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AGENTS ACTING ON THE GENERATIVE SYSTEM.

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Strychnine acts by increasing general nutrition and exalting the reflex excitability of the genital centres. Hemp probably only causes a mild delirium which may or may not take a sexual direction. Cantharides acts by direct irritation of the mucous lining of the urethra, and is dangerous in aphrodisiac doses. Alcohol in small doses excites the genital centre in the brain ; so, also, Opium and Camphor, the latter being decidedly anaphrodisiac after a time. The power of Damiana is doubtful. Urtication and Flagellation of the nates produce priapism by irritation of the genital centre in the cord through the sensory nerves of the part. Ergot is considered useful by contracting the dorsal vein of the penis, preventing its emptying too rapidly.

Anaphrodisiacs (ày, without, 'Appoðirn, Venus),-are medicines and measures which lower the sexual function and diminish the sexual appetite. They act by lessening the excitability of the nerves of the genital organs, by depressing the genital centres in the brain and cord, or by decreasing the local circulation. The principal anaphrodisiacs are enumerated as follows, viz. :Potassium Bromide. Tobacco.

Nauseants.
Ammonium Bromide. Digitalis.

Purgation.
Potassium Iodide.

Conium.

Venesection.
Camphor (at last).

Belladonna. Ice, locally.
Opium (at last).

Stramonium. Cold Baths.
Lupulin.

Gelsemium. Vegetable Diet.

Emmenagogues (önnunver, the menses, åyw, to move),—are remedies which restore the menstrual function, either directly by stimulation of the uterine muscular fibre, or indirectly by improving the blood and toning up the nervous system. The direct emmenagogues are ecbolic in large doses. The principal members of this class are those enumerated in the following list, viz. :Direct Emmenagogues.

Indirect Emmenagogues.
Ergot.
Rue.

Iron. Manganese.
Quinine. Apiol.

Cinnamon. Strychnine.
Savine.
Borax.

Aloetic Purgatives.
Digitalis. Myrrh.

Cod-liver Oil.
Cantharis. Guaiacum.

Hot Hip-baths.
Pulsatilla. Polygonum Hydrop. Leeching the genitals.
Asafetida. Potass. Permang.

Rubesacients to thighs,
Alcohol.
Cimicifuga.

Tonic remedies.

Oxytocics or Ecbolics (Eus, quick, tóxos, childbirth; ÈxBohr, abortion),–

-are agents which stimulate the muscular fibres of the gravid uterus to contraction, and produce abortion. In small doses the same remedies are emmenagogue as a rule. Their mode of action has not been clearly made known, but it is generally believed to be due in some cases to direct stimulation of

the uterine centre in the cord, in others to congestion of the
uterus producing reflex stimulation. The principal oxytocics are
those enumerated in the following list, viz. :-
Ergot.
Quinine.

Oil of Rue.
Ustilago.
Borax.

Pilo
Savine.

Cotton-root Bark. Viscum Flavescens. Any drastic purgative, or gastro-intestinal irritant, may produce abortion by reflex action. The Volatile Oils act in this manner, also Colocynth and many other agents used by women to produce abortion, as Tansy, Pennyroyal, etc., all of which are dangerous to life in doses sufficient to excile the action of the gravid uterus.

Uterine Depressants lower the activity of the nervo-muscular apparatus which controls the uterine contractions. The most important of these agents are: – Opium. Chloral.

Tobacco.
Bromides.
Chloroform

Sulphate of Copper.
Cannabis.
Tartar Emetic.

Emetics.

Uterine Tonics and Alteratives, -are medicines which are considered to have such specific influence over the uterus. Authorities differ very much regarding the value of these agents, but those enumerated in the following list are generally considered to have considerable value in uterine therapeutics, viz. :Uterine Tonics.

Uterine Alteratives.
Potassium Bromide.

Iodine.
Potassium Chlorate.

lodoform.
Pulsatilla.

Iodized Phenol.
Helonias Dioica.

Glycerin,
Cimicifuga.

Hydrastis.
Savine.

Silver Nitrate.
Astringents (locally).

Galvanism. Those in the first list, except Astringents, are used internally; those in the second column as topical applications to the uterine cavity or cervix.

Galactagogues (ydda, milk, äyw, to bring away),—are medicines which increase the lacteal secretion, as Ricinus, Tea, Anise, Fennel, Potassium Chlorate, etc. The value of many so-called galactagogues is extremely doubtful, the best being the local application of the leaves of the Castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis), and a good black Tea internally, with Milk, Beer or Porter as a beverage. Pilocarpus comes the nearest to being a true galactagogue, but its influence is very transient.

AGENTS ACTING ON THE CUTANEOUS SURFACE.

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AGENTS ACTING ON THE CUTANEOUS SURFACE.

Irritants are substances which, when applied to the skin, produce a greater or less degree of vascular excitement. When used to produce a reflex influence on a part remote from their site, they are termed COUNTER-IRRITANTS, and may be subdivided into the following groups, viz.

Rubefacients (rubefacio, to make red), - produce temporary redness and congestion of the skin, unless left too long in contact with the surface, when they may cause exudation between the cuticle and the true skin (vesicants), or may destroy the tissue and form a slough (escharotics).

Vesicants, Epispastics or Blisters,-produce decided inflammation of the skin, and outpouring of serum between the epidermis and derma. Cantharides is the agent generally used for this purpose.

Pustulants,-affect isolated parts of the skin, as the orifices of the sudoriferous glands, giving rise to pustules.

The following list embraces the principal agents and measures belonging to these groups, viz.Rubefacients.

Vesicants.
Mustard.

Cantharides.
Capsicum.

Euphorbium.
Camphor.

Mezereon.
Ammonia,

Iodine.
Mezereon.

Rhus Toxicodendron.
Arnica.

Ammonia (the confined vapor).
Alcohol.

Glacial Acetic Acid.
Ether.

Volatile Oil of Mustard.
Chloroform.
Iodine.

Heat { Corrigan's Hammer.
Menthol.
Oil of Cajuput.

Pustulants.
Oil of Turpentine.

Croton Oil.
Volatile Oils.

Tartar Emetic.
Pitch.

Ipecacuanha.
Friction.

Silver Nitrate,
Hot Water.

Escharotics or Caustics (łoxdpa, a slough or scab; xalw, to burn),—are agents which destroy a tissue to which they are applied, and produce a slough. They act usually in one of three modes, viz.

1. By abstracting the water of the tissue.
2. By combining with the albumen of the part.
3. By corrosive oxidation,

The principal escharotics are enumerated in the following list, the numbers affixed to each pointing out its mode of action as stated above.

Mineral Acids."
Glacial Acetic Acid.1
Carbolic Acid.1
Chromic Acid.3
Arsenious Acid.1
Antimony Chloride.1

Caustic Potash.1
Caustic Soda.
Lime.1
Dried Alum.
Silver Nitrate.?
Copper Sulphate.?

Mercuric Chloride.?
Mercuric Oxide.?
Mercuric Nitrate.
Zinc Sulphate.?
Zinc Chloride.?
Bromine.3

Astringents (ad, to, stringo, to bind), -are agents which produce contraction of muscular fibre and condensation of other tissues, the first probably by direct irritation, the second by precipitating its albumen and gelatin. They also lessen secretion from mucous membranes. The principal astringents may be enumerated as follows, viz. :Acids. Tannic Acid.

Bismuth Subnitrate, etc.
Alcohol.
Gallic Acid.

Cadmium Sulphate.
Alum.
Catechu.

Copper Sulphate.
Chalk.
Galls.

Ferric Chloride.
Lime.
Kino,

Lead Acetate.
Creasote.
Oak-bark.

Silver Nitrate,
Carbolic Acid.
Uva-Ursi.

Zinc Sulphate. Gallic Acid and Acetate of Lead are examples of Remote Astringents, acting on internal organs through the blood. Those which affect the part to which they are applied are Local Astringents, and include most of those enumerated above.

Styptics or Hemostatics (otúyw, to contract; asma, blood, ordois, a standing),—are agents which arrest hemorrhage, Styptics being those which are applied locally, and Hemostatics those which are administered internally. Some of the former act mechanically, by promoting the formation of a clot in the mouths of the bleeding vessels; others cause the vessels themselves to contract, checking the flow of blood. The principal members of this class are the following-named :Styptics.

Hemostatics.
Acids.
Cold.

Ergot.
Alum.
Matico.

Digitalis.
Cautery.
Spider's-web.

Gallic Acid.
Collodion.
Tannic Acid.

Lead Acetate.
Ferric Chloride. Lead Acetate,

Dilute Mineral Acids, Ferric Sulphate. Zinc Sulphate.

Ipecacuanha. Silver Nitrate. Vegetable Astringents, Hamamelis.

Oil of Turpentine.

AGENTS ACTING ON MICROBES, FERMENTS, ETC.

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Emollients (emollio, to soften),—are substances which soften and relax the tissues to which they are applied. They relieve tension, dilate vessels, diminish pressure on the nerves, and protect inflamed surfaces from the air and from friction. The principal articles which may be classed under this heading are the following: Hot Fomentations.

Linseed Oil.

Petrolatum.
Poultices.

Olive Oil.

Soap Liniment.
Glycerin.

Spermaceti.

Starch.
Lard.

Almond Oil.

Cacao Butter.

Demulcents (demulceo, to soothe),-are substances generally of a mucilaginous nature, which soothe and protect the parts to which they are applied. This term is generally used for substances employed for mucous membranes, and the term Emollients for similar agents used on the skin. The chief agents belonging to this class areAcacia. Starch. Honey.

Olive Oil. Cetraria. Glycerin. Marsh-mallow.

Isinglass, Barley. Flaxseed. White of Egg.

Tragacanth. Liquorice. Gelatin. Almond Oii.

Bland Oils.

Protectives,-are agents of a mechanical nature, employed to cover and protect an injured part from the air, water, etc. Collodion and Gutta-percha are those in general use, but certain plasters, as the Adhesive, the Lead or the Soap Plaster, may be employed for this purpose, also Cotton Wool.

ACENTS ACTING ON MICROBES, FERMENTS, ETC.

Antizymotics (àyrl, against, Curlois, fermentation),-are agents which arrest fermentative processes, which may depend upon the action of organic ferments (enzymes), as diastase, ptyalin, pepsin, etc., or upon that of organized ferments, as the yeastplant, bacteria, etc. The Antizymotics may be subdivided into two groups, Antiseptics and Disinfectants.

Antiseptics (arti, against, 17ATIXÒS, putrefaction),-prevent or retard septic decomposition, by destroying the bacilli which produce it, or by arresting their development. The chief antiseptics are

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