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The stars were Dennison's, all sizes being used. glow. Inside the house a small light burned, They were, of course, attached to the back- this being uncovered, thus, during the ground. The moon was home-made.
evening, casting its yellow rays through the The house needs no description; it was windows. made of cardboard and painted. The roof was We liked the window very much. Its appeal covered with cotton to represent snow; and the was delicate, rather than outspoken. There floor of the window was treated likewise. was no red-faced Santa Claus in evidence—an Artificial “glisten” was sprinkled about. idea that is excruciatingly overdone, it strikes
The trees were small branches of evergreen, me.
BOARD QUESTIONS ANSWERED
A MINNESOTA EXAMINATION.
(Continued from the November BULLETIN.)
Tinctures are solutions of non-volatile or only partially volatile substances, in liquids other than simple water or glycerin, and which invariably contain alcohol. While tinctures are usually assumed to be solutions of vegetable principles, this is not the case in all the official tinctures; two of these, the tinctures of iodine and ferric chloride, are solutions of inorganic substances, and must also be classed as exceptions to the rule that tinctures are solutions of non-volatile substances.
20. State by what different methods tinctures are made and give an example of one made by each process.
Tincture of capsicum is made by percolation.
Tincture of ferric chloride is made by solution.
Tincture of aloes is made by maceration.
13. What is the official Latin name for lime water?
Slake 12 grammes of lime by the very gradual addition of 400 Cc. of distilled water, and agitate occasionally during half an hour. Allow the suspended particles to subside, decant the supernatant liquid and reject it. Then add to the residue 3600 Cc. of distilled water, agitate thoroughly, let the mixture stand for 2+ hours, agitate again, then let the coarser particles of solid matter subside, and pour the liquid, holding the undissolved calcium hydroxide in suspension, into a glass-stoppered bottle. From time to time shake the bottle, so as to keep the solution saturated. Pour off the clear liquid when required for use.
15. What is the object of keeping undissolved lime in a lime-water stock bottle?
To insure a completely saturated solution at all times. This is assured if the bottle is shaken from time to time.
16. (a) What liniment contains lime water? (b) How is it made?
(a) Lime liniment.
(6) By mixing by agitation equal parts by volume of lime water and linseed oil.
17. (a) What is the official Latin name of mercurial ointment? (b) How does it differ from blue ointment.
(a) Unguentum Hydrargyri.
(b) Mercurial ointment has a higher mer cury content than does blue ointment. The latter is made by diluting 670 parts by weight of mercurial ointment with 330 parts by weight of petrolatum.
18. Why is benzoinated lard used in making ointments ?
Benzoinated lard is less liable to rancidity than ordinary lard. It is superior to many other ointment bases when a readily absorbable base is required. It is also cheaper and better suited to mix with many medicinal agents than are certain other bases.
19. What are tinctures?
CHEMISTRY. 1. Define the science of chemistry and chemical change.
Chemistry is the science that investigates the composition and structure of matter. It is that branch of physical science which treats of matter considered as composed of atoms and of the relations of one kind of matter to another.
A chemical change is a change of chemical composition and structure—a change of atomic linking. Whenever any substance undergoes a chemical change its very identity is lost, and it becomes another kind, or two or more other kinds of matter. Its own dis kinds of matter. Its own distinctive molecules disappear and new and different molecules take their places. Thus when water is decomposed into its elements, hydrogen and oxygen, this change is a chemical change because the molecules of hydrogen hydroxide cease to exist and molecules of hydrogen and oxygen take their places.
2. Explain what is meant by the terms "atom” and “molecule.”
All matter consists of indivisible and, therefore, undecomposable particles called atoms. · An atom is consequently the smallest particle of any element that can enter into the formation of any kind of compound matter,
Molecules are the smallest particles of matter which are capable of separate or independent continued existence, or subsistence. They may consist of one or more atoms; but molecules consisting of single atoms (monatomic
molecules) are extremely rare. Elemental and non-metallic elements and their commolecules are molecules consisting of but one pounds, distinguished from organic cheniistry, kind of atoms. The chemical elements, or the which is devoted to the investigation of carbon several kinds of elemental matter, consist of and its compounds. elemental molecules. Compound molecules, or 11. Name five of the principal solvents. chemical compounds, are molecules composed Water, alcohol, glycerin, ether, and chloroof more than one kind of atoms, or of two or form. more elements.
12. What is “Lugol's solution" and how is 3. (a) How many atoms in a molecule of it prepared ? NH? (6) Give molecular weight and state Lugol's solution is the U.S.P. compound what elements unite to form the molecule. solution of iodine. It is prepared by dissolving (a) Four.
5 parts by weight of iodine and 10 parts by (6) The molecular weight of the molecule weight of potassium iodide in a sufficient of NH, is 16.93. One atom of nitrogen and quantity of distilled water to make one hunthree atoms of hydrogen unite to form the dred parts by weight of finished product. molecule.
13. What is (a) a normal solution, (b) a 4. Why is potassium iodide added in the decinormal solution, (c) a centinormal solupreparation of tincture of iodine?
tion? Mainly for the purpose of retarding the for- (a) Normal volumetric test-solutions are so mation of hydriodic acid; it also prevents pre- made that the number of grammes of the recipitation when the tincture is mixed with agent contained in one liter of the solution water.
expresses the molecular weight of that reagent 5. What is the chemical name and formula divided by the number of valence units prefor (a) Epsom salt, (b) heavy calcined mag- sented by each of the two radicals or ions of nesia?
the molecule, except in cases where the test (a) Magnesium sulphate, MgSO4+7H,O. solution is used as an oxidizing or reducing (b) Heavy magnesium oxide, MgO. agent, in which case the molecular weight (or
6. What is the chemical reaction in the prep- the atomic weight if the reagent be an element) aration of solution of citrate of magnesia? is divided by the number of units of polarity
Acid magnesium citrate, carbon dioxide and value lost or gained by the whole number of water are formed when magnesium carbonate, atoms of the oxidizing or reducing elements citric acid and water are brought together in contained in one molecule of the reagent. proper proportion. The equation is as fol- (b) A decinormal volumetric solution is lows: (4 MgCO:+Mg (OH)2+5 H,O)+ one which contains in 1000 Cc. one-tenth of 5 (H3CH,02 + H2O)=5 MgHC6H30, + the quantity of the active reagent in the nor4 CO, + 16 H,O.
mal solution. 7. Give a chemical test for the identification (c) A centinormal volumetric solution is of a “carbonate."
one which contains one-hundredth of the The addition of an acid to an aqueous quantity of the active reagent in the normal solution of a carbonate will cause a strong solution. effervescence due to the liberation of carbon 14. For what, in chemistry, are normal, dioxide.
decinormal and centinormal volumetric solu8. Give a chemical test for a “chloride." tions employed?
When a test solution of silver nitrate is for the purpose of accurately determining added to an aqueous solution of a chloride the quantity of a given constituent contained there is formed a curdy precipitate which is in another solution. soluble in ammonia water.
15. What is the percentage strength of (a) 9. Give a chemical test for a "sulphate." diluted acetic acid, (b) hydrocyanic acid, (c)
An aqueous solution of a sulphate yields, hydrochloric acid, (d) phosphoric acid ? with barium chloride (test solution), a white (a) Not less than 6 per cent, by weight, of precipitate insoluble in hydrochloric acid. absolute acetic acid.
10. What does inorganic chemistry treat of? (b) Hydrocyanic acid is not official in the What does organic chemistry treat of? U. S. P. VIII. Diluted hydrocyanic acid is
Inorganic chemistry treats of the metallic official, however; it should contain not less
of distilled ware has cea
than 2 per cent, by weight, of absolute hydro- (a) Vomiting would be induced. cyanic acid.
(b) Unless the person taking it was an (c) 31.9 per cent, by weight, of absolute habitual user (such persons can sometimes hydrochloric acid.
take as high as 8 or 10 grains without alarm(d) 85 per cent, by weight, of absolute ing consequences) death would probably reorthophosphoric acid.
sult. Even when 2 grains are taken, however, 16. How is diluted nitrohydrochloric acid it is possible to save the patient if the poison prepared and what precautions are necessary is speedily removed, respiration maintained to obtain a perfect product?
(artificially if necessary), and the circulation By mixing 40 Cc. of nitric acid with 182 Cc. kept up. of hydrochloric acid in a capacious glass ves- (c) In large doses, from 5 to 15 grains, sel, and, when effervescence has ceased, add- calomel possesses purgative properties. The ing 778 Cc. of distilled water.
cathartic action is not increased in proportion Diluted nitrohydrochloric acid should be to the dose, and enormous quantities have been kept in dark amber-colored, glass-stoppered given with impunity. bottles, in a cool place. It should not be dis- (d) Tannic acid (tannin) may be given in pensed unless recently prepared.
doses of ten grains or greater amounts with17. What would occur if you mixed lime out producing more than a mild gastrointeswater and calomel and what is the mixture tinal irritation. Tannic acid is astringent in known as?
action. When lime water and mild mercurous chlor- (e) Unless taken greatly diluted and folide are mixed a precipitate of black mercurous lowed by the prompt administration of an oxide results. This preparation is sometimes alkali, a one fluidrachm dose of aqua regia prescribed as aqua phagedanica nigra, and is (nitrohydrochloric acid) would probably popularly known as "black wash.”
4. For what poison may each of the folTOXICOLOGY AND POSOLOGY.
lowing be used to advantage: (a) Epsom salt, 1. What is the objection to using an emetic (b) coffee, (c) vinegar, (d) plaster from the in first treatment of phenol poisoning ? walls, (e) old oil of turpentine?
Owing to its corrosive action, which softens (a) Phenol. and weakens the membranes of the alimentary (6) Opium. tract, any attempt to remove phenol by admin (c) Alkalies. istering an emetic is likely to cause further (d) Oxalic acid. injury to the already corroded tissues.
(e) Phosphorus. 2. What would you do in a case of phenol 5. Name a good antidote for each of the poisoning?
following and state whether the antidote is The administration of a soluble sulphate has chemical or physiological: (a) Solution of proved efficient in numerous cases and such a potassium hydroxide, (b) iodine, (c) strychmethod of treatment is probably the best one nine, (d) aqua fortis, (e) headache powders. to follow. Administering 1 ounce of mag- (a) Diluted acid (vinegar or lemon juice), nesium sulphate, or 1/2 ounce of sodium sul- a chemical antidote. phate, dissolved in half a pint of water results (b) Starch is a chemical antidote for in the formation of harmless phenolsulphates. iodine, but the stomach should be evacuated Even if several hours have elapsed since the as soon as possible, as the iodide of starch ingestion of the poison this treatment should formed is not inactive. be employed, as the antidotal action of the sul- (c) Tannic acid is a chemical antidote; phates proceeds in the blood.
chloral is a physiological antagonist. Alcohol, in any form, should never be used. (d) Alkalies, as sodium bicarbonate or
3. What would be the result if a person magnesia, are chemical antidotes. took (a) 20 grains of zinc sulphate, (b)2 (e) For acetanilide headache powders belgrains of morphine sulphate, (c) 10 grains of ladonna or atropine to maintain the bloodcalomel, (d) 10 grains of tannin, (e) 1 pressure, and strychnine for the respiration, drachm of aqua regia ?
are physiological antagonists. (To be continued.)
A NEW DRUG CHAIN IN
There is to be a new chain of drug stores along the Pacific Coast, it is stated. J. G. Vance, president of the Vance Drug Company, Los Angeles, is the moving spirit and is to head the big corporation.
Mr. Vance, a strong and vigorous business man, is well known in the West, where he has been identified with retail drug interests for more than twenty years. He had owned, at different times, three of the best stores in Los Angeles; in fact, still owns one of them. This store is to be made the nucleus of the coming group, it is understood.
According to press reports San Francisco and Fresno are to be invaded, and in all probability links will be forged farther north. Dispatches state that Mr. Vance and his associates have been successful in negotiating a number of very desirable leases.
Mr. Vance recently completed an extended trip through the East, where he made a special study of chain methods and possibilities. He returned fully convinced that the chain idea is
J. G. Vance. in direct line of business evolution and that the western field offers sufficient inducement to warrant the undertaking.
Sufficient capital has been subscribed, it is stated, and a beginning will be made within a few weeks.