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tion in Massachusetts, but makes those publication, although we have obtained rights more secure throughout the Nation. his consent to publish it. It illustrates
the type of utterance which we have de
scribed above, and indicates, if not the Progress in the South
sentiment of the majority of the Southern The trend of public opinion in any people to-day, the direction in which that community is to be determined by the sentiment is moving and what that sentiutterances of those who show themselves ment will be in a near to-morrow: natural leaders. There are always men in
Constitutional Convention Chamber, every epoch and in every State who devote
Montgomery, Ala., June 3 1901. all their energies to resisting changes in
I take the liberty of sending you a copy of public sentiment. They are sometimes my remarks made upon the occasion of my unable to perceive a revolution even Constitutional Convention of Alabama. Since when it has occurred. Their whole force making these remarks I have been gratified is devoted to reiterating ancient prejudices to read your remarks before the Get Together in new forms, and to hopeless endeavors and industrial betterment of the South, and
Club of Brooklyn, where you discuss the social to turn back the shadow on the sun-dial.
to discover that we are not very far apart in Such men no more indicate the course of our views. events than the rock in the bed of a I do not believe that our Convention will river, which vainly attempts to stay the favor denying to the negro his opportunity to
vote by qualifying himself for the duties the current that foams and frets itself against right imposes. We of the South believe that the obstacle, indicates that the river is the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, without movement.
admitting as they did to the privilege of voting It is not always easy to determine Sor large a number of ignorant and unqualified
citizens wholly unfit for it, was the mistake who are the leaders whose utterances of the nineteenth century, and it has been our indicate the tendency of public opinion. purpose to free ourselves of the menace imThere are, however, a few signs not to be posed by this large mass of ignorant voters; mistaken. Such a leader never cuts him- extend to these people the right to vote, so
but I think it is our duty, and that we will self off from the past or ignores the con- soon as they qualify themselves, by education ditions of the present; whatever hopes or otherwise, for the responsibilities of the he may entertain for the future, he ex
privilege of the franchise. pects io evolve that future out of the lanthropy and generosity, contributed, as you
The Northern people have, with great phipresent and the past. On the other hand, say, the sum of thirty millions of dollars for such a leader never anchors himself to the education of the negro. What is not so the past or refuses to recognize the needs
well known is the fact that the South has of his own generation and the genera
furnished one hundred and twenty millions of
dollars for the education of the negro. We tion yet to come. He does not always have no intention of discontinuing this prorepresent a majority, but he always repre- vision for his education; on the contrary, I sents an increasing number. He is not
venture to say that our purpose is to increase always an optimist, but there is always of this Convention to allow the black man to
it, and, in my judgment, it will be the sentiment some tone of expectation and hopefulness stand on the same footing as the white man, in his utterances. He always looks forward after a certain limit of, say, two to five years, to a larger and better future, and does and after the negro shall have become poswhat in him lies to lead his countrymen the extension to him of the right to vote.
sessed of the qualifications which will justify to see the promised land and to move Many negroes, of course, are now qualified toward it. It is by the utterances of such and will be entitled to vote under any Constimen as these, not by the speeches of those tution we may make. who repeat in new forms the sentiments States of North and South Carolina and Loui
In my judgment, the provisions made by the if not the prejudices of olden time, that siana, where they refer to the right of suffrage, the Nation should judge the direction in are largely misunderstood or misconstrued. which the Southern States are moving.
True, each State has adopted a provision Our readers will perhaps recall the reporting, but in each of these States this right is
allowing illiterate whites the privilege of votwhich we gave last week of an interview limited to those who register within a few years with the Hon. John B. Knox, of Alabama, from the time the Constitution goes into effect, and will not be surprised at the following will stand on an equal basis
, and the privileges
and, when this time shall have expired, all etter received from him. It is the more of the ballot will be granted to those only who, significant because it was not written for through the possession of either the educational or property qualification, are worthy of ple to declare and maintain their indebeing charged with the responsible duties of pendence of purely party traditions: citizenship; and like provisions are to be found in the Constitutions of Massachusetts
The theory of our Constitution is that every and other Northern States.
American citizen is sovereign. How long shall Yours very truly,
these sovereigns quiver under the party lash ? John B. Knox.
Shall we forever support a measure because We agree absolutely with Mr. Knox in it is said to be to the party's interest, or shall thinking that the imposition of universal the measure right? Will it conduce to the gen
we inquire, in the words of Henry Clay, “Is suffrage upon the Southern States was a eral happiness, to the elevation of National serious mistake. We think that it would be character ?". Shall we forever vote without no less serious a mistake were the South regard to the character or capacity of a can
didate because he has secured a party nominaern States to endeavor to exclude the
tion, or shall we again recur to the test of negro from the suffrage, merely because Thomas Jefferson, the founder of Democracy, he is a negro. This would be a mistake " Is he honest, is he capable, is he faithful to because it would be an injustice, and in- the Constitution ?" We are sovereigns, it is justice is always a mistake. But provis- when shall the king enjoy his own again ions for excluding the shiftless, the vicious, Here the old English strain saturated with the
! and the ignorant from suffrage are entirely principles of individual freedom and popular legitimate. Ideally, restrictions on the sovereignty is preserved in all of its pristine suffrage should be imposed on white and purity. If this be, and it must be, an average
Southern audience, more than ninety-nine per black alike; but political results are rarely cent. of my hearers are lineally descended ideal results, nor can we think it strange from $ages or patriots of the Revolution, that the white voters are unwilling to dis
whose heroism and constancy made the Nation
possible. If the roll of this mighty gathering franchise themselves in an endeavor to
should be called, almost every name might be disfranchise shiftless and ignorant negro found in the register of births and deaths in the voters. Whatever injustice is effected by parish churches of the British Isles. Southa temporary distinction between colored ern men of the homogeneous American stock
were the chief architects who builded the and white citizens in the suffrage laws is
Nation. The eloquence of a Southern man not of so serious a character as to call in the House of Burgesses in Virginia stirred for heroic resistance, if Mr. Knox is right, the spirit of resistance to the tyranny of the and, after a limit of from two to five years,
British Ministry. A Southern man drafted voting is to be allowed to black and white
the Declaration of Independence. A South
ern man led the armies of the Revolution, preon equal terms.
sided over the convention that framed the An equally striking illustration of the Constitution, and was the first President of progress of public opinion in the South is the United States, and, after the organization
of the Government, save for one term, for furnished by a very remarkable address
more than thirty-six years Southern men occudelivered by the Hon. Emory Speer, pied the chair of the Executive. A Southern United States Judge in Georgia, on the man was the Chief Justice who found the 18th of June, at the centennial exer
Constitution a skeleton, and whose majestic
decisions clothed and vitalized it with life cises of the University of Georgia at
and beauty: A Southern man was that farAthens. This address ought to be printed sighted political philosopher who added the in pamphlet form and widely circulated territory to the westward of the Mississippi, both North and South. It is too long comprising the States of Arkansas, Colorado, and too carefully wrought out to be epito Nebraska, Oregon, North and South Dakota, mized in a paragraph, but it accepts in Montana, Washington, Wyoming, Idaho, the full the doctrine that new days bring with Indian Territory, and Oklahoma, to the beauthem new duties, and meets with courage
teous sisterhood which now forms the fairest
and most hopeful government on which the the question, “What effort shall the
sun has ever shone. A Southern man, trained ministry and genuine patriotism contributed by our own beloved Georgia, of these Southern States play in this great that incomparable diplomat John Forsyth, drama of New America ?" It emphasizes added to the Union the peninsula of Florida, the conjunction of the new and the old in nounced to the Holy Alliance, then in all
an empire in itself. A Southern man anits statement that “there is a New South, the insolent flush of its power, that we should it is true, but the Old South is here,” and, consider any attempt on its part to extend in a paragraph which we quote rather its system to any portion of this hemisphere
as dangerous to our peace and safety. This to illustrate the spirit than the doctrine of
was the Monroe Doctrine. It was a Southern the address, it calls on the Southern peo- President who, in the language of a modern
historian, “put fire into those few momen struggle grew very largely, although not tous, though moderate, sentences and made entirely, out of mutual misunderstanding them glow like the writing at Belshazzar's feast.” It was a Southern President who and ignorance. The Old North did not annexed to the Union the great empire of understand the Old South, and the Old Texas, and who crowned the standards of our South understood the Old North as little. victorious armies by the treaty of Guadalupe The two sections, divided as they were Hidalgo, completing and expanding the symmetry of our system by the territories of by divergent conceptions of the nature of Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and that magnifi- the Government and also by the slavery cent domain now comprehended in the great question, might have settled their difficulthe purchase of Alaska and the recent acqui. ties without appeal to the final decision sitions, every step of American expansion has of war if each had understood clearly the been accomplished under the administration spirit and aim of the other. However of Southern Presidents. Such were the prin- this may be, it is certainly true that the ciples of Southern men, such their effective, misconceptions of the earlier times have constructive statesmanship, such their conceptions of National power, when Southern men
very largely passed away; that the South thought for themselves. How long now shall has begun to understand the spirit of the we surrender our own conceptions of our own North, and the North to comprehend the interests, our own convictions upon the wisest position and the problems of the South. policies of the Nation in internal affairs, our views of that world policy which the country Neither section can understand the other must pursue to insure the salvation of the without sympathetic interpretation based South and of the Union ?
upon knowledge. We are far from saying that Judge
It is therefore an interesting and perSpeer and Mr. Knox express the sentiment haps very significant sign of the times of the present majority in the Southern that the novelists, North and South, are States. We do not know whether they do beginning to deal freely with this period; or not; and we do not greatly care whether it indicates that the heat has passed, that they do or not. They express the senti- the tremendous passions have died away, ment of the thoughtful men in the South, and that in a true perspective, both of of an increasing number of men in the time and of feeling, the old discussion South, of the certain majority in the South can be treated dispassionately and frankly. of the future. With these men and such as During the past twelve months a number these, the men of progress in the North of serious and interesting novels have should ally themselves, working together dealt with different stages and phases of without prejudice, without suspicion, with this great debate. out sectional hostility, to a common end
Mr. Thomas Nelson Page's “Red the triumph of justice and equal rights Rock,” published a little earlier, is a solid within the borders of our present country, contribution to the knowledge of the period and the extension of good government, which followed the war, and which was for founded on justice and equal rights, the South in certain respects its most diswherever our political dominion or our astrous epoch.
astrous epoch. In that book the Virginia political influence extends.
novelist has told a story of misgovernment, with its consequent injustice and misery,
which no Northern man can read without The Civil War in Fiction a profound sense of humiliation. It is,
therefore, a story which every Northern It is now a full generation since the man ought to read, if he wishes to know great struggle between the North and the the outcome of the tragic death of Mr. South ended and a new era of peace and Lincoln and the unfortunate transference good will began in this country. During of the whole question of Reconstruction this period of more than a third of a cen- from the plane of statesmanship where tury the material, educational, and intel- Mr. Lincoln would have kept it to the lectual progress of the country has been arena of bitter partisanship. without precedent in its earlier history, A book of an entirely different character, and the significance of the reconciliation written by a fresh hand, dealing with the between the two great sections was not initial stages of the great struggle, is Mr. exaggerated by Dr. Washington Gladden Morgan Bates's “ Martin Brook," which when he called it a moral miracle. That bears the imprint of Messrs. Harper &
Brothers. In a series of vigorously drawn which several acts of the Civil War were sketches the novelist traces the career of played. The descendants of Richard a young lawyer in the central part of New Carvel meet in St. Louis the descendants York, who becomes, in the face of his of a New England Puritan of equally good interests and as the result of a deep birth and breeding, and the two types are movement of conscience, an abolitionist, drawn with great skill and sympathy. A and devotes his life to the awakening of great deal more has been said about the the conscience of the people about him. Southern gentleman than about the PuriNotwithstanding some obvious defects tan gentleman, and the charm of the due to the inexperience of the writer, the cavalier has been sung by the poets, destory discloses feeling for life and a fresh scribed by the novelists, and felt by the and vigorous touch.
entire country. The Puritan gentleman A book of a different character, far has not received as much attention, but removed in atmosphere and aim from the he is quite as fine if a somewhat less picwork of Mr. Page or Mr. Bates, is “String. turesque figure. The Crisis he town on the Pike,” which bears the imprint appears at his best-self-contained, highof Messrs Dodd, Mead & Co., and which minded, courageous to a degree, pospresents the ante-war period from the sessed of lofty courtesy, and with that fine standpoint of a Kentucky Unionist, and respect for woman which is the chief is pervaded throughout with the atmos- charm of his rival. It was a fine dramatic phere of negro superstition—a story full instinct to bring these two types together of defects and painfully overloaded with and to show them in contrast. dialect, but unique in its study of a certain The location of the story in St. Louis side of negro life.
also makes it possible for Mr. Churchill Mr. Henry Borland's “ Passing of the to make the daring experiment of introCavalier " takes the reader back to Vir- ducing as dramatis persone Mr. Lincoln, ginia and carries him again into the Re General Grant, General Sherman, andother construction period, portraying with con- well-known figures of the period. No siderable graphic skill the experiences of more realistic and sympathetic study of a young Virginian of the aristocratic class, Mr. Lincoln has been made than that who at the close of the war attempts to which is presented in this book, and the rebuild the shattered fortunes of his family figure grows upon the reader as he passes on the historic estate on which they have from chapter to chapter. The interest in always lived. The story is one of pathetic Lincoln's rare personality steadily deepens and even tragic interest, and, although as one perceives underneath his homelidevoid of any unusual quality of art, is ness the elements of power and of nobilvaluable for the very clear and interesting ity in his character, and culminates in the study of local conditions which it presents. last scene in the White House. No finer
One of the most important of all these interpretation of Lincoln's spirit has ever studies of a great and dramatic period is been made than that which Mr. Churchill Mr. Winston Churchill's “ The Crisis,” makes in the few words which he puts which bears the imprint of the Macmillan into Lincoln's mouth in his interview with Company, and which must rank among Virginia Carvel. This story, like the the foremost books of the year. Mr. other novels in this group, is not without Churchill is fond of large canvases; in its defects, but it has elements of origithis story, as in “Richard Carvel,” he nality and power, and it is, above all, paints over a large surface and with a free profoundly interesting. It possesses the and vigorous hand. The story has a great quality of interpreting American life historic background, for Mr. Churchill from an intelligent American point of has the historic as well as the dramatic view—a process very much rarer than impulse. It was a very happy thought to most people think. The book would be lay the scene of this tale in St. Louis, a an admirable one to put into the hands of city not only at the heart of the continent, a foreigner in order to place him at the but a city marking the confluence of point of view from which our society can two great streams of emigration from be understood. Under all the homelithe North and the South. This city ness, simplicity, the lack of form, and the became, for that reason, the stage on apparent slovenliness of many types of character which appear in this story, Mr. phrase "Jesus Christ his only Son;" and Churchill has had the spiritual discern- in that phrase there is nothing to indicate ment to discover real force, ingrained whether the framers of it intended to integrity, the capacity for recognizing imply a metaphysical or a moral relation. opportunity and dealing with it—the noble The probability is that they did not spiritual possibilities of the genuine and intend to imply anything at all on that characteristic American type. To say subject; probably the question did not this of “ The Crisis” is to rank it among even present itself to them. serious and worthy books and to predict This, we are persuaded, is the mental for it a long success.
state of most devout Christians. Our correspondent says he thinks that in
holding to what he calls “the metaThe
physical unity" of Jesus Christ with the Divinity of Jesus Father he is in a majority. We do not Christ
think that the words would mean any
thing to the majority of Christians. They We give considerable space to a corre- neither believe nor disbelieve in the spondent on another page who writes “metaphysical unity;" it has no relation concerning what is generally called the to either their thought or their feeling. divinity but sometimes the deity of Jesus It is a phrase that belongs wholly in Christ. We do not doubt that he sup- the realm of scholastic theology. The poses that his adoration of Jesus Christ thought which it suggests to our correis the result of his intellectual hypothesis spondent is not a thought which has concerning the metaphysical relation of entered into the minds of most laymen Jesus Christ to the Father. But we think and laywomen. Their faith is made, so that he has mistaken cause for effect. No to speak, of other stuff ; it is an experience doubt his experience of adoration and his of adoring love, not a definition of abstract intellectual philosophy are closely con- relationship between two personalities. nected; but, in our judgment, the intellect- We approach, we think most devout ual conception is a product of the adora- Christians approach, and it appears to tion, not the adoration a product of the us that the New Testament approaches intellectual conception.
the subject from an entirely different Certainly this is the general law of pro- point of view from that of our corregression. The creed follows the experi- spondent. The New Testament concerns ence and grows out of it. The child loves itself, and we think most Christians rightly and honors and obeys his mother long concern themselves, not with attempted before he forms any philosophy of filial definitions of the relationship between obligation. The philosophy of filial obli- Jesus Christ and the Infinite and the gation grows out of the child's love and Eternal, but with the relationship between honor and obedience for his parents. Jesus Christ and man. This relationship The disciples followed Christ, loved him, is made, if not absolutely, at least relatively honored him, obeyed him, before they clear; this is all we need to know; if forined any opinion concerning his Mes- hypotheses on the relationship between siahship. There is little to indicate that Jesus Christ and the Infinite Father are even then they formed any clear concep- not among the hidden things which belong tion of his divinity, still less of his deity. to God, if this is not one of the subjects The question of his relationship to the which intellectual modesty admonishes us Father appears to have come in for con- to leave unsolved, it is at least a theme on sideration by the Church with the inter- which wisdom is by no means essential to mingling of Greek philosophy with Chris- the highest and best spiritual life. tian experience. The Apostles' Creed, were, the highest and best spiritual life though not a creed of the Apostles, is un- would of necessity be reserved for men of doubtedly the oldest of all church creeds, trained intellects; and Christ himself is and the Apostles' Creed says nothing about authority for saying that this is not the the question of the relation between the case. Father and Jesus Christ, except as some- The first thing which the Gospels make thing on that subject is implied in the perfectly clear is that ordinary men can