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Secretary than he is Minister of Education, it will and Montrose boroughs, there was by no means any be found that he is the predominant Minister when passionate indignation against those who might be these matters come up for settlement. It may be held responsible for Lord Rosebery's resignation. good advice, therefore, to journalists and politicians Neither was there any passionate enthusiasm for generally to keep their eye on Sir Michael Hicks- calling Lord Rosebery back again. The Scotch Beach.
people seem to have taken their countryman's A very remarkable illustration of the resignation of the Liberal leadership with phlegmatic Sir
imperturbable doggedness of the man indifference, nor Michael's
there any signs that Sir was afforded by his speech at Bristol William Harcourt stands less well than he did in the
last month. Lord Lansdowne was the estimation of the Scotch electorate. Mr. Morley chief speaker, and Lord Lansdowne, as Secretary for made reference to the American Presidential election War, took occasion to launch a very carefully pre- in terms which were as judicious and well weighed as pared manifesto in favour of the increase of the those of Lord Salisbury were the reverse. army estimates. He pointed out that the cost of
It would be a mistake to take too the army had remained stationary, while that of the Lord
seriously the angry protests that have
Salisbury's navy had more than doubled. For, at the present
been made in the United States moment, instead of having a home battalion for
against Lord Salisbury's declaration every battalion abroad, there
fewer that the victory of Mr. Bryan would have wrecked than eleven battalions on foreign service which the
peace which lies at the basis of civilisation. It ought to be serving at the home depôts. So would have been wiser if Lord Salisbury had not Lord Lansdowne went on pointing out that even said it, because it is never well for the head of a if the army were regarded solely as the handmaid foreign government to echo the invectives which the and fidus Acha:es of the navy, it must be kept victorious political party has hurled against its up, if only for the sake of the coaling stations, adversaries. It is like interfering between a man without which our ironclads would be but logs in the and his wife when they are quarrelling: the immewater. It was a powerful manifesto, and there was diate result is to unite both parties against yourself. much in it to which it would be very difficult to As a matter of fact, Lord Salisbury has neither the frame a plausible reply. But Sir Michael Hicks- time nor the opportunity to form a dispassionate Beach was present, and no sooner had Lord Lans- judgment of the issues which divided parties at the downe sat down than he got up, and in a very few last election in the United States. What he did sentences made it perfectly clear that as long as he was to take the New York correspondence in the was Chancellor of the Exchequer, Lord Lansdowne London daily papers as sufficient guide, and as these might whistle for his money. With a calm out- correspondents, notably Mr. Smalley, were heart spokeness, almost approaching to brutality, he told and soul with the McKinleyites, they naturally Lord Lansdowne that the army had money enough made out that Mr. Bryan and his supporters were already, and should make better use of the money it enemies of the human race. An English friend of had instead of clamouring for more. A Chancellor mine in the United States writes to me, declaring, of the Exchequer who is capable of saying that on apropos of this and other matters, that if ever the spot immediately after the delivery of such a England and the United States should be so manifesto by the Secretary of State for War, is clearly unfortunate as to quarrel, the blame will lie more at one who does not intend to allow any of his preroga- the door of Mr. Smalley than any other man. It is tives to perish of atrophy.
a thousand pities that so prejudiced an observer The chief speaker on the Liberal side should be the chief medium for communicating The has been Mr. Morley, but Sir Henry American news to the British public. Liberal Platform. Campbell-Bannerman has also been on
The details of the voting of the Presi
The his feet, while Mr. Asquith and Lord
dential election show that McKinley
Plurality Rosebery have made non-party speeches. Mr.
for has been elected, but that his majority
McKinley. Morley's visit to his constituents might be regarded
is by no means so large as was antici. in one sense as a sort of reconnaissance to ascertain
pated on the morning of the poll. Mr. Smalley, for how the ground lay after the recent landslip of Lord instance, telegraphed that he would have a majority Rosebery's resignation. So far as can be ascertained of one hundred and seventy in the Electoral College. from the temper of the meetings, both in Glasgow In reality he will only have a majority of ninety
But far more significant than the votes of
The House of Representatives is, of
The the States is the popular vote. Never before in an
course, overwhelmingly Republican. American election has the winning candidate polled Republican The Senate will be very evenly balanced,
Candidate. 2 million more votes than his adversary. Sometimes,
and the best authorities show considerindeed, as in the case of Benjamin Harrison, the able reserve in making a calculation as to the ultimate winning candidate polled fewer votes than his balance of parties among the senators. One of the opponent, but as the majority in the Electoral most interesting features of the November elections College voted for Harrison, the majority of the mass was the return of Mayor Pingree of Detroit at the vote did not count. This
year the plébiscite and the head of the poll as Governor of the State of Michigan. majority in the Electoral College will be in accord, Governor Pingree, as we must henceforth call him, is and Dr. Shaw, I see, regards the vote as final a Republican, who, so far as an outsider can see, of and conclusive. Mr. Bryan evidently does not all Republicans will stand the best chance of being think so, and the Free Silverites are putting next President after McKinley. Mr. Pingree has about strange stories as to the way in which the long been far and away the most remarkable mayor unprecedented popular majority was obtained for in the United States, and he, more than any of the McKinley. An American correspondent who has notable Republicans, is in sympathy with all that is been in the thick of the fight sends me an extra good and true on the Bryanite platform. The election ordinary story about an alleged band of four of Mr. McKinley by the combined forces of the hundred colonisers or repeaters who were sent down party bosses and the great moneyed monopolists will to Chicago on polling-day in order to vote at the inevitably produce a reaction; and if the Republican election. Each of these colonisers had registered party has not to be swamped at the polls of 1900, it in 150 precincts or polling stations, of which there will have to put in the field a candidate who will be are 900 in Chicago. By this means each of the 400 az different as possible from McKinley on the were able to vote 150 times, a practice which would crucial question of subservience to the money power. account for 60,000 of the McKinley votes in Chicago. Now, if all the United States were searched through, This story, which, frankly speaking, I totally dis- they would show no man who would more exactly believe, is said to rest on the authority of one of the meet the exigencies of such a position than Governor gallant 400 who revealed the secret, and maintained Pingree. It will be more than three years before that he and his friends received £10 a day and their the Republic Convention has to choose its candidate; expenses.
There is no doubt that money was spent but speaking, as I say, from the outsider's point of like water by Mr. Hanna on behalf of Mr. McKin view, and only taking into account the great issues ley, but that colonising on anything approaching and the leading tendencies both political and personal, such a colossal scale as this was carried on in I see no man on the American horizon who is more Chicago, or anywhere else, is simply incredible. likely to occupy the White House in succession to At the
may expect to hear Mr. McKinley than Governor Pingree. some strange stories as to the way in which
During the French Empire a practice
Virements McKinley's majority was piled up. The net result
in the became very popular in the great of the election leaves the territorial distribution of London County spending departments which was known
Council. parties much the same. The democrats have lost
by the convenient name of Virements, two of the Pacific States, and the fringe States of Virements was the term used to describe the transfer Kentucky, West Virginia, and Maryland. Every of money voted by one department for the expendiwhere else they hold their own, and so far as mere ture of another. After the Empire fell, rigid area of territory goes, without regard to the number Republican investigators discovered that the system of inhabitants, the United States are more for Bryan had been carried to such an extent as to entirely than for McKinley. When six millions of adult destroy any financial check. Money that was voted male citizens have recorded their votes for a candi for the fleet would be used for building a prefect's date, who better than any other embodies their house, while moneys voted for buying powder and aspirations and their hopes, it is an indiscretion, shot would be appropriated to decorating an Imperial perhaps even a blazing indiscretion, for the Prime pavilion. This last month the London County Minister of another country to proclaim to the world Council discovered among the officials of its Works that their victory would have wrecked the principles Department the beginning of a system of rirement that lie at the base of human society.
which, if it had not been promptly checked, might
have had disastrous results. According to the
The Daily Chronicle is rightly indignant
Good Work finding of the Committee charged with the investi
at the conduct of the Moderates on the gation, these officials were acquitted of having done
London County Council, who display
Rhodesia. anything corruptly, or with corrupt intent, but what
so base a joy in exposing the mistake they did do was to treat the Works Department as of the Works Department. But our virtuous contemif it were a trading concern, and they manipulated porary is guilty of just as shameful and ill-considered accounts so as to put to the credit of a job which conduct in the treatment which it uniformly extends cost more than the estimate, the surplus accruing to to those Englishmen who, at risk of health and life a job which cost less than the estimate. According
According and all their worldly goods, have nobly toiled and to the Report of the Committee, there has been greatly suffered for the cause of England in Rhodesia. practised since April, 1895, a system of account We still seem to be a long way distant from the day keeping in which there have been
when Englishmen who sacrifice time, labour, money, “(1) Falsely signed and bogus transfers of materials from and life for the cause either of the good government one job to another; (2) transfers of materials valued at altogether unwarranted prices; (3) incorrect appropriation of
of a city, or the colonisation of a province, may coninvoices to a job when the goods were not used; (4) materials fidently count upon just, not to say generous, recognisent from stock and not debited to the job; (5) the deliberate alteration up and down of the ascertained cost of a job for purposes of so-called departmental advantage." As one of the witnesses put it, “When we found we were going to have a loss, we took the profit from one job and gave it to another; it was a system of levelling up and down.”
The officials have been dismissed and
department where such a practice had Moderates.
originated. The rule therefore, will be made more stringent, for although much abused, red tape is an absolutely indispensable element in managing the finance of public bodies. At the worst, the recalcitrant officials who have had their career cut short and are thrown loose on the world, are guilty of an error of judgment which has been speedily detected and severely punished; but to judge from the indecent exultation of the so-called Moderates, it would appear as if your true Unionist
From the South African Review.]
(October 9, 1896. had an absolute delight in discovering, revealing, nay, in exaggerating, and monstrously exaggerating, any mistake made by his fellow-citizens if they should tion at the hands of their fellow-countrymen, whatever have the misfortune to be in the employment of the may be their party. Lord Grey's report upon the present County Council. Our Unionist friends will no doubt condition of Charterland, dated Bulawayo, October 16,
the observation, but they are pursuing records an achievement which, if it had been performed a very dangerous line in thus identifying their by any other authority than the Chartered Company, cause with the vilification of self-government
would have commanded the enthusiastic eulogy of every in London. The County Council is the elect As Lord Grey says, the British public finds it of London, and its members are discharging a difficult to realise what the Chartered Company has done great trust committed to them with an honesty, in carrying on a war for six months nearly 600 miles industry, and a public spirit which makes London away from the nearest railway terminus, and keeping the envy and despair of every great city in America. in a state of efficiency a fighting force of 3,000 men, Nothing could be worse, either in taste cr in policy, 3,000 animals, and storing, in addition, sufficient than to exult over every error that is committed in supplies to feed 40,000 natives for three months. It any of the details of London Administration. That is, as he says, more difficult than the task would be is not the way in which to develop civic spirit, or to of keeping a big civil population in comfort and an encourage the best class of citizens to devote them army of 3,000 in a state of efficiency for six months selves to the thankless task of the treadmill of
at John o'Groat's House by means of supplies brought administrative routine.
from Land's End, when there was not a cart-horse to
be obtained in the country, or a single feed of grain increased so rapidly under the pacific rule of the on the road for the mules which had to haul the Queen that there are millions, possibly scores of supplies over territory without a single macadamised millions, in India, who are, so to speak, living below road.
the high-water mark of periodic famines which conOf the settlement which has been stantly occur in that country. If there were fewer Home Rule made, Lord Grey speaks hopefully. of them, they might live and thrive above high-water Matabeleland,
It amounts to the establishment of mark ; as it is, the selvage of the population that is
native Home Rule for Matabeleland. habitually underfed perishes whenever there is too Lobengula's indunas are to have £60 a year and little rain or too much. It may, of course, be a horse each, and are to govern their own people in argued that there would always be this margin of their own way, subject to the authority of a Native Commissioner, who is to act as general peacemaker
BORGU and nexus between the chiefs and the Chartered Niki
S OKO TO
Liabu Company. Lord Grey hopes that by a system of
Bajibela industrial and agricultural shows the Matabele will learn to accommodate themselves to a system of
foto alive. Owing to the ravages of the rinderpest and
Ogbomosha the havoc made by war, some forty thousand natives
Y O Rið B A will have to be fed on daily rations for three months.
Lokoja Lord Grey speaks in the highest terms of the many services rendered by Mr. Rhodes, of whom he
ROYALNI GERICO. With infinite patience and characteristic tenacity of purpose
Ado he has sat down at the base of the Matoppos in a camp unprotected by a single bayonet, which could have been perfectly well rushed any night during the last six weeks by the rebels with absolute safety to themselves. It was
Asaba entirely due to the confidence which this action on his part inspired in the minds of the rebels, who were very suspicious and alarmed as to the treatment they would receive if they surrendered, that they were at length induced to go out from
Wari the hills on to the flats.
Next year will probably be one of privation and high prices, but nothing seems to abate the absolute
mu confidence which the Rhodesians have in Rhodesia, and the capacity of exciting that confidence is no
THE NIGER EXPEDITION.
[Dotted line shows the proposed route of the expedition.] Famine.
Africans for the next three months,
the Indian Government is already hungry millions even if the population were not so feeding two hundred and fifty thousand Asiatics, dense on the soil, and that, no doubt, is true. Proband is making preparations to feed many more. ably there is less starvation in the United States Fortunately last month brought welcome showers of to-day with its seventy million population than there rain, which have done something to prevent the was when the Pilgrim Fathers landed, when the famine which already threatens to develop into an inhabitants, all told, did not exceed a million at the absolutely devastating scourge next year. The outside. Indian Government is exerting itself to meet the
It is probable that this Christmas
The threatened disaster with adequate resources, but it
Niger Company another Chartered Company, that which is to be feared that no expenditure of time or money
governs the Niger and the valley of
Little War. will be able to prevent the mowing down of
that great river, will have put its many thousands, possibly hundreds of thousands, of fortunes to the touch to win or lose its all. The our fellow-subjects in India. The population has object of the expedition which Sir Taubman Goldie,
with the aid of a score of British officers and some to the Sultan of Sokoto. It is quite on
the thousands of trained native troops, is about to cards that there may be an alliance on the part of undertake in West Africa, is part of a great design several of these tribes against the white man which has been carefully matured for the last ten with his heretical notions about the demonetisation years. Sir Taubman Goldie is a remarkable man,
of human currency.
If so, Sir Taubman Goldie who has set his mind upon exterminating the slave will probably perish at the head of his men, trade in a district inhabited by forty millions and the Niger Company will go up the spout. of persons. In the Upper Niger, which lies If so, there will be no appeal made by the Niger nominally in the territories of the
the Company, Company to Downing Street to help it out of but over which they have hitherto exercised no direct its difficulties ; but in the interests of the Empire, authority, prevails the worst system of slave-trading which cannot allow the whole of the Niger Valley to in the world. It is from the valley of the Upper pass under the tricolour, the British Government Niger that slaves are taken every year for export to will be compelled to take over what would then be all parts of northern Africa, to Constantinople, and the wreck of the Niger Company's Protectorate. to Arabia. Slaves indeed are the currency of the hope, however, that fortune will smile upon brave country; cowries are but as their pennies, for gold Sir Taubman and his gallant men, and that an enterand silver coinage they use slaves. The value of a prise which ought to command the hearty sympathy slave rises in proportion to the distance from his of every humane man will be crowned with success: native village, hence the remoteness of the human
One very curious and significant fact mine that is worked by the Arab slave miners on
is noted by Mr. Garrett. Cecil Rhodes, the Niger. A slave from the Niger has no chance Cecil.”
when Prime Minister, voted with the of getting back to the West Coast from Egypt or
Protectionists, but so great is his Africa.
popularity in Cape Town that at the vast meeting Indeed, according to the interesting summoned to demand the repeal of these taxes, Much Needed calculation of Sir Taubman Goldie, a
Cecil Rhodes's name was used as Mr. Gladstone's Demonetisa- slave never reaches his maximum value tion.
once was in England, as an infallible specific for until he is about one thousand miles evoking loud and prolonged cheering with cries of away from his native land.
Within fifty miles of his “Good old Cecil.” Mr. Garrett quotes in the Cape village a slave is not worth more than a fowl. At two
Times the following extract from a letter received or three hundred miles distance he is worth a sheep ; from a correspondent :but when you get him one thousand miles away he is “ We want a man of action, a leader in whom we have confiworth half a horse, for the human currency appreci- dence; one who sympathises and has always sympathised with
There is but one man-C. J. Rhodes. He ates according to the increase of the difficulty of his
never lived on the lifeblood of his fellow-creatures, nor using his legs to run away.
The object of the pandered to anything which he ever thought would injure the expedition now on foot in the Niger territories is
people.” to demonetise human beings as currency, and to
Mr. Garrett adds :introduce silver money in place of slaves. It would Used in the senso and context in which this correbe rather odd if an expedition of the Niger Chartered
spo-dent used them, these words are a signal example of the
short memory and general state of muddle which prevail in Company should lead to an appreciation of the our politics. value of silver, which Mr. Bryan's candidature It would be nearer the truth to say that in South sought to effect and signally failed to
Africa Cecil Rhodes has already achieved a position plish. Not even the Niger Company ventures to which Oliver Cromwell has established in this country. abolish slavery or interfere with what may be called It has often been noted
most extraordithe circulation of human currency within areas over nary fact that whenever a crisis arises in which the which it can prevent the debasement or general national feeling is deeply stirred, the cry is always ill usage of these human coins of the realm. But raised, “ Would to God Oliver Cromwell were here ! ” slave-raiding is an institution which is bound up with even although those who raise it are directly opposing the very existence of the States which owe allegiance all the principles which Cromwell held dear.