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the largest and finest of these lenses, cost At most stations only one keeper is eming $15,000, a 7-wick lamp having the ployed; but where there are revolving power of 1,000 candles is used; but the lights or fog signals, or at important isintensity of the light through the lens olated stations, two, three, or four men is 42,000 candles.

are stationed. One of the characteristics

of a good keeper is that he use as much Inspection

oil as possible in the lamps in his tower, The work of inspecting the lights and for these lamps are designed, in order to other aids is full of interest and sometimes of danger. The Inspector must

1 examine and report not only upon the lights, lenses, towers, and fog signals, but also on the ability of the keepers, and upon the neatness and order of the stations. · Generally speaking, great neatness prevails, and many of the towers and dwellings are marvels of cleanliness and order. The keepers with few exceptions are men of great reliability and regular habits, sober, steady, respectable, industrious, and devoted to their calling.

Wages of Keepers A keeper's pay ranges from about $300 to $1,000 per annum, depending upon the amount of work to be done and the importance of the light. When no government dwelling is provided, an additional sum of $40 to $60 is given the keeper yearly. Many of the older keepers are veterans of the Civil War, and great numbers have been seafaring men, boatmen, or fishermen. Not a few have had experience in the Life-Saving Service: and several women are employed, usually the widows or orphans of former keepers.




could not always be sure which light was sighted. For example, a vessel approaching the harbor of Buffalo, N. Y., will see three important lights. Buffalo main light on the pier-head, is a powerful fixed white light; the light on the north end of Buffalo breakwater is a fixed red light; and the light shown from a crib on the dangerous Horseshoe reef at the head of the Niagara river, is a fixed white light varied by a white flash every thirty seconds. By taking bearings of these lights, the master of a vessel can plot his position accurately, and tell what course to steer for the entrance to the harbor.

Again, a coasting vessel leaving Buffalo and bound west on Lake Erie, will see first at Dunkirk, N. Y., a fixed white light varied by a white flash every fortyfive seconds; and, if wishing to enter Dunkirk harbor, will see a fixed red light on Dunkirk pier-head. Proceeding westward, there is on Presqu'ile pier-head at the entrance to Erie Harbor, Pa., a fixed red light; while on Presqu'ile peninsula,


give a good light, to burn a certain predetermined quantity of oil; and to burn less means that the lights have not been kept up to the proper intensity,


Characteristics of Lights Every light has a number, an official name, and a special characteristic. By its characteristic is meant the kind or character of the light exhibited. It would not do to have all the lights on a coast plain fixed white lights, because, in that case, navigators, on making out a light in approaching or running along shore,



DIAMOND SHOAL LIGHT-VESSEL.-FIFTH DISTRICT. Moored in about 180 feet of water, about 14% miles off Cape Hatteras Light. It has a 12-inch steam chime whistle,

which blows a 5-second blast, with silent intervals of 55 seconds.

three miles distant, there is a light which their isolated island homes to the mainflashes alternately red and white every land for mail and supplies. ten seconds. Continuing westward, there is a fixed white light on the end of Con

The Gas Buoy neaut (Ohio) west pier; and a fixed One of the most recently adopted aids white light, varied by a white flash every to navigation is the Gas Buoy. This is two minutes, on the end of Ashtabula

a large, hollow, steel buoy surmounted (Ohio) west pier.

by a pyramid-shaped cage-work enclosAt many places there are range lights, ing a lantern. The body of the buoy is i.c., one light behind another, the rear

filled with compressed gas (Pintsch gas or inner light being the higher, to serve —such as is very commonly used for as a guide or range for entering a harbor or passing through a narrow channel.

Not only are the characteristics of the lights varied, but the sizes, shapes, and colors of the towers differ greatly from one another, so that they serve as marks by day as well as by night. Red and green lights are made by simply using red or green chimneys instead of white ones.


Size of Stations

The amount of grounds about a lighthouse varies from nothing at all up to many acres. At West Sister Island, in Lake Erie, the entire island of 110 acres belongs to the Light-House Establishment.

At many stations, boats have to be furnished the keepers to enable them to go to and from their lights, or to go from



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South Channel Range.-Window beneath balcony faces south along range line.

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