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(From the Strand Magazine.)
Mr. Cargill reproduces the following portraits: the
THE DEATH MASK: ANOTHER VIEW,
and claimed to be set almost side by side in value and interest Zucchero. The portraits differ so much that they might
with the Stratford bust itself. This relic was declared to be easily be passed off as being likenesses of different
nothing less than the mask of the face and features of the poet individuals. Most of them have not even a family
taken after his death in April, 1616. As nothing was ever
known as to what befell the mask after Gerard Johnson had resemblance. Mr. Cargill, speaking of the bust, says:
manipulated it in the preparation of the bust-assuming it had It is believed that
been in his hands when Shakespeare
for that purpose died, on the 25th
the finding of such April, 1616, exactly
an extraordinary fifty-two years of
relic created wideage, a cast of his
spread interest, not features was taken
only throughout -by whom is not
England and known, though the
Europe, but in name of the sculptor
America, where also of the bust, Gerard
there were those or Gerald Johnson,
who were ready to a Hollander, has
believe in its story been suggested.
with sincere trust. Johnson has been
The gentleman credited with
into whose posseshaving done his
sion this curiosity part of the work
was named well, since, before
Ludwig Becker, its erection in the
who, writing in chancel of the
1850, gave so enterchurch, the bust
taining an account was probably ap
of it as to induce proved by Shake. THE DEATH MASK OF SHAKESPEARE; KESSELSTADT COLLECTION, FROM WHICH THE Mr. Page, a wellspeare's relations as BUST AT STRATFORD WAS MODELLED.
known artist of
New York, to visit Germany and there examine this famous special arrangements, including all fares and all expenses, relic' for himself. After a prolonged scrutiny of the mask, was only $30, or less than a pound a day. Mr. Page declared his firm belief in its bona fides, and there
INSTRUCTION AND SIGHT-SEEING. upon made from it a very interesting set of models of the features of Shakespeare, which, ať the time, attracted great
The chief point of interest was Richmond, and there attention.
every effort was made to combine instruction with sightSo far Mr. Cargill. I am, however, able to supplement seeing. For instance, on the day after their arrival in
Richmond :-his paper by later information communicated to me by Lord Ronald Gower. Lord Ronald spent ten years
In the evening a prolonged session was held by the entire over the Shakespeare memorial which he presented
party in one of the parlours of the hotel. During this session, to the town of Stratford-on-Avon, and in the course
which was devoted exclusively to recitations in geography and
history, an effort was made to clinch the points thus far of those years he naturally devoted much time to the
acquired by the pupils. The recitation in history åssumed study of all the portraits and busts of Shakespeare that
the form of a general review of the Civil War, with particular are extant. He told me he had paid careful attention reference to the Shenandoah Valley. During the recitation to the Becker mask, and had carefully compared it with in geography, the teacher endeavoured to get from the pupils the Shakespeare bust. He said that by the Bertillion a connected story relating to the districts through which we system of measurement there could be no doubt what had thus far travelled. ever that the bust was practically modelled from the All seem to have enjoyed themselves thoroughly, mask. The only difference is in the length of the and the conductors were convinced that the excursion
The tip of the nose in the bust seems to have was perfectly feasible in America. Many people had been broken off and repaired by shortening it. The asserted that American scholars would not prove amenable measurements were minutely exact, and he had there to discipline, but it was the verdict of every one that fore without hesitation selected the bust and the mask there had never been such an orderly excursion carried for his Shakespeare, which in many respects is the over the line. The chief weakness of the tour was the finest which has yet been produced. Lord Ronald unpreparedness of the arrangements before the comGower told me that he had recently had communications mencement. with the owner of the mask in order to see whether he
HOW IT IS DONE IN GERMANY. would part with it for a consideration, Lord Ronald's To obviate this fault, Dr. Rice gives the following intention being, if possible, to secure it for the museum account of what was done at Jena: at Stratford. The owner, however, refused to part with At Jena we find that each expedition is preceded by a it for a less sum than £10,000. The mask therefore thorough preparation on the part of both teachers and pupils. remains in Germany, waiting the appearance of some In regard to the pupil, the preparation takes place by means American millionaire to carry off this famous trophy to
of a series of special recitations, during which the route is the New World.
carefully studied, maps are drawn, and the points to be
observed are discussed in outline. Thus their minds are TEACHING BY TRAVEL.
placed in an attitude of expectancy, and consequently in the
condition most favourable to the acquisition of new ideas. AN EXAMPLE FOR ENGLISH SCHOOLS.
As to the teachers, the work of the journey is usually s DR. J. M. RICE the Forum for September gives a divided that those who take an active part shall teach only very interesting account of a school excursion carried out during a single day. On that day, however, the one who
teaches takes compiete charge of all the proceedings. At a at the beginning of this year in the Southern States of
special teachers' meeting, held several weeks in advance, the America. The paper is very useful, for it calls our particular days are selected by mutual agreement. The work attention to an instrument of education which is too of preparation on the part of the teacher now begins, and it inuch neglected. The school excursion, he says, has
consists in studying from maps, railway guides, books of
travel, and so on, the details concerning the points of interest grown so much in popularity in Germany that to-day
-historical, industrial, geographical, geological, botanicalit forms a regular feature of perhaps the majority of the lying within the district assigned to him. In arranging the schools of that country. When Dr. Rice was at the programme for the day on which he has charge, he accounts University of Jena he was much impressed with a seven
for every hour. The programme, once made, is carried out to days' excursion through the Thuringian Forest, which
the letter. The sight-seeing is invariably undertaken in the
form of a recitation. Lessons given on the road are particuwas undertaken in August by the schools connected with
larly valuable, because they have been thoroughly prepared in the University.
PRÁCTICAL SUGGESTIONS. The account which he gave to the superintendent
He makes some suggestions for the organisation of of the schools in Anderson, Indiana, induced that
excursions in the future:gentleman to arrange a pioneer trip through Indiana
First, I should recommend that the classes be divided into to Virginia. Every one was delighted with it, and many
sections, and that each section be placed in charge of a teacher of the parents expressed their willingness to raise funds
taking an active part in the work. Indeed, the teacher in for the excursion. The party was made up of seventy
charge should at all times have an eye on his pupils.
Second, I would suggest that, on a journey a week in durieight persons, of whom nineteen were grammar-school
tion, some of the time be devoted to rusticating. A day or two and thirty-six high-school pupils; the rest wero teachers, spent in the woods, travelling on foot or in wagons to selected who travelled with a doctor and stenographer. The points of interest, would not only add to the enjoyment of the sexes were about equally represented. Not one of the tour, but.give an opportunity for nature studies. By this pupils, and only one or two of the teachers, had ever means, also, the fatigue of a continued series of extended seen the sea or a mountain, and but few had experienced railway journeys would be avoided. the sensation of riding in a steamboat, and one of the I cordially invite any of my readers who are engaged pupils had never been in a train. The party started at in teaching to communicate with me if they think that the beginning of June, and travelled one thousand eight there is a possibility of naturalising this excellent instituhundred miles in seven days. The cost per head, with tion in this country.
AN AMERICAN EXPERIMENT.
MY ADVICE TO THE LABOUR PARTY.
BY SIR JOHN GORST. SIR JOHN GORST contributes to the North American Review for August an article entitled “ English Workmen and their Political Friends,” in the course of which he offers to the workmen of England advice as to how they should comport themselves in politics. He says nothing is more remarkable than the contrast between the professions of devotion to the interests of labour which both parties indulge in at election time, and the impotence which characterises the Labour party in the House of Commons. He says:
The reason why the class so powerful at the polls is so impotent in the House of Commons is not far to seek. It is because it has no policy in which the workers generally are agreed, and no leaders whom the workers generally trust.
WHAT THE ENGLISH WORKMAN SHOULD NOT DO. In the opinion of Sir John Gorst, they should not support the Radicals, who, he says, have no policy except the extension of the franchise, and the multiplication of elections. They would do better to support the Conservatives; for they have one great advantage in relation to Labour questions--they are not pledged to organic change, and they have therefore in office more leisure for social legislation. He would incline to recommend them to adopt the policy of forming an independent Labour party, and for this two conditions are essential : First, a leader whom the members of the party will follow; secondly, a policy or a principle to which the party is able and willing to sacrifice without regrets the interests of both Conservatives and Radicals. Sir John Gorst does not say in so many terms that he is ready to fill the post of leader to such a party, but we are left to hope that such may be the case.
A SUGGESTED PROGRAMME. He has less scruple about suggesting a policy as a basis on which English working men might take their stand.
Though there is comparatively little that changes in the law can do to improve the condition of the workers, yet there are certain measures which have a tendency in this direction and which could be carried without shaking the foundations of society, without altering the laws of property, and without letting in violent or revolutionary change. But in reference to these, no political leader has any definite plan to recommend, and at present there is no prospect of anything practical being done.
ARBITRATION. The first plank in this programme is Industrial Arbitration :
First of all, there is the question, which a Royal Commission has been considering for three years, how to settle trade disputes between employer and employed without a labour war. Every one admits that it is desirable to have some method more rational and less costly than a strike or a lockout. Where is a political force to be found that will compel the Government and Legislature to take this matter in hand, and think out a scheme for the rational settlement of trade disputes ? The five-sixths of the workers, who, being defenceless in a trade dispute, would gain by the establishment of any power to stand between them and an unreasonable employer, are dumb, ignorant, and unrepresented in the House of Commons. There is no force at present to overcome the inertia of Government and Parliament, and the establishment of tribunals of conciliation and arbitration is not yet within the sphere of practical politics.
THE HOURS OF LABOUR.
Of all labour questions there is nonc upon which the workers are more nearly of one mind than the movement for shortening the hours of labour. The desire for more leisure is honour
able to the workers. It is begotten, not of idleness, but of an aspiration after higher things. They wish for opportunities of better culture, nobler family life, and occupations fitting them for the position of citizens. In a very large number of industries the shortening of hours would result, as experience has shown, in greater efficiency of labour, increased output, and better workmanship.
But although this is so, nothing has been done for the general body of workers in the shape of statutory limitations of excessive labour. The universal Eight Hours Bill is impracticable, and the Eight Hours for Miners Bill makes but slight progress :
If there is to be any authority to which workers generally can appeal for the curtailment of hours of labour, it must be a local authority, which will have to decide the question with regard to local circumstances. No party in the state has yet committed itself to any scheme for the creation of such an authority, and there is no strong public opinion to support it if it did.
THE UNEMPLOYED. This question, he says, is the most urgent and difficult political problem of the day :-
It seems a universal disease of the modern city. If there is no imminent danger of revolution, it is because the famishing unemployed are too apathetic, and in many cases too sensible, to give ear to Anarchists and disturbers of public order. In the case of London there is this further curious phenomenon, that while there are in the town hundreds of thousands of men clamouring for work and starving for want of it, there are in the country within thirty miles of town thousands of acres of land lying derelict, and bringing forth thorns and thistles instead of food. The leading statesmen of all political parties can contribute nothing more helpful than to throw cold water upon every scheme of remedy that is proposed.
One practical suggestion has been made, which would not cure the evil, but which would mitigate its intensity, and afford some measure of its extent-the establishment of labour registries throughout the United Kingdom . . . This central clearing-house can only be effectively supplied by the central Government; but the central Government will not stir, and there is every prospect of the local movement dying out for lack of this piece of requisite machinery.
EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY. The fourth question is that of Employers' Liability, On this, every one knows Sir John Gorst's views.
He would compel the employer to compensate the worker for all accidents which befall him in the ordinary course of his business. From this obligation he would allow no contracting out, nor would he limit the right to compensation to cases where there had been negligence on the part of the employer.
CHILD LABOUR. The fifth point is that of raising the age of the employment of children from eleven to twelve.
Sir John Gorst closes his article as follows:
Happily philanthropy has not yet been monopolised by any political party in the state, and such matters as education in all its branches, a more rational system of dealing with children who commit offences against the law, the prohibition of the letting of dwellings unfit for human habitation, the building of better homes for the people in town and country, better provision for destitute children and for those who by blindness, deformity, or other affliction are incapable of earning their own living, and pensions for the deserving aged, are still discussed without party animosity. Discussion will result in practical reform when the people whose interests are most affected have power to compel the Government to take the matter in hand, and when a more enlightened public opinion forbids the miseries of the young, the aged, and the airlicted being used by society as a convenient object-lesson for teaching thrift to the able-bodied.
L SCIENTIFIC RELIGION AND ITS BASIS.
the desires and creeds of many generations floating and THE SIGNIFICANCE OF TELEPATHY. BY MR. MYERS. melting upwards into a distant glow; "up through the I wish that those of my friends who lament over what
light of the sea by the moon's long-silvering ray." To these they regard as my deplorable devotion to the study of
precursory glimpses I must devote the space which remains to
me; to the Hashes of distant illumination which those messages spooks would read Mr. Fred. W. H. Myers's article on
from the unknown may shed through mist and blackness upon Psychical Research” in the National Review. No the life of men. matter how prejudiced any one might be, he could not
THE ANSWER OF TELEPATHY. fail to understand, from that brilliant and masterly presentation of the case for the study of psychical
What light, then, does telepathy throw on the great phenomena, why despite all entreaties, denunciation and
problems of human life? Let Mr. Myers reply:ridicule I must persist in prosecuting my experimental in
We have already adequate evidence that telepathy does not vestigation in the obscure but transcendently important
operate between living or embodied minds alone, but operates
also between the so-called dead and the living, between region. As Mr. Myers puts it, in telepathy we have the
discarnate and incarnate souls. This means that in some form first indication of a stable standpoint from which Natural
or other our lives and memories survive the tomb. Religion may move the world, from which a scientific religion may be developed which will offer a satisfying
NEW LIGHT ON DUTY.
. answer, not only to the external and practical but also to
What is its bearing upon the ideal and sanction of the profound and inward desires and questionings of Duty ? The answer is not less reassuring :man. If this be so, how dare those, who at the present Its general influence on the ideal of duty is obvious at a moment have facilities afforded for telepathic experiment, glance. It will be in the direction which moral reforms must refuse to allow this rare and almost unique gift to
always take; the insistence on inwardness and reality, as remain unused ?
opposed to that mere accomplishment of external functions
which is all that Law and Society are able to exact. The THE REDISCOVERY OF THE SOUL. Mr. Myers, in concluding his article, compares
mere knowledge that mind is ever thus speaking to mind must
himself needs be a perpetual summons to a willing transparency and to the dog baying at the moon :
an intimate truth of soul. To him it seems that in all this planet's history there has
THE DAY OF JUDGMENT. been no more marvellous, more inspiring hour. But the dog's
Nay, more, telepathy suggests the possibility of demonpart is but to bark and to awaken ; to rouse and summon the
strating the reality of future retribution, and holds out soon-dawning century to another Copernican displacement of
the hope of a scientific conception of the Day of Last the centrality of earth;—a Copernican expansion, not of the macrocosm without us, but of the profounder microcosm within.
Assize :It is the rediscovery of the soul of man, with all its
Once grant telepathy, however-once admit the principle of
Like to like, and all is known,-and there is no need of further divine potentialities that telepathy suggests, and it is worth while risking the whole world for the chance.
machinery to secure either punishment or beatification. The
adjustment is inevitable, the sanction is automatic. To be SCIENCE FALSELY SO-CALLED."
transparent to all-to be linked and bound to other souls in Mr. Myers deals sympathetically with the objections of
the precise degree which affinity justifies—who cannot imagine his scientific friends to the only possible methods by
the deserved delight of such reward, or oftener, perhaps, the
terror of such retribution ? which psychical research can at present be prosecuted :
It is the natural dislike of a railway-guard to turn backWoodsman. To understand it, one need only think of the
Prayer also, the efficacy of prayer, upon that also difference between the popular conception of a man of science
telepathy has much to say :in the old days and now. The old idea of a man of science What is the bearing of telepathy upon that ancient hope was of a man who groped into Nature. The new idea is of a which in so many times and lands has shaped itself in the man who may be trusted never to make mistakes. But men varying voices of prayer?” In all ages men who knew who insist on electric lamps along their road will never reach nothing of the power to impress their fellow-men at a distance the centre of Africa.
have trusted that the cry which on earth would not carry for a bow-shot might yet have force to pierce the heavens. To this
primitive, this instinctive hope it is the privilege of telepathy Referring to the Report of Professor Sidgwick's Com
to accord a reasoned sanction. mittee on the Census of Hallucinations, Mr. Myers
THE COMMUNION OF SAINTS. says: It has, I trust, finally established what may be called the
Telepathy also enables us to understand something of preliminary statistical fact that a casual connection of some
the real meaning of the doctrine of the communion of kind must exist between the death at a distance and the
saints : apparition of the dying man. Most fair-minded persons, I
We may remember that telepathy, even as we know it here, think, who study the Report of Professor Sidgwick's Com
is not a mere enforced entrance into another's privacy, nor even mittee (as well as all the former evidence to the same effect),
a mere shorthand transference of unfettered thought. Rather will be convinced that there are true apparitions of dying men.
it is in its essentials a communicatio idiomatum-a mingling And few persons who hold this belief, and who also study the of spirits often too intimate to express itself through any or collections of apparitions of so-called dead men which have through all of the narrow senses of the flesh. The communion appeared in our Proceedings" (as well as in the Report of
of saints will be the very substance of the life everlasting. the census itself), will long refuse to believe that the living
THE SUPREME PROBLEM,
But what has telepathy to say of, God:-
To the solution of such a problem we men can offer only a
first and rudest approximation. We can do no more than Then is there life after death? Does the personality
generalise still further the highest law which we have thus perish? Mr. Myers has no hesitation as to the answer: far divined. Thus far, as the spirit has risen higher, its modes
Beyond is still is mystery; but it is mystery lit and mel of knowledge have seemed open-backward, forward, inward, lowed with an infinité hope. We ride in darkness at the around; its bond and conjunction with other spirits has haven's mouth; but sometimes through rifted clouds we see seemed more far-reaching at once and more pervasive. In
THE EFFICACY OF PRAYER.
WHAT HAS BEEN PROVED,