reclamation of Lake Aboukir,
began to show signs of capital in the War of JOHN CAMPBELL HAMILTON
discontent with the policy | 1812, and in 1814 was ABERDEEN.
of the premier. Earl reappointed to the Aberdeen was a member of, and subsequently chair- army as brevet major JOHN JAMES ABERT. man of, a royal commission to enquire into the sub- of the United States Topographical Engineers. In ject of railway accidents, 1875; three years later he 1829 he took charge of the topographical bureau at was one of a House of Lords' committee upon the Washington, and in 1861 retired, after “long and