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13. v. 1.), and those both new and old, (a phrase not be despised.] And now, having finished this blessfor plenty and variety), which, as a faithful ed work, I hope to enjoy more intimate fellowship steward, she saith she had laid up for him, with with thee.
with thee. I cannot but wish, at least, to be so hapthe same care that we do the most precious trea- py as to have thy gracious presence always with me;
So the word zephanti (I have laid up) is and by familiar acquaintance and conversation, to be used, Psal. xvii. 13. cxix. 11.
so united with thee, that I may not be ashamed At the gates,] may also signify as much as just ready openly to own my love, but lock upon it as an to be gathered, or to be brought home.
honour to make a public profession of my relation to Some apply new and old to the knowledge of the Old thee. See Annot. [a]
and New Testament, by which idolatry was van- Ver. 2. I would lead thee, and bring thee into my quished, and true religion planted in the world; and mother's house, who would instruct me : I would cause they think our Lord himself alludes to this place thee to drink of spiced wine, of the juice of my pomein those words, Matth. xiii. 52. which he speaks granate. ] Whereby I would carry the knowledge of of a wise scribe, that “ bringeth forth out of his thet from place to place, till I had introduced thee treasures things both new and old.” Others apply into the acquaintance of my nearest kindred, which new and old unto those virtues that flow only from would enlarge my knowledge, and make new discofaith, hope, and charity, and those that are planted veries to me, and cause no less joy unto thee, and in us by nature. But I think it may most aptly be unto all the world, to see them give entertainment aceommodated to the spiritual gifts which were to thee.
See Annot. [b] newly bestowed upon the church by the Holy Ghost, Ver. 3. His left hand should be under my bead, and after our Lord went to heaven, and the temporal bis right band sbould embrace me.] And thanks be to blessings which they enjoyed before ; which are his goodness, I feel hiin communicating the power of now all reserved for him, to be employed in his his Spirit to me, which is the greatest token of his service. And so these words seem to me to have love, and then works most strongly in our hearts respect unto the 119th psalm, ver. 3. where it is said, when he sees them fullest of love to him. See Annot. " In the day of his power, they should be a peo- [c] ple of free-will offerings.” For when men give
BRIDEGROOM. up themselves to God sincerely, they readily de- Ver. 4. I charge poid, o daughters of Jerusalem, vote all they have to his uses, when he hath occasion that ye stir not up, nor awałe my love until he please. ) for it. And thus the first Christians at Jerusalem Who, with his wonted care, or rather with a more did, who brought all their goods unto his treasury, earnest concern than ever, repeats his charge to my and other nations afterwards made plentiful obla- companions, saying, I conjure you to take heed, lest tions, as need required, thereby fulfilling another you discompose or give the least disturbance to this prophecy, Psal. Ixxii. 10. 15. Unto which maga. love ; but let it enjoy its satisfaction to the height of dim may have respect, for such precious things as its desires. See Annot. [d] silver and gold, as well as the excellent fruits of
DAUGHTERS OF JERUSALEM. trees, are called by this name; as may be seen, Deut. Ver. 5. (Who is this thut cometh up from the wilderxxxiii. 13. 14. 15. 16.
ness, leaning upon her beloved?) I raised thee up under
the apple-tree : there thy mother brought thee forth, CHA P. VIII.
there she brought thee fortb that bare thee ] And who
can chuse but admire at the power of love! which THE ARGUMENT. The first four verses belong to hath advanced her to such a degree of greatness, that
the end of the foregoing chapter, wherein the it astonisheth those that behold it, and makes them spouse continuing her ardent desire to see his king. say, Who is this, that out of a low condition is raised dom enlarged, he agrees to it. And then begins to such fainiliarity with her beloyed, that she leans (ver. 5.) the ninth and last part of this song, in upon his arm, being made one with hin, and enjoy which all the persons speak in their turns. Her ing all manner of happiness in his love? Which I friends admiring her new advancement, and the have excited towards me, saith she, by the pains I spouse declaring the mighty power of love where- took in thy service when I laboured in the countryby she had attained it, and hoped to keep it, and was plantations, (vii. 11. 12.), such pains as thy mother made desirous to propagate it unto those that want- felt when she travailed with thee, and brought thee ed is, ver. 6. 7. 8. Which the bridegroom favours, forth out of her womb. See Annot. [e] ver. 1.; and ihey all promising greater industry in
SPOUSE his service, he testifies his acceptance of it, and Ver. 6. Set me as a seal upon thine beart, as a she her longing to see all this accomplished, ver. seal upon thine arm: for love is strong as death, jealousy 10. II, &c.
is cruel as the grave; the coals thereof are coals of fire,
which bath a most vehement flame.] 4 Piace me, thereSPOUSE.
fore, hereafter so near unto thy heart, that I may Ver. 1 0 Tharibou wert as my brother, that suck, never slip out of thy mind, but constantly receive wie'l final th:e tue bent; I <vould kiss thee ; jea, 1 should not this suit, which proceeds from most fervent love,
which can no more be resisted than death, and is as myself a greater increase of happiness ; for though inexorable as the grave, especially when it flames to great persons let out their lands to others, as king Sothe degree of jealousy, and is afraid of losing what lomon doth the vineyard he hath in Baal-hamon unto ît loves; then it incessantly torments the soul; if it several tenants, from every one of which he receives be not satisfied, it wounds incurably; it burns and a vast revende, besides the gain which they have to rages with such a violent and unextinguishable heat, ther:selves as a reward of their labour, (ver. 12.) See as I feel in my breast, now that it is mightily moved Annot.  by the Lord. See Annot. [f]
Ver. 12. My vineyard which is min, is before me : Ver.n. Many waters cannot quench love, neither can thou, O Solomon, must have a thousand, and those that the floods drown it : If a man would give all the sub- keep the fruit thereof two bundred.) Yet I will not comstance of bis house for love, it would utterly be contemna mit the vineyard which I am entrusted withal to the ed.] Though fire may be quenched, yet love cannot, care and management of other persons, but cultivate no, not by the greatest difficulties, nay, troubles and it myself with my utmost industry ; my own eye sufferings; which, tlrough they come pouring in con- shall be ever upon it, and I will let nothing be wanttinually, are so far from being able to suppress it, ing for its improvement; and therefore, if he receive 'that they cannot abate it, no, nor translate it to any so much profit, beside the benefit that accrues to * other from the person it loves; for as it is inestimable others, what fruit may I not expect from a far better
in itself, so it cannot be purchased by money, nor soil than his, and from far greater pains and providence will they who m it possesses part with it for the than I will use about it. . See Annot. [m] greatest estate that they might enjoy without it, but
BRIDEGROOM. perfectly scorn and reject such proffers. See Annot. Ver. 13. Thou that dwellest in the gardens, the com[g]
panions bearken to thy voice: cause me to bear it.] Ver. 8. We have a little sister, and she bath no Which coming to the ears of her beloved, He said to breasts : wbat shall we do for our sister in the day when her, in the presence of all that waited on her, Thou she shall be spoken for] And as for those that want hast taken up a worthy resolution, nothing can be it, or in whom it is but just kindled, it makes us more acceptable to me than that thou fix thy habitavery solicitous what we shall do for them; particular- tion in thy vineyard ; nor canst thou possibly be better ly for one that is as dear to us as a sister, but of a employed, to thy own as well as my content, than asmall growth in this most desirable quality, and there- bout the gardens (vi. 2.) committed to thy charge; and fore not capable of that happiness which we enjoy : therefore ask what thou wilt of me, and I tell thee bewhat shall we do for ber, when it shall be said, The fore all thy companions, who are witnesses of what time is come that she should be disposed of in mar. I say, I will do it for thee. See Annct. [n] riage, and yet it shall be said withal, that she is not
SPOUSE. fit for it? See Annot. [h]
Ver. 14. 9 Make haste, my beloved, and be thou like Ver. 9. If she be a wall
, we will build upon her a to a roe, or to a young hart, upon the mountains of spices.] palace of silver : and if she be a door, we will inclose I have nothing to desire but this, that thou, who art ber with boards of cedar.] We will not despair of my only beloved, wouldst come and accomplish all her, nor cast her off, but be both patient with her, these things; make all the speed that is possible to come and do our utmost to make her such as we desire ; and save us, and perfect thy loving-kindness to us, let her but be faithful and constant, and we will do for such speed as the swiftest creatures make to save her as we do for a wall that is low, which we pull themselves from danger ; let nothing hinder this, but not down, but build up higher, and adorn also with by thy love, which makes all things sweet and easy, fair and goodly turrets; or as we do with the door of overcome the greatest difficulties in thy way to use a noble house, which if it be too weak or too mean, See Annot. [o] we spare no cost to mend it, but inclose in a case of cedar. See Annot. [i]
ANNOTATIONS. LITTLE SISTER. Ver. 10, I am a wall, and my breasts like towers: [a] Ver. 1.] This verse, at first sight, looks like then was I in his eyes as one that found favour.] And a repetition of the same desire wherewith he be. our labour, I foresee, will not be lost, for I hear her gan this book, that they might be so happy as to say, I am such a wall, and my breasts rise and grow see the Messiah appear, though it were but in his big like such turrets; I am no longer of a low and de- infancy, which would transport them with joy, &c. spicable stature, nor unmeet for his love, but from this And thus the Chaldee Paraphrast interprets it, of time forth I shall be acceptable unto him, and find such the time when the Messiah shall be revealed to the favour with him, as to enjoy all the happiness which
congregation of Israel. ne imparts to those that are most dear unto him. See But if we consider what follows, it will be more rea. Annot. [k]
sonable to connect it with what went before ; and Ver. 11. Solomon had a vineyard at Baal-bamon ; to take it for a most ardent expression of love to be let out the vineyard unto keepers : every one for the the person before spoken of, with a desire to have fruit thereof was to bring a thousand pieces of silver.] more intimate familiarity with him, such as a sister Which I will endeavour to answer by my best dili- hath with a brother, when he is a sucking child; gence in his service, and from thence still promise whom, if she met in the street, she would not be
ashamed to take out of the nurse's arms into her ly condescending to her desires, and fulfilling her own, and openly kiss, and not imagine she should wishes ; vouchsafing a new supply of the power of thereby incur any reproach or contempt.
the Spirit, to support and comfort her in those laThis seems to be the most literal sense of the words, bours of love for his name's sake. Which were so
which may be applied to the open profession great, that she is represented here as spent and
you disturb her. See ïi. 7. iii. s.
of him) she desires here to carry still farther, till panions, or “ daughters of Jerusalem,” mentioned
The word mithrappeketh is not found elsewhere, and
him down, and then bring him into the house of most agree that it signifies, either closely adhering, her mother, she adds, Thou shalt teach, or instruct or leaning, relying, and recumbing, as they speak; me. Which agrees with what the apostle there which L. de Dieu hath shown is the use of the writes, ver, 12. that if the fall of the Jews was
word in the neighbouring languages. But there “the riches of the Gentiles," that is, enriched are those who think it imports something of pleathem with the treasures of divine wisdom and
sure, (and therefore the Vulgar takes in that sense knowledge, how much more would their fulness with the cther, as I have in the paraphrase), and enrich them! If we refer this clause (as we do) to translate it flowing with the delights. For she hamother before named, the best sense I can make of ving been in the fields and villages, visiting the it is this, By wliom I was educated and instructed. vineyards and other places, (vii. 11. 12. 13.), is And then follows her making him " drink of spi- now introduced as coming back from thence into ced wine,” (that is, making a great feast for him, the royal city. Which being seated on high, in Prov. ix. 2. where the most excellent wine made comparison with the plains out of which she came, the chiefest part of the entertainment), such wine she is said to ascend, or come up; but that she as makes those who are asleep to speak, vii. 9. might not be tired with the journey, is represented Which effect the receiving of the Jews again will as leaning upon the arm of her beloved, (or, as produce, as the apostle tells us, when he saith, "It some will have it, lying in his bosom, as St John shall be life froin the dead ;" i. e. a most powerful did in our Saviour's), and laden with the delicious argument to enliven the most stupid souls, and fruit before mentioned, (vii. 13.) Which excited move them to believe in Christ.
the admiration of all that knew her, when they Certain it is, that berakach, spiced or aromatic wine, beheld the grace of her Lord towards her, together
denotes its fragrancy or delicious odour, whereby with her own beauty, riches, ornaments, and hapthe best wines are discerned, as much as by their piness. taste ; and the word we translate juice, signifies The latter part of the verse all the Greek Fathers every where, muste or new wine ; whereby the take to be the voice of the bridegroom, and so do prophets set forth something that works with great- many of the Latins. But some of them, and all er power and efficacy than ordinary, Zach. ix. 17.; the Hebrew writers, take them to be the words of and here, I doubt not, relates to something new the spouse, because thee is of the masculine genand unusual ; and in the mystical application, may der. Whichsoever way we take them, the sense is signify a greater fulness and power of the Spirit, very hard to find. If we go the first way, the than had been in former days, working like new most natural sense seems to be, that he pais her wine in the hearts of those that received the
go- in mind of the poor and mean condition, out of spel.
which he had taken her, into a state of the greatAnd this is said to be done to him, because, as Theo- est friendship with him ; that she might not be
doret noted before, what is done to his members, he vainly puffed up with the acclamations which were takes as done to himself, :
made to her. [s] Ver. 3.) Who is here re'sresented as immediate. But I have followed the Hebrew points in my pa
raphrase, and understood the words of " stirring should lose him, as she had been in danger before, up his love towards her," when they were look
ver. 6. &c. ing after the plantations mentioned, vii. 11. 12. This love is said to be as strong as death ; which is Which was excited by the care and pains she took admirably expressed by Maximus Tyrius, Dissert. in that business, like the pains of a woman in tra
X. 6 Wild beasts are not terrible to it, nor fire, vail; unto which St Paul compares the solicitude nor precipices, nor the sea, nor the sword, nor and care he had about the Galatians, that“ Christ the halter, en die rai. Toda tigas avoir intogástalse, might be formed in them, iv, 19.
&c. but even the most unpassable difficulties Certain it is, that chibbelath is a word which relates are got over by it; the hardest things are pre
to the pangs of travailing women, and therefore the sently mastered, the most frightful easily surLXX. translate it wdlince; so that if I have not con- mounted, &c.; it is every where confident, overjectured amiss about the rest, my interpretation of looks all things, overpowers all things,” &c. But the last words is natural enough. For caph simili. none express this like St Paul, Rom. vii. 35. 36. tudinis, (as they call it), is frequently omitted in the scripture, and to be supplied in the sense. Twice There is no difficulty but in the last clause of the in this very book it is wanting, i. 15. vii. 4. "thy verse, (for as “strong as death,"? signifies to be in. eyes are doves,” that is, as doves. And in Prov. superable, so “ cruel as the grave," denotes it not xvii. 2). and in his father David's psalms very to be moved by prayers and intreaties, or any often, Psal. xi. 1. " How say you to my soul, Flee thing else). Where the word rescapepla should noi a bird, (i, e, as a bird), to your hill ;” and to o- be translated, " the coals thereof," but, the arrows mit other places, cxix. 119. “ Thou puttest away thereof are arrows of fire; that is, it shoots into all the wicked of the earth, dross," i. e. as or like
the heart, wounds it, and burns there, nay, indross.
flames it vehemently by the wounds it gives; as In like manner I take the last words of this verse, the reverend and learned Dr Hammond hath obser.
“ There (viz. I stirred thee up) as thy mother tra- ved upon Psal. lxxvi. 3. And so the LXX. seem vailed in birth with thee, there, I say, like her that here to understand it, when they translate it wipinlega brought thee forth;" i. e. by such pains as these I avras, " its feathers, or wings, where with it flies, raised up thy love to me.
are wings of fire.". Which wings or arrows of As for what is said by many interpreters, concerning fire, are said, in the last words of all, to be wa
Eve's eating the apple in paradise, and thereby most vehement flame ;" or rather, it should be thus ruining all mankind, there is no reason to think, translated, which are the flames of the fire of the either that she is the mother here meant, or that tap
Lord. So the Hebrew word seems to signify, bepuach denotes an apple, rather than orange, citron, ing compounded of three words, fire, flame, and or such like fruit.
the Lord; denoring mighty and exceeding scorching [f] Ver. 6.] The words also, according to the He- flames. Such compositions are not only to be found
brew points, are the words of the spouse, beseeching in other parts of the Bible, Jer. ii. 31. but in the her beloved to keep her always in his mind, as one Punic language also, as Bochartus shows in his voy dear to him. For that was the end of having
Canaan, l. ii. c. 15. the name, or the picture of a beloved person, en. Some translate it, “Such flames are kindled only by
graven on a seal, or jewel, and wearing it next the the Lord.” And then, if there be an allusion to > heart, or upon the arm, that it might testify their the breast-plate of the high-priest, in the beginning great esteem of such persons, and the constancy of
of the verse, I fancy the conclusion may allude to their affection towards them, and that they desired the "fire that went out from before the Lord,” Lev. they might never slip out of their memory. See ix. 24. and devoured the sacrifices, as love doth all Jer. xxii, 24.
manner of difficulties.
This fire was to burn perSome think here is an allusion to the high-priest, who petually upon the altar, and never be suffered to go
carried the names of the children of Israel engra- out, Lev. vi. 12. and therefore the best emblem of ven in precious stones, not only upon his breast, but love that could be found. upon his shoulders also, as may be seen, Exod.  Ver. 7,1 For it is unexiinguishable, as it here xxviii. 11. 12. 21. and this, " for a memorial be.' follows, “Many waters cannor quench. love." fore the Lord continually,” ver. 29. (which inter- Which is a metaphor, whereby profanę authors pretation may be confirmed by the words of the also have set forth the mighty, unconquerable son of Syrach, Ecclus. xlv. 11. who saith, “ Aaron power of love και τις και καινος εμπρησμός, &ς, « What was adorned with precious stones, graven like new kind of conflagration is this? (saith Philostraseals,"). And they think withal, that seal upon tus, in one of his Epistles); I am ready to call for the heart relates to the inward affection ; and seal water, and there is none to bring it, TI To Cosstápor is on the arm, to the outward expressions of love and ταύτην την φλόι απόρώταίον, for a quencher of this esteem.
fire is the most impossible to be found. If one And then follows the reason of this prayer, which bring it from the fountain, or if he take it out of
proceeded from the vehemence of her love, which the river, it is all one, for the water itseif is burnt was grown to the height of jealousy, (which is up by love.": 31 nothing but the highest degree of love), lest she By many waters are sometimes meant jo scripture,
), ༡ :
many aflictions, (as is very well known), which they other, and open to me alone, and she shall never that love frequently endure, before they can accom- want any thing necessary to her perfection ; for I plish their desire. But though there should be an will richly adorn her, and make her like the house inundation of them, we are here told they cannot of God himself, which is lined with cedar." overwhelm or overflow it, as the word we translate [k] Ver. 10.] And then this verse may be thus apdrowned signifies; but it will still live, and be up- plied, (being her answer), “I am resolved to do permost, and prevail.
what thou requirest,” (to be stedfast and faithful), And such is its constancy, and satisfaction also, which “ and already perceive the reward of my infidelity,"
it hath in its own pleasures, it regards not riches at &c. For these words plainly relate to the foregoall, but will rather be poor with one whom it affects, ing, as I have expressed in the paraphrase; unto than enjoy great possessions with another person.
which I shall add nothing, for if that be admitted, Nay, it despises, and that with disdain, the offers there is no difficulty in them. It being known to of a man's whole estate, if that condition be im- every body that shalom, peace, signifies all manner of posed, of forsaking its love. Others may laugh happiness in the Hebrew language ; which is includperhaps at such persons, bat it is all one, they smile ed also in our English word favour, whereby we here at them again. So Theodoret and the LXX. under- translate it. Forit signifies all the good things that may siand the latter part of this verse, “ If a man give be expected from the favour he bears to any person. away all his substance in charity, they will extremely [!] Ver. 11.) And being thus favoured by him, she despise him.” That is, saith he, they that spend 110w promises her diligence in this and the next all they have, and their very lives, for the love of verse) to do him the best service, and to make the God, are set at nought by those that want such love. greatest improveinents she could of the talents com. Other interpretations of these words I have express- mitted to her. For though Solomon (she here saith) ed in the paraphrase.
let out his vineyard, which he had in Baal hamon, [h] Ver. 8.) Here is another property of divine love, a place near Jerusalem, as Aben-Ezra tells us, (which
which makes us solicitous for those that want it, or is followed by most interpreters, few thinking it to have but the beginnings of it, and may be in dan- be near Engaddi), where abundance of people had ger to lose them. And this seems to be the speech vineyards, and he a very large one; for it beof the spouse to her companions, who were all ing let to several farmers, every one paid him a thoutroubled for a sister, (that is, some church), which sand pieces of silver, i. e. shekels, (as much as to was of a small growth, and had no breasts, that is, say, it brought him in a vast revenue yearly ; for a was not ripe for marriage. For all have breasts, thousand is a sum of perfection, Psal. cxliv. 13. but they do not rise and swell, till they are of such Micah, v. 2 and other places ; and the number of an age, that they may be called women, Ezek. farmers or tenants, though not expressed, some xvi. 7. They inquire there what they should do think to be ten), yet she takes up another resolution, for her, " in the day when she shall be spoken for?” which she expresses in the next verse. that is, demanded in marriage ; or " when there [m] Ver. 12 ) Where she saith she will herself look shall be speech concerning her," that is, concerning after the vineyard committed to her trust, and not this defect of hers.
leave it to the care of others. Which seems to be [i] Ver. 9.] Here he returns an answer to that ques- the meaning of the first phrase in this verse, “My tion; which is, that he and they will take greater vineyard which I have is before me,” i. e. under my care for her to raise her stature, and to bring her to tye (as we speak) and special care. Thus God's perfection. For where there are good beginnings, judgements are said to be before David, Psal. xviii. we are not wonit to forsake them, but rather to add 22. that is, he took great care never to swerve from to them, and improve them. As for example, the
them. wall of a building which we esteem, we do not It amounts also to the same sense, if we take this phrase suffer to fall to the ground, but strengthen and raise to signify as much as “it is in my power," Gen. it; nay, adorn it sometimes and beautify it with xlvii. 5. Jer. xl. t. For then the meaning is, she towers and pinacles, which we stick not to gild, kept it in her own hand, or occupation, and did not that they may appear more gloriously. Or if it be farm it out to others. a door of a house, which we value, we let it not And then the last part of the verse signifies, that if decay, but rather' case it with boards of cedar, to Solomon made such a profit of his vineyard, as that make it more durable as well as neat and handsome; before named, (besides two hundred shekels, which for cedar is not apt to putrify.
each of the farmers got over and above for their This seems to me the most simple exposition of these pains, though he did not dress it himself; what
words, and I do not think fit to trouble the reader would be the increase that she was likely to make with that vast variety which may be found in in- by her own care and diligence in the business. Thüt terpreters. But only add, that they may very na- is, it was incredible what fruit she would reap by turally be applied unto a soul, or a church, in a state her pains : according to that of the son of Syracli, of imperfection, but built upon Christ the founda- Ecclus. xxiv. 31. &c. " I said, I will water my cion; in this manner, “ Let her but be firm and garden, and I will water abundantly my garden-bed; constant, like a wall, in her love to me, and I will and, lo, my brook became a river, and my river be. not abandon the care of her ; let but her exclude all came sea," &c.