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three miles distant, there is a light which flashes alternately red and white every ten seconds. Continuing westward, there is a fixed white light on the end of Conneaut (Ohio) west pier; and a fixed white light, varied by a white flash every two minutes, on the end of Ashtabula (Ohio) west pier.

At many places there are range lights, i.c., one light behind another, the rear or inner light being the higher, to serve as a guide or range for entering a harbor or passing through a narrow channel.

Not only are the characteristics of the lights varied, but the sizes, shapes, and colors of the towers differ greatly from one another, so that they serve as marks by day as well as by night. Red and green lights are made by simply using red or green chimneys instead of white ones.


Moored in about 180 feet of water, about 14% miles off Cape Hatteras Light. It has a 12-inch steam chime whistle, which blows a 5-second blast, with silent intervals of 55 seconds.

Size of Stations

The amount of grounds about a lighthouse varies from nothing at all up to many acres. At West Sister Island, in Lake Erie, the entire island of 110 acres belongs to the Light-House Establish


At many stations, boats have to be furnished the keepers to enable them to go to and from their lights, or to go from

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GRASSY ISLAND LIGHT STATION, DETROIT RIVER.-TENTH DISTRICT. South Channel Range.-Window beneath balcony faces south along range line.

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for those nearly empty, or to replenish the supply of gas. In the latter case, gas is pumped into the buoy through a long hose connected to the supply tank on the vessel. It is cheaper to allow the gasbuoy lights to burn continuously, by day

as well as night, than to employ men to put them out in the morning and relight them at night.



Gas buoys are placed to mark the most important channels, or the entrances to harbors, or dangerous shoals, where lighthouses or light-vessels do not exist. The ordinary can buoy, bell buoy, or spar buoy would answer in most places by day, but at night could be distinguished only at short distances, if at all. The gas-buoy light, on the other hand, can be seen from one to six miles off according to circumstances. Some are made to flash automatically every ten seconds, or at other desired intervals, burning low or dim for a certain number of seconds, and then flashing out brightly for a certain length of time. These buoys are imported from Germany, and the gas-regulating and automatic devices are patented. Their cost is about $1,700 each.

The World is Growing Better

HE world is growing better!
Thought takes a wider sweep;

The hands of sturdy labor

The golden harvests reap.
We will not drink the bitter
When so little makes it sweet.

The world is growing richer

In wealth brought from the earth-
But, better far, with treasures found
In mines of sterling worth,
For noble deeds are honored more
Than simple claims of birth.

The world is growing better,
With fewer musty creeds,
With more of human striving

To answer human needs,
With precious harvests garnered

As the growth of precious seeds.

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A Successful Solution of the Rapid-Transit Problem, an Issue Confronting

All Great American Cities

By JOHN R. RATHOM Staff Correspondent, Chicago Record-Herald


HE opening of the great New York subway in October marked a new and most important step in the direction of the solution of the transportation problems of the great cities of America. Though we may not realize it, the success or failure of this vast project means much to many mil

lions of people who do not live in or near New York at all.

There seems to be no doubt that the subway will be a success. From the two standpoints of speed and protection from inclement weather alone, its popularity is assured at the outset, particularly when added to these is the fact that the rate of

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