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bility type of school, for the related instruction is given under the direction of the school authorities, while the technical or mechanical instruction is given under the management of the Fore River Ship Building Co.

Extension schools exist in many parts of the country, more particularly in the large cities. The evening schools in Boston devoted to homemaking and the metal trades and to the training of vocational teachers are excellent examples of these schools. While in some of these schools in some parts of the country is offered more work of a preparatory nature, in the sense used previously, it is yet to be demonstrated that any evening school can prepare students effectively for work in an unfamiliar occupation.

Probably the most notable example of the continuation school in a broad sense in this country is the system now carried on in Wisconsin. This type of school, however, has been in operation in Cincinnati for several years. More recently has it been inaugurated in Boston, where the director has charge of the vocational work in the city in general. Thus far the work here seems to be of an unusually high order. In all schools of this type there is an attempt to continue the education of the youth considerably beyond the age of 14 years. Some of these schools attempt to give trade extension and others trade preparatory work, but in general it may be said that continuation schools usually better illustrate improvement and general education schools than vocational schools. As in the case of the evening school, it does not seem to be clearly established that trades and occupations can be taught with a few hours' attendance upon school each week.

The best illustration of the part-time school is the one at Cincinnati in the university under Dr. Schneider. In this school the boys work one-half time in a manufacturing plant and attend school one-half time. This school, however, is of college grade, higher than secondary. The school at Fitchburg, Mass., is an example of the secondary school of this same type. Various experiments have been carried on in part-time education in other towns and cities, with varying degrees of success.

In any attempt to describe or classify vocational schools briefly, it is recognized that opinions as to the classification may differ. The attempt in the previous analysis has been only to set up a few of the larger types which represent rather definite procedure in the conduct of the schools. The classification here made is, so far as was possible, a direct analysis from the information available. It is to be expected that the work and method of organization in any of the schools mentioned may undergo continuous change. Hence, schools which have formerly been considered general schools may gradually grow into some definite type of vocational school.

Chapter III.



Education is still largely in the "prescientific" stages of its development. As a consequence, it derives its terms and symbols almost exclusively from the everyday vernacular of the people. But the terminology thus developed necessarily lacks in definiteness and consistency. No two speakers on a given subject will be found to use terms derived from the popular language in exactly the same. sense. Great confusion and waste of effort thus result.

The time has not yet arrived for educators to do what has been done in the fields of medicine, engineering, scientific agriculture, and other fields of applied science—that is, develop a technical terminology consisting of new terms and symbols coined for the purpose, and giving exact and unvarying meanings. In education it will be necessary for some time to continue to use, in the main, the old familiar words and phrases, with their numerous variations of meaning and their almost unlimited special connotations.

But educators can do this: They can agree to use certain words and phrases for the time being in certain definite ways, and with certain consistent meanings, and when making departures from this usage clearly indicate the grounds and extent of their divergence from the meaning agreed upon.

To this end there is required a series of definitions of the terms most frequently employed in education, and furthermore, such an extended analysis, with abundance of concrete illustration, as will show to anyone acquainted with educational thought actually what is meant by the nomenclature thus established. Most persons find it difficult to translate abstract terms and phrases into concrete and definite meanings. It is obvious also that during any period of marked activity in the development of an educational movement, new and varied situations arise which interest laymen as well as schoolmen. The very rapidity of that growth often anticipates the development of a clearly defined theory of education or social economy. To assist somewhat in avoiding the confusion in thinking and language resulting from the above conditions, this chapter

has been prepared. The usual plan has been to follow and precede definitions with an extended analysis of the ideas involved, and to append numerous concrete illustrations of the types of vocational education referred to.

As noted in a preceding chapter the earlier developments of this type of education began in Massachusetts. Consequently, there has grown up in that State a considerable background of theory, practice, and experience which has necessitated the use of terms with rather clearly defined meanings. For this reason some of the suggestions as to the use of terms and meanings are based upon the usage there, more particularly by the board of education, which was required by law to supervise various forms of vocational education. This made it necessary to evolve, and use consistently, a somewhat definite terminology. Other terms and definitions have, however, been utilized in this terminology. The whole is to be regarded as an effort to overcome somewhat the tendency in one field of education to follow a loose, general, and sometimes almost meaningless terminology.


1 (Definition). Vocational education is any form of education, whether given in a school or elsewhere, the purpose of which is to fit an individual to pursue effectively a recognized profitable employment, whether pursued for wages or otherwise.

Webster's Dictionary defines vocation as follows: Destined or appropriate employment, calling, occupation, trade, business, profession.

Among the specific occupations for which vocational education may be given are the following: Physician, electrical engineer, teacher, bookkeeper, salesman, stenographer, machinist, plumber, bricklayer, printer, dressmaker, cook, weaver, gardener, florist, farmer, poultryman, homemaker, mother's assistant, domestic servant, sailor, fisherman. This list is capable of being added to indefinitely. There are, at least, some hundreds of different occupations for each of which specific vocational training is practicable.

(a) By "purpose" is here meant the purpose or aim which is held in view, and in conformity with which all steps are taken in arranging programs of instruction, selecting practical work, devising tests, etc. The aim is said to "control" the selection of the means and methods of instruction used in realizing the aim.

For example, if it is the purpose of given courses of training respectively to produce a machinist, a physician, and a printer, the requirements of these respective occupations will control in the choice of the materials and methods of instruction. In the vocational

course, as such, matter will not be included which does not have a clearly perceived relationship to efficiency in the vocation.

(b) The purposes which should control in a given program of vocational education obviously can only be found by studying the vocation itself for which training is to be given. On the basis of the results of this study, means and methods of training and instruction must be devised, and a predetermined degree of efficiency in the proposed calling constitutes the aim or objective, in the light of the demand of which the means and methods of such training and instruction are selected.

For example, the means and methods employed in the training of a printer may differ absolutely from those employed in the training of a house carpenter. What means (including thereunder subjects of study, courses of instruction, textbooks, material equipment, etc.) and methods (methods of teaching, class organization, adjustment of practical to technical work, etc.) shall be employed in each case will depend wholly upon the requirements of the occupation itself.

(e) The extent to which training can be given for a recognized. vocation will, in the last analysis, also depend upon the inherited and acquired powers of the individual who is to be trained, and on the economic conditions determining the age at which the person enters upon the pursuit of a given occupation.

In common practice, only persons of exceptional native endowment and opportunities for prolonged study are admitted to classes preparing for the practice of medicine, engineering, teaching, etc. In every trade school, many applicants are refused, or are early eliminated, because of physical or other unfitness for the successful pursuit of the trade. A person obliged to become self-supporting at 14 or 15 years of age can not reasonably be expected to profit from the introductory stages of prolonged courses of instruction designed to require the time of a more favored student up to the age of 18 or 20.

(d) In practice, any program of vocational education should be based upon the requirements of a definitely analyzed calling, and the means and methods should be modified, so far as practicable, with a view to their adjustment to the needs and possibilities of a group of individuals having a common purpose, and possessed of somewhat similar qualifications.

(e) Vocational education of any specific kind "functions" when, as a result of a definite amount of training, an ascertainable degree of proficiency in the exercise of a vocation is shown in the individuals trained.

For example, if it can be shown that a given course of instruction (embracing practical training and theoretical instruction) in den

tistry produces in most of those taking such course a definite ability successfully to practice dentistry, then such training is said to "function" effectively. Again, if in the case of a young man, already a successful worker in the machineshop calling, a definite series of short units of training in some form of mathematics or drawing adds obviously to his industrial ability, then such training is said to "function." If, on the other hand, 40 per cent or 50 per cent of the persons completing, for example, a course of study alleged to fit for farming are able to show no marked improvement in practice as a result of such training, or if an equal number, after having had such training, enter other callings, then the "functioning" of such instruction may be regarded as doubtful or imperfect.

2. Major divisions of education of equal rank with vocational education.-Other major divisions of education besides vocational education are: Physical education, social education, and cultural education. Physical education may be held to embrace all forms of training and instruction the controlling purposes of which are to conserve and promote useful development of the body and its capacity for effective "functioning." Social education may include all forms of training and instruction designed to make for better group living and activities. Included under this head are moral education, civic education, ethical training, and much of religious instruction. Cultural education may here include all forms of training and instruction designed to develop valuable cultural interests of an intellectual and æsthetic nature, including permanent interests in such fields as art, literature, science, and history. Cultural education also includes training in the use of intellectual "tools," or "instrumentalities" of general (not particular, i. e., vocational) application, such as the efficient use of the vernacular language in reading, writing, and speaking, a second language, etc. Social education and cultural education are often described jointly as "general" and in later stages as "liberal" education.

3. Distinction between general and vocational education.-General education aims to develop general intelligence, powers of appreciation in all common fields of utilization, and powers of execution with such intellectual instruments as language, mathematics, scientific method, etc., without reference to recognized or specific callings; while vocational education has its aims, and, therefore, its means and methods determined in any case by the requirements of a specific calling.

For example, experience proves that it is desirable for all persons to be trained to read and to write, without reference to the specific callings which they may ultimately pursue. Equally, all people should be trained to appreciate and to choose wisely for their own use valuable products from such fields of human effort as literature,

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