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Mr. SCHULTZ. Dr. Reyes, before you proceed with your statement, for identification purposes will you state your full name, please?

Mr. REYES. My full name is Manuel de Jesus Reyes Xiques.
Mr. SCHULTZ, And what is your current address?
Mr. REYES. 243 Southwest 26th Road, Miami, Florida.
Mr. SCHULTZ. Thank you, Dr. Reyes.

Would you like to proceed at your own pace with your opening statement?

Mr. REYES. Just before going into the statement, I would like, Mr. Chairman, to thank you very much for your kind words, and this of course is another testimony of the traditional friendship between the United States and the Cuban people.

Fidel Castro has proved to be an agent of international communism, and, based on a named "revolution" has been exporting international communism to the American continent and the United States of America.

A few months after he took over, Fidel Castro sent an invasion against Panama, an invasion that was defeated and later regarded as something without importance. This has been the policy of a wicked regime, the constant exportation of revolution or what is actually international communism.

Mr. PEPPER. Excuse me. Doctor, for the record, would you give us something of your background. Where were you born and reared and in a few words your educational background to indicate the preparation that you have for the testimony that you give.

Mr. REYES. Yes, Mr. Chairman. I was born in Havana, Cuba, on July 29, 1924. I come from a very poor family in my country. In fact, in the years 1930, 31, 32 my family was so poor—and this is my pride—that my father, my mother, and myself were selling candies for 1 penny in a public market in Havana.

In 1938 I went to radio station CMQ. That radio station was the number one in Cuba. I went to a radio contest program, and I started there in that contest program.

In the meantime I was studying in LaSalle School. My father was a former pupil there, my brother, myself, but I have the benefit of that school at least for 4 or 5 years with a scholarship since my father was one of the almost founders of that school.

Then in 1940, '41, still working on CMQ, I began to be a producer, director, writer, newsman, all the angles of radio in my country. I finished' high school and Í went into the University of Havana. In 1948 I got the diplomatic degree. In 1949 I got the law degree.

In 1951 television came to my country, and I was transferred somewhat to television. In the meantime I was almost full time working in radio.

In 1955 I was appointed radio sales manager of CMQ, and that was one of the four top positions on CMQ. In the meantime I had also my law office and I was practicing as a lawyer.

On August 23, 1960, my wife and my children and myself decided to become permanent residents here in Miami. We came to the United States. We left Cuba because communism was taking over. We came

here and then I started to work on WTVJ, Channel 4, as Latin news editor up to now.

So I am 47 years of age, and I have been working 33 years, 22 in CMQ in Havana and 11 in the United States in WTVJ.

Mr. PEPPER. Have you kept in contact with sources of information from time to time as to what was going on in Cuba?

Mr. REYES. Yes, sir. I have two good sources of information. First, the Cuban underground that they send information to the people they trust and they believe in, and this information has been in the past put out by some Cubans and among those I am one of them. And also the sources of Cubans coming from the island.

Mr. PEPPER. And of course a great many Cubans coming into the United States through Miami, many of them remaining to reside there.

Mr. REYES. Yes, sir.
Mr. PEPPER, From Cuba.

Mr. REYES. Right. We have right now in Miami—this is a revelation-about 320,000 Cubans residing there, so there is a tremendous source of information of what is going on.

Mr. PEPPER. I just wanted to establish something of your background and knowledge. You may go ahead.

Mr. REYES. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

In past years because of the lassitude of the American nations, and not because of his own actions, the Castro regime has increased the exportation of communism in different ways. This increased aggression against the peace and security of the American continent was planned in the so-called Tricontinental Conference that took place in Havana, Cuba, in January 1966 with communists from three continents, Asia, Africa, and South America.

In this so-called conference it was provided that Havana would be the operational center of international communism in the Western Hemisphere. After this conference, as recalled, hijacking of commercial aircraft over the skies of the American continent increased tremendously. Agitation, aggression, and support of the subversive movement increased on the continent through Havana.

I would like to add at this point, as a lawyer that I was in my country, that aggression in the old system was a military force invading another foreign territory. I believe that aggression in the modern times is the speech, is subversive harangue that has been done by Castro in many instances. This is aggression in the modern times because 100 years ago we didn't have radio, we didn't have television, and Castro had this

from Havana penetrating Central and South America and the United States.

Let's point out that after this so-called Tricontinental Conference in Havana that Ernesto Guevara, alias Che, went to Bolivia trying to impose a communist regime, being killed in November 1967.

After the conference took place, there appeared in Uruguay the socalled Tupamaros, the urban communist guerrillas, and the subversive movement in Mexico greatly accelerated. Kidnaping of diplomats and citizens in different regions of Latin America commenced, and Chile fell under a Marxist President. Peru has a leftist military government and the so-called Brigades Vence-Remos were born in the United States supposedly to go to Cuba to help in the cane fields.

I should also point out that I have received recent reports showing that members of the Venceremos Brigade met in Havana this year with the Secretary of State of Chile, Clodomiro Alemeida, during the last days of July.

Later on the so-called Chancellor of the Castro regime, Raul Roa, flew to Chile, taking with him a member of the Venceremos Brigade.

On this summer vacation during 1971, I have received information that some members of the Venceremos Brigade had traveled from the United States to different countries in Latin America. It appears that the members of the Venceremos Brigade, when returning to the United States, were very active in bringing back propaganda

in favor of Fidel Castro. This propaganda, always in favor of Castro, embraces the distribution of pamphlets to the exhibition of films about Cuba.

I have received knowledge of these facts from all over the United States in letters written to me by Cuban university students. They have written to me asking for facts, photographs, films, et cetera, concerning the Cuban exodus and about the tyranny of Fidel Castro so that they could counter the propaganda of the members of the Venceremos Brigade.

After the communists took over Chile in November 1970, they have been insistent on creating a Havana-Santiago de Chile axis. They advised against a neutral inter-American system represented by the Organization of American States, including Peru, Bolivia, and Uruguay.

To accomplish this leftist axis, not to say communist, Paraguay and Argentina, bordering nations, would be forced by the axis to join.

The biggest anticommunist nation in Latin America is Brazil, and it seems that the communists were seeking to first revolt in Brazil until conquered and then to afterwards continue going north to create the same condition in the United States using Brazil as a base. But the recent "coup" in Bolivia temporarily frustrated their plans.

Referring to Chile, it can be said that the Marxist President, Salvador Allende, has done more for the communization of Chile in 10 months than Fidel Castro has done in 1212 years. The first slip had been the Cubanization of Chile.

Mr. ASHBROOK. May I ask what do you mean at that point “the first slip"?

Mr. REYES. The first step. I am sorry. I would like to apologize about my English. Sometimes it is no good, but really I am trying my best. I learned it the hard way, so actually it is step.

I would like to point out in this Cubanization of Chile that many of the Castro regime officials had been going back and forth to Santiago and to different parts of Chile. The personal bodyguards or the personal guards of the so-called socialist youngsters of Marxist President Allende are dressed with the Castro fatigue uniform; they use the beret and the star in the beret and the beard, Castro's type.

In fact, to support these theories later on I have film of this matter taken in Santiago de Chile.

Also, many films and delegations are going to Chile from Havana, Cuba, and more and more you see the Castro people inside Chile.

The Granma newspaper is sold openly in almost all the places of Chile. The wife of Raul Castro is right now in Chile, touring Chile, accompanied with the first lady of Chile, Mrs. Salvador Allende.

The actual situation in Chile is pitiful. There is a shortage of food and there is a speculation that they will soon establish a system of ration books such as they have in Cuba. Meanwhile, the Soviet Union is approaching Chile as well as Red China, and the Russians are engaged in building a fishing port in Valparaiso, just as they did in Havana. The fishing boats of Russia and Castro are used to transport communist agents as fifth columns to other countries for propaganda purposes as well as transport of ammunition and for acts of espionage.

Sources of undisputed credit have said that the majority of the members of the Cuban Navy, including the so-called fishing fleet, are Russians with false passports and assumed names.

In addition to this, the Fidel Castro government throughout the islands supports dozens of guerrilla schools where citizens of the Western Hemisphere receive training in rural and urban subversion methods.

Other special schools are to effect changes in voice and accent, habits, and ways of living so that the students can be ultimately sent to the United States or other countries on the American continent to do the work of a fifth column. They don't look like Cubans, but sound like Latin Americans.

Unconfirmed reports state that agents from communist Cuba are sent to the United States via the Virgin Islands or Puerto Rico.

One of the principal centers of contact and subversion in the United States is said to be the delegation of the Cuban regime in the United Nations.

I would like to point out at this time that a man by the name of Jesus Jiminez Escobar, a captain of the Castro Navy, was the one who brought from Europe the flagship of Castro's merchant marine, the Sierra Maestra. This man in 1968, after he brought the flagship, was engaged in the Cuban Navy, was sent as a delegate of Cuba to the United Nations and if I recall correctly, a few months later he was expelled from the United States because he was engaged in subversive acts.

There is no doubt that Castro is exporting his system not only to the Western Hemisphere but to the other two latitudes designated by the Tricontinental Conference.

Recently a man by the name of Captain Rodriguez Peralta from the Cuban Army, who fought with Castro in the 1950's, was made prisoner in Africa fighting side by side with the Portuguese rebels.

In the recent military coup in Bolivia, the new President, Hugo Bawzer, declared that they had arrested several Cubans that were in the university. Also, the International News Services said that there were not only Cubans but Chileans and Czechs, and these Cubans probably were promoting agitation and subversion.

I also brought with me papers like Granma, in which it is ratified that the Castro regime is following an aggressive line that violates the principles of nonintervention in the internal affairs of other countries. This has been done by promising in an editorial in the Granma newspaper, which is the official paper of the Communist Party of Havana, and in a speech delivered a few days ago that the Castro government would send or would give the moral and material support to those fighting the new government of Bolivia.

This is up to now my presentation, and I want to add that just on September 28, Castro made a speech in Havana to commemorate the initiation in Cuba of the so-called Revolution Committees of the Defense; and he stated that when the "Freedom Flights" are exhausted, if the United States engaged themselves in illegal practices to promote illegal exits from Cuba he has never pinned a medal on the chest of the hijackers, but then he will promote illegal situations over here in the United States.

I have to point out at this time that in the last 1212 years more than 19,000 Cubans have fled the island in small boats, 13, 14, 15 fect in length, rafts, kayaks, innertubes, anything that floats.

Just a month ago five Cubans came in a table. They put the table upside-down, attached some sails, and they came here. These 19,000 Cubans in 1212 years have left the island, not because it has been promoted by the United States, but they were seeking freedom and they were rejecting communism.

We know that these 19,000 have come to these shores. We don't know how many thousands are lying in the bottom of the sea in the Florida Straits killed by the Castro gunboats or by the fury of the elements.

So in the future we foresee that many other Cubans will come in the rafts and in boats, and Castro cannot blame the United States for these. But, of course, we can look into the hijackings that have been stepped up after the Tricontinental Conference. The planes have been hijacked in the skies of the Western Hemisphere, and there is something very peculiar, 99 percent of them wind up in Cuba. So we believe that the intellectual overseer of all these hijackings is Fidel Castro.

(At this point Mr. Ashbrook left the hearing room.) Mr. PEPPER. Doctor, do you find evidence that both Russian and Chinese agents are operating in Cuba?

Mr. REYES. Yes, sir. The Soviet Union little by little has been taking steps inside the island. I was a witness of a Castro takeover in 1959 when he came out of the Sierra Maestra, and this has been the process of 1212 years now. When he came out of the Sierra Maestra and entered Havana he never said that he was a communist; in fact, he came to the United States and in a program, I believe, called "Meet the Press”, it was coast to coast, in the middle of 1959, and he said, “I am a democrat.” A newswoman asked, "Are you a communist ?" bluntly, and he said, "No, Ma'am, I'm a democrat.”

Then the newswoman briefly rephrased the question and asked him, "Mr. Castro, if there is a confrontation between the East and the West, what would be your position ?" He said, “I would be with the Western World always." That was in 1959.

On December 1, 1961, he openly said, “I'm a Marxist-Leninist and I will remain one until the day I die.”

In the meantime, in these 2 years the Russians were pouring little by little in Cuba. In February 1960 Mikoyan put a wreath of Aowers in front of the bust of Jose Marti, our liberator, and the students of the University of Havana came into that place and wrecked the flowers, and Castro sent the police to arrest the university students.

The same man that said that he was going to be in the Western

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