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10. The classes of verbs, the treatment of infinitives and participles, verbals, infinitive and participial moods, tense, etc. Special attention is invited to the method of treating infinitives and participles, as they are used to-day by good writers. By the new treatment here given, students are led to understand somewhat of the present use of these flexible words.
11. Irregular and abbreviated expressions, including poetical and mathematical expressions.
12. Composition and derivation of the parts of speech.
13. “Language Tables” and exercises in correcting errors of speech. Objections have sometimes been made to exercises in False Syntax” in a work of this kind, but the objections are not valid. No one ever modified his speech by reading Uncle Tom's Cabin” or “Uncle Remus's” delightful stories. Oral language is learned largely through the ear, and not the eye. These exercises have a legitimate place in this work.
14. The course in Composition, presented throughout the work, including Letter Writing, Narratives, Biographical and Historical Sketches, Descriptions, Essays, Debates, Business Papers, etc. It begins with letter writing, as the commonest form of composition. The importance of being able to compose a sentence, correct in construction and definite in meaning, is fully shown; the structure of paragraphs is taught; and all the forms of composition in common use are developed for and by the student. In brief, the course is a “working course” in this important but neglected branch.
15. The Appendix, containing a brief history of the English language, etymology of grammatical terms, list of common abbreviations, leading prefixes, suffixes, and root words, etc.
16. The plan of references adopted, by which the pupil is able to use the book intelligently and advantageously.
Like the first and second books of the series, this book is written for the class room.
It will be found easy to teach and not difficult to understand. The basis of the work is the author's “Grammar and Composition," written twelve years ago.
In the revision that has been made, advantage has been taken of the experience of many excellent teachers who have tested the work in the class room. The author also desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to the works of Mætzner, Morris, March, Whitney, and others.
Fortunately for the youth of our land, the time has gone by when the study of English grammar is condemned by thoughtful teachers. Grammar is applied logic. Its study strengthens and develops the reasoning powers, cultivates concentration of thought, and gives one greater command of the most wonderful acquisition of man — language. No other study can take its place.
E. ORAM LYTE.
State Normal School, Millersville, Pa.,
8 November, 1898.
GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION
ELEMENTS OF SPEECH
1. Read the following groups of words :
There is the national flag. He must be cold indeed who can look upon its folds rippling in the breeze without pride of country. Who, as he sees it, can think of a State merely ?
a Charles Sumner.
Sloth makes all things difficult; but Industry, all easy. He that riseth late must trot all day, and shall scarcely overtake his business at night. Drive thy business; let not that drive thee. Franklin.
Which of the foregoing groups of words make statements? Which one asks a question? Which one gives a command?
2. A sentence is a combination of words used to make a complete statement, to ask a question, or to give a command.
3. The first word of a sentence should begin with a capital letter.
4. A statement or a command should generally be followed by a period (.).
5. A question should be followed by an interrogation point (?).
6. Write two sentences that state historical facts. One sentence that asks a question about the sun.
One sentence that gives a command to a body of soldiers.
Nouns and Pronouns
7. Read the following paragraph from “ Town and Country Life in 1800":
What was then known as the far West was Kentucky, Ohio, and Central New York. Into it the emigrants came streaming along either of two routes. Men from New England took the most northern, and went out by Albany and Troy to the great wilderness which lay along the Mohawk and the lakes. They came by tens of thousands from farms and villages, and represented every trade, every occupation, every walk in life, save one: none were seafarers. No whaler left his vessel; no seaman deserted his mess; no fisherman of Marblehead or Gloucester exchanged the dangers of a life on the ocean for the privations of a life in the West. — John B. McMaster.
Can you find thirty-five names in the foregoing paragraph? How many words used instead of names
you find ?
8. A noun is a word used as a name.