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nith is called the point in the heavens directly over our heads, and that diametrically opposite below, the Nadir. What are the earth's two motions called? The earth's motion round the sun is called its annual motion; its motion round its own axis is called its diurnal motion. How does the diurnal motion produce the changes of day and night? As the earth turns round its axis, all parts of its surface are exposed to the sun's rays in succession; and thus the earth's diurnal motion produces the changes of day and night. What occasions the variety of the seasons, and the difference in the lengths of day and night? The earth performs its annual motion round the sun with its axis in an oblique direction, with regard to the plane of it; which occasions the variety of the seasons, and the difference in the respective lengths of the day and night. What is the orbit of the earth? As the earth revolves round the sun in a year, it describes an imaginary line or path in the space through which it travels, and this imaginary line or path is called the earth's orbit. In what part of the globe are the days and nights of equal length? In that part of the globe which is at an equal distance from the poles, the days and nights are always of equal length. What is the equator? The imaginary circle drawn round the earth, which divides it into the northern and southern hemispheres, is called the equator or equinoctial line. What is meant by the vernal and autumnal equinox? The periods when day and night are of equal length in all parts of the world, are called the Vernal and Autumnal Equinoxes. What are degrees? The circumference of every circle is supposed to be divided into three hundred and sixty portions, which are called degrees; each degree is divided into sixty minutes; and each minute is divided into sixty seconds. What are the hemispheres? They are the two equal parts into

which the earth is divided by the equator; that to the North Pole is called the Northern hemisphere, and that to the South Pole, is called the Southern Hemisphere. What is meant by the latitude of a place? The latitude of a place is the arc of its meridian, intercepted between the place and the equator, measured in degrees. How is latitude measured? Latitude is measured by degrees of a circle supposed to surround the earth, and running through the poles. What is the longitude of a place? The longitude of a place is the arc of the equator intercepted between the first meridian and the meridian of the place. How is longitude measured? Degrees of longitude are not only measured on the equator, but also on any of the smaller circles, called parallels of latitude. What is the meridian of a place? The meridian of a place is a circle perpendicular to its horizon, which divides the visible celestial hemisphere into two equal parts, and the apparent passage of the sun over which determines the instant of noon. Describe the ecliptic. The ecliptic cuts the equator obliquely at two opposite points, and represents the sun's path in the heavens. But the true ecliptic is the circle which the centre of the earth describes in its annual revolution round the sun. Explain what is meant by the first meridian. The first meridian is that from which longitudes are measured in degrees upon the equator. What are the polar circles? The polar circles circumscribe towards each pole those regions of the globe which are deprived of the solar rays when the sun is in the opposite hemisphere. What are the tropics? The tropics are imaginary lines parallel to the equator and comprising all those parts of the world upon which the rays of the sun in its apparent passage along the zodiac fall vertically. The tropic of Cancer is to the north, and the tropic of Capricorn is to the

south of the equator. What are the equinoxes? The equator and the ecliptic do not coincide, but are inclined to each other at an angle 23° 28'. The two opposite

points where the equator and the ecliptic cut each other, are called the equinoxes. How many zones are there? The zones are those divisions of the earth which are formed by the polar circles and the tropics. There are therefore five zones, viz. two frigid zones, two temperate zones, and one torrid zone. What is the obliquity of the ecliptic? The obliquity of the ecliptic is the angle made by the planes of the equator and the ecliptic. What are the tides? The tides are regular and periodical risings and fallings of the seas of the terrestrial globe. By what influence are the tides produced? The tides are produced by the attractions of the celestial bodies, particularly of the sun and moon. In what way does the action of the sun assist that of the moon in causing the tides? Though the action of the moon has the greatest share in producing the tides, yet the action of the sun adds sensibly to it when they unite their forces together, as is the case at the full and change of the moon, when they are nearly in the same line with the centre of the earth. Why are there no tides in lakes? There are no tides in lakes, because their dimensions are so limited that every part of their surface are equally acted upon by the lunar attraction.


How is Europe bounded on the south? By the Mediterranean sea. What island is to the west of Great Britain? Ireland. What is below Great Britain? France; south of which, inclining to the west, is Spain. Portugal lies west of Spain. Name the sea between Great Britain and the continent. The German Ocean, or the North

Sea. Where is Sicily? South-west of Italy. What is the name of the burning mountain in Sicily? Etna. How is Italy separated from Turkey in Europe? By the Adriatic. What is the capital of the King of Sardinia's continental dominions? Turin in Piedmont. What is the Morea? The lowest part of Greece, anciently called the Peloponnesus. Where is Cape Matapan? In the south of Greece. What mountains are between Russia and Asia? The Uralian mountains. Where is the Gulf of Lyons? South of France. What is situated on either side of the Gulf of Bothnia? Sweden; west of which is Norway. Where is Finland? Between Sweden and Russia. What passage lies between Zealand and the west of Sweden. The Sound, where a toll is claimed from every passing ship by the King of Denmark. What strait is between England and France? The straits of Dover. What separates Scotland from Ireland? The North Channel. What city in Portugal is noted for its trade in port-wine? Oporto. Which is the principal seaport in Spain? Cadiz in the Isle-de-Leon. What fortress in the south of Spain belongs to the English? Gibraltar. What engagement took place at Corunna? That between the English and French, in which the latter were defeated. Who was the English general? Sir John Moore, who fell in the action, 1809. For what are Salamanca and Vittoria celebrated? For two battles fought and won by the Marquis of Wellington, the former in 1812, the latter in 1813. Who was killed in the moment of victory off Trafalgar? Lord Nelson, October 21, 1805. What rivers are there in Spain? The Ebro, Tagus, Douro, Guadalquiver, Guadiana and Minho. What is the chief produce of Spain? Wine, wool, barilla, oil, oranges, almonds, and nuts. Mention some towns of note in Portugal. Lisbon, Oporto, and Coimbra. What town is situated at the mouth of the Tagus? Lisbon. What is the cli

mate of Spain and Portugal? The climate is warm and the air dry and serene. Where is Waterloo? About ten miles south of Brussels. Where is the precise spot on which the Emperor Napoleon was defeated? About two miles south of Waterloo. On what day, and in what year did that memorable event take place? On the 18th of June 1815. By whom was the victory gained? By the Duke of Wellington. Are there any towns of note in Holland? Leyden, Rotterdam, and the Hague are the principal. Who was born at Rotterdam? Erasmus. What city in the Netherlands is noted for its lace and carpets? Brussels on the Senne. Where was Rubens the famous painter born? At Antwerp, on the Scheldt. Where and by whom do the Dutch assert the art of printing was invented? Haerlem, where the Dutch assert the art of printing was invented by Laurence Coster. On what river is Rome situated? On the Tiber. Who defeated the Austrians at Marengo? Bonaparte. What volcano is near Naples? Vesuvius. What volcanic islands are off Sicily? The Lipari. Where are the Carpathian mountains? In the north-east of Austria. Where did Lord Byron the poet die? At Missolonghi on the Gulf of Lepanto.


This branch of natural history makes us acquainted with the structure, materials, relative position, and mode of formation of the great mineral masses of which the crust of the earth is composed. Many of the facts which this science discloses have a tendency to convey to the mind impressions of the wisdom, and particularly of the power of the Creator, in those stupendous forces which

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