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11 (Definition). Household arts education includes all those forms of instruction and training based upon the occupations of the home or household, and which are designed to promote higher standards of appreciation and utilization in the field of the activities associated with homemaking, to promote right conceptions of the social importance of the home as a nursery of childhood and a haven for the wage earners of the family, and to show wherein the various arts and sciences have practical application in domestic life. Hence, household arts education can be made a large factor in the liberal education of womanhood.
12 (Definition). Nautical education is the term used to designate those forms of vocational education, the controlling purpose of each of which is to train youths for such occupations as those of the fisherman, the sailor, the ship captain, and the like. These forms of training have not yet been clearly differentiated in the educational practice of America. A few special nautical schools of a technical character exist, and in the United States naval service facilities for training seamen are provided.
III. PEDAGOGICAL PHASES OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION.
1. Major and minor phases.-Vocational education, as respects its organization for teaching purposes, presents in almost every instance two quite distinct major phases and one minor phase; namely, the concrete, practical, or manipulative major phase; the technical or theoretical major phase, the subjects of study under the latter head being sometimes referred to as the "related subjects"; and a third relatively minor phase embracing those studies and practices designed to promote vocational ideals, general insight, and other knowledge and appreciation which are pertinent, but not directly necessary for the particular vocation for which training is being given.
In the training of the dentist there is required: (a) Practical work in filling, etc.; (b) theoretical study of anatomy, etc.; and (c) possibly some study of the history of dentistry, of the practice of dentistry in other countries, of the need on the part of the dentist of offsetting the strains of his calling by suitable exercises for the sake of his own health, etc. In the training of the teacher there are required: (a) Practice in teaching; (b) the study, from the standpoint of the teacher, of the subjects which she will expect to teach, as well as methods of teaching, school hygiene, etc.; and (c) the history of educational administration, the lives of noted educators, etc. In the training of the machinist is required: (a) A large amount of practical manipulative work in constructing valuable objects from steel or iron; (b) study of such phases of mathematics, drawing, 28259°-16
mechanics, etc., as apply to the practice of the machinist; and (c) possibly some study of the history of the evolution of the iron and steel industries, of the distribution of these industries in various countries, of special hygiene for metal workers, etc.
(a) The foregoing are the phases of a program of systematic vocational education. It is recognized, of course, that a program of liberal or general education may be carried on side by side with a program of vocational education. A student might give half his day to vocational education and the other half to liberal education; or he might give one week to the one and another week to the other. A more common arrangement is to have the student give the best part of his working day to vocational education, with provision made for some cultural or civic studies, exercises, or participation, in marginal time. For example, the Massachusetts program permits from 10 per cent to 20 per cent of the day to be given to cultural training. This may be in English literature, music, or other lines of interest and importance.
(b) The problem of the proper combination of general with vocational education is one to be determined on the basis of aims and the requirements of efficient practice in each field, taking due account of the economic necessities of the learner. It is contended in some quarters that, if general or liberal education be blended with vocational, neither form becomes efficient. The question as to how far the two forms may be adjusted within a given day or other period efficiently must be determined by the experiment.
2 (Definition). The concrete, practical, or manipulative phase of vocational education in any occupational field includes all phases of learning through actual and direct participation in the practical processes characteristic of the vocation itself.
The following are examples: The prospective physician obtains concrete training through his hospital service, the teacher in his practice teaching, the engineer in actual field work, the journalist by serving as reporter, etc. Persons preparing for the commercial callings are expected to receive concrete or practical training through typewriting and stenography of a presumably practical nature made a part of the course of instruction through various types of exercises in salesmanship, the undertaking of practical work in accounting, etc. Manipulative or concrete work in agriculture as a means of training is provided through having the learners actually engage in the raising of crops, on a large or small scale, participation in harvesting, and other practical work during summers and vacations, the care of domestic animals as a part of the animal husbandry course, etc. In various forms of vocational industrial education, practical work is provided through having prospective machinists manufacture parts of the equipment of the school, through the manufacture
of salable products, etc.; prospective dressmakers spend a part of their time in making a salable product, etc. Practical or manipulative work in homemaking involves the preparation of meals, the actual making and repair of garments, the care of children, etc.
Concrete, practical, or manipulative work in vocational education. may be (a) on a nonproductive or (b) on a productive basis. Productive manipulative work may involve no compensation to the student worker or regular compensation to him. In general, modern pedagogical theory favors productive work as against nonproductive work, where practicable. The distinction is this: Nonproductive work is not commercially profitable; when the popil is through, his product is laid aside or destroyed. Productive work is commercially profitable. Its results are used to increase the equipment of the school itself, to render service in the schools of the local community, or to be sold. Again, students who do productive work which is used in the school or sold may not be compensated for the same on the ground that it is their partial contribution toward the cost of their education, or they may receive a small wage for the same. Pedagogical theory favors the latter plan, where practicable, because of the greater interest evoked and because the environment produced is similar to that in which the pupil will later follow his vocation.
3 (Definition). Productive practical work includes all forms of practical work as a part of vocational education, the material results of which are of evident value to society.
The services of internes in hospitals, of prospective teachers in training schools, of boys doing their productive work on a home farm, of shopworkers in city schools doing repair work on school buildings, of homemaking pupils taking charge of the preparation of meals for schools, etc., all represent forms of productive practical work.
4 (Definition). Nonproductive practical work includes all practical work as a part of vocational training the output of which can be put into no practical use.
Examples: Business college students keeping books, doing typewriting, etc., of a nonmarketable character; agricultural school students raising products which are not marketed or consumed; engineering students making extensive surveys the results of which are of no commercial value; shop students constructing articles that are simply kept for exhibit or destroyed, etc.
(a) Vocational education in the past was carried on largely in shops, and through other commercial vocational agencies, under a more or less organized system of apprenticeship. The pupil learned almost exclusively through actual participation in concrete work. His tasks were sometimes graduated as to difficulty, either by chance or design. The pupil learned mainly through imitation, his superior
sometimes showing him the "tricks" and various devices. Vocational education under apprenticeship is usually more effective on its practical than on its technical side.
Many examples still survive of learning through apprenticeship. A locomotive engineer obtains his training first as a fireman. A nurse frequently obtains all of her training through actual nursing in a hospital. Until very recently, many teachers in England obtained their training solely as apprentices, being known as "pupil teachers." In many skilled trades, organized apprenticeship still survives, in one form or another. Leadership in many vocational fields is reached through promotion from the lower stages-essentially a method of learning through actual participation which is without the direction characteristic of apprenticeship.
(b) Because recognition of the value of actual participation in concrete work took place early in the development of vocational education in schools, endeavors have frequently been made to employ substitutes for participation in the actual processes themselves where participation in the commercial occupations is difficult or impracticable. This may be called practical work on an "exercise" basis.
The following are examples: The law student practices in a moot court. The engineering student carries on surveys around the campus. Commercial schools devise imitation money, set up receiving windows, etc., and carry on "make-believe" business having some semblance to actual business. The agricultural student is given small plats on which to raise plants, or he shares in a form of "group or "gang" labor directed by some teacher. The wood-working student is given exercises on lathes and other machines, the products of such exercises having no commercial value.
(c) Several problems are still unsolved as regards concrete work in many lines of vocational training. Can commercially practical work be presented in properly graduated stages? What shall be the unit, or project, in the practical work? Can practical work in a school take the place at all of practical work under commercial conditions apart from the school? Is it economically desirable that the practical work of a school be sold in open market? Shall the pupil be compensated for his practical work? How shall the practical work be related to necessary technical training? How far shall the student be permitted to subdivide his practical work in the direction of becoming a specialist, as in machine-shop working, textile working, etc.?
5 (Definition). Apprenticeship is a term here used to include all forms of systematic vocational education through the participation of the learner, under the direction of skilled workers, in the actual work of various productive occupations.
Well-known examples are the apprenticeship arrangements in the various skilled trades. Other examples, not always included under the term, are the "pupil-teacher system," formerly prevalent in England, the training of nurses in hospital practice, the training of commercial experts in commercial houses through systematic advancement from one type of employment to another, the methods employed in the middle ages of training knights and priests, the methods formerly prevalent by which physicians, lawyers, etc., first took service as youths under older practitioners, etc.
Apprenticeship as a means of vocational education is generally believed by students to be declining in possibilities and importance. It has almost disappeared in all the professions except nursing, acting, and journalism. In the industries the substitution of manufacturing processes for crafts production, and the subdivision of work made possible, has greatly diminished the field for apprenticeship training. In occupations calling for increased amounts of technical knowledge (various electrical trades, plumbing, gardening, etc.) the methods of apprenticeship prove unequal to the task of giving, in satisfactory form, technical instruction. Evening vocational schools were first organized to compensate for this deficiency.
6 (Definition). Technical, theoretical, or "related subject" phases of vocational education include those readings, lectures, and studies and exercises in mathematics, science, drawing and art, laboratory exercises, etc., which furnish organized knowledge of, and practical insight into, the so-called "technical aspects" of vocations. The technical studies appropriate to any vocation can only be determined by a study of the requirements of that vocation itself.
The following are examples of the technical knowledge required in certain vocations: For the physician, physiology, special phases of chemistry, materia medica, etc.; for the electrical engineer, certain phases of applied mathematics, drawing, the principles of electricity, some of the principles of mechanics, etc.; for the farmer, agricultural science, embodying selected phases of botany, soil physics, chemistry of fertilizers, hygiene of domestic animals, meteorology, accounting, exchange forms of mechanics as applied in farm machines, etc.; for the bookkeeper, some phases of mathematics; for the house carpenter, certain phases of drawing, mechanics, building materials, and mathematical calculations; for a teamster, local geography, mechanics of vehicles, hygiene of domestic animals, etc.; for the dressmaker, certain phases of art, drawing, mechanics, etc.; for the homemaker, specific phases of food chemistry, decorative art, simple forms of mechanism, etc.
(a) With regard to the great majority of vocations, no satisfactory analysis has yet been made of the related technical studies which are