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Signor Ramiris, and lifted into what feeding from the bins. These men may looks like a large laundry machine with never have seen a sugar mill before, nor an armed shaft revolving in water. A even each other; they do not speak the laundry machine it is, capable of washi same language; but they must nevertheing ninety tons of material every hour, less work together to put through ninety under the management of Signor Agua tons of beets an hour. Caliente. Right here you will mentally B ut to return to Bill on the battery. note that a sugar factory is about the The battery is a succession of cells or dirtiest place you ever visited—for the large tanks arranged in a series with very good reason that its purpose is to piping so that hot water may be run
through them one after another. An opening at the top of each allows the sweet cossettes to enter-six tons to a filling. Then comes the hot water, percolating slowly through one after another till it discharges from the last a frothy purple liquid, rich in sugar, while the cossettes remain to be disposed of as “pulp” to the delectation of some
thousands of cattle on AT THE SUGAR MILLS.
surrounding farms. But this is stating it in
its very simplest terins, eliminate dirt and impurity. · If the fac- for observe that Bill must be able tory were not dirty the sugar would have to empty or fill any cell without stopping to be, for it must come out somewhere. the water; he must absorb all the sugar,
With the mud and slime of the wash yet leave behind the impurities that ing behind them, the clean white beets would come with it; he must gauge his ascend in long bucket elevators to the top temperatures, his quantities, his velociof the building, where, by following ties for every kind of beets from every laboriously upstairs we shall find them kind of land, and he must also get rid discharging into a set of ingenious auto of the ninety tons of material each hour. matic scales—a German invention-pre- Bill is the most accurate cook you ever sided over by Jan Jansen. From here beheld, and all the succeeding processes they drop into the slicers—machines with depend on his skill. a swift revolving disk below, carrying But the rich purple liquid-diffusion knives like a cucumber slicing board; and juice—runs into other large tanks and when they emerge from these they are is mixed with slaked lime; whereupon no longer beets, but crisp, moist shreds it becomes a most pasty, uninviting mixsweet to taste like a raw turnip and ture. This is to coagulate those gummy called "cossettes," ready to be handled impurities which have unavoidably disby Bill the battery man.
solved out in the battery—compare the Now we have already passed what is action of the egg and the coffee to me the most wonderful part of the grounds. The lime was burned in the beet sugar industry. If Bill on the bat- kiln which formed our original point of tery stops the cossette cutters, Jan Jan- observation. To further the process of sen must stop the elevators, which causes purification the carbonic acid gas from Signor Agua Caliente to stop the wash- the same kiln is blown into this pasty ers. Thereupon Antonio Ramiris must liquid until the burned lime becomes stop the beet screws, shut down the flume united once more with the gas it gave off gate and signal to Banzai Nippon to stop in burning. The pasty liquid is then
ties je will thith after thanave united Filter,
more of a sandy liquid with the impuri- easy it is to burn sugar in cooking it; ties in the sand.
but Falstaff continues to boil his at a We will think now of straining coffee very low temperature by exhausting the through a cloth after the albumen of the air from the interior of his "pan" with a egg and the grounds have united, and suitable pump. As we watch him he is will proceed to the filter presses. Filter sampling the contents, spreading a bit presses are devices in which the "juice" of the boiled juice on a sheet of glass is strained through hundreds of sheets and scrutinizing the tiny crystals that of duck or canvas which retain the lime begin to appear. This is the first time mud and allow the sugar-bearing liquid you have been able to see the sugar. His to pass on. But it is not quite clear yet- art consists in knowing how to make not till we have done this carbonating these tiny crystals grow regularly and and filtering two or three times and even all of a size with clear, sharp edges. finished with a treatment of sulphur Otherwise the final product will be a dull fumes to destroy the most tenacious im- looking substance. From watching him purities yet remaining. Then we see it you will infer that the larger and sharper flowing away to the evaporators, a beau- the crystals the better the sugar—which tiful, pale amber color, to be boiled down is true. to a thick syrup.
We now descend to Tim O'Harahan's This thick syrup is pumped to the centrifugal machines. These are circular "vacuum pans” in charge of a corpulent, steel baskets, made to spin with tremenjolly Falstaffian man who is second to dous speed on the end of a suspended none save Bill on the battery. Falstaff shaft, and lined with fine brass wire understands the delicate art of creating gauze. Tim is just opening the valve the shining crystals that we know, out of above to let in a charge of brown, mushy this thick syrup. His fingers are as deli- looking stuff which is the mixture of cate of touch as a pianist's and his eye sugar crystals and molasses delivered is like a microscope. You know how from the vacuum dans. As the centrifu
HUNDREDS OF TONS OF SUGAR-BEETS. ne delivering their precious cargoes to the bins, whence the beets are carried by water through a flume to the mill
gal begins to spin faster and faster, the ble grocery before as you think of it now. brown mush climbs higher up the sides Does it not seem incredible to you that of the screen like water in a whirling these tiny crystals (whether they originvessel. Presently it becomes a lighter ate from cane or beets or water melons color—a yellow-almost, white, and now or potatoes) always build themselves up it is whirling so fast you can't see it go. in the same regular shapes with the same At this point Tim begins playing water inflexible arrangement of twelve atoms on it to rinse off the tenacious molasses of carbon, twenty-two atoms of hydrofrom the crystals, finishing with a solu- gen and eleven of oxygen—that we are tion tinged with an infinitesimal amount able to bring them through all the stages of blueing to counteract the faintest yel- of dissolving many times over, combining low tinge that might remain. Now the with lime, treatment with sulphur, boilwhirling basket stops, and the moist, ing and washing ; when they might at any snow white sugar tumbles into the con- instant turn to half a dozen entirely veyors. Next time you see it it will be worthless substances but for the unceaschurning in a steam heated drum to drying testing and watching of the chemit, and the next time it will be running ists? It would seem no stranger to me into the sacks to be trucked aboard the if a checker board in the smoking car cars.
should go through a railway collision Now you are ready to comprehend how and appear, after the wreck was cleared, each one of those millions of beets har- right side up with the moves undisturbed. vested contained one-fifth or one-sixth Think, also, of the amount of toil. Reits weight of sugar—say a teacup full. member the man you saw being carried Could it be put back on the land again it out to be revived from a heat prostration, would give the appearance of a night's and the fellows at the steaming presses fall of snow as far as you could see. But who sleep on the floor between operations I warrant you never thought of this hum- and enjoy twelve hundred hours of ham
mam bath during the season ; also the individual in the pulp bin who lives an equal time in oilskins drenched with hot water. Think of the master mechanic who has stood forty hours directing a repair job and lived on black coffee heated on the steam chest cover. Above all, consider the superintendent—the lean, weary superintendent—who carries this entire plant in his head as though it were simple as the rule of three; who can keep track of ten miles of piping and a thousand valves and five hundred men, and use seven thousand horse power without wasting any and slice ninety tons of beets an hour; who is equal to any emergency, has the presence of mind to avert danger while others are running away, and the courage to strip and go into the sewer, where no one else will go, to clear a blockade of pulp; who, most wonderful of all, refrains from going crazy during the course of a hundred days and nights of “campaign,” until he can take to the tall timber with a gun and a fishing rod this way the market can never be satisto recuperate.
fied. They will always have the fun of Now all this sugar—the trainload that eating it and we shall always have the disappears around the curve each day— fun of making it, and the great National is consumed by the population of a very Government will have the fun of engiinconsiderable part of the map. The lux- neering water all over its vast deserts and urious American people eat more sugar the immigration bureau will find room per capita than any other nation on and employment for all the immigrants earth; and each year they eat more than who will cut out the dynamite and go before. And this is a good idea ; for in out on the new land with the right spirit.
THE LIME KILNS.
Life-Saving Dogs of Paris
By W. G. Fitz-Gerald
MHE dog as a life-saver errands, and carries dispatches through 3 has been rediscovered. an enemy's line where a trooper would
A thousand years ago surely perish under a pitiless fire. Bernard de Menthon, But, above all, he smells out the fallen great-grandson of a who have crept into holes and corners to Pala din of Charle- escape the rain of shot and shell, and magne, founded his the cruel wheels of galloping guns and
Hospice on the bleak charging squadrons. The Russian gen8,000 feet peak that bears his name, and eral, Count Keller, employed a troop of
wayfarer. And today the emigrant Medical Staff were by their means enlaborer, lost in deep pathless snow, owes abled to find hundreds of the wounded, life and succor to these superb brutes. who must otherwise have died miserably
But the ambulance dog seeking the in remote corners of a battle front exwounded on the battlefield; the dog as tending for forty miles. "policeman” and rescuer from the waters Captain Cistola, of the Italian General —these are institutions of yesterday— Staff, maintains in Rome a regular stud invented, so to say, to meet changing of war dogs; and the great September conditions of modern life. The war dog manoeuvres of the German army, comwas wanted, and you will find him now manded by the Emperor in person, sees with every army on earth. He runs officers like General Von Herget, and