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N aerial trolley car, driven by a on a firm foundation in the earth and are

propeller and with a carrying securely braced.

capacity of fifty-six passen- It is proposed to construct a double plå short stretch of track in one gers, is in actual operation on track system, one on each side of the

central poles, so as to equalize the pull of the suburbs of Los Angeles, Cali- in both directions. fornia. It is the invention of J. W. Probably the most remarkable feature Fawkes, who has made a fortune from of this aerial trolley is the propeller various patents.

which drives it along the track. It is a The car has a length of fifty feet, is radical departure from the type of prosix feet wide and seven-and-a-half feet peller in use on aeroplanes, having two high. It is of a torpedo or cigar shape, huge fan-shaped blades, which, the inwith a propeller at one end, and is built ventor claims, add greatly to the force of of angle steel and aluminum.

the thrust. The construction of the fanIt is suspended on an overhead rail of shaped blades is unique. They are of iron, three-and-a-half inches broad, and sheet iron, supported by frame work of this is scientifically trussed with iron seamless steel tubing. Each of these rods which are kept taut by a system of tubes is weldled into a disk of aluminum, turn buckles. Trolleys above and below an inch in thickness and six inches in diho!d the car firmly to the rail. The track ameter, and the driving shaft is suspended from twelve-inch wooden through this series of fifteen aluminum posts with iron bars, and these posts rest disks like a core.

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The propelier has a diameter of six engineer so as to get the benefit of the feet and is driven by a twenty-six horse- lifting power of the atmosphere, like power automobile engine. It is esti- the planes of an air craft. inated that the engine can drive the pro- It is estimated that this system can peller at the rate of 1,500 revolutions per be operated very economically and that minute and by actual test it has produced its construction cost would be low, about one thousand revolutions a minute. Al- $2,000 per mile to build while the cars though the one-hundred-and-fifty-foot could be built for about $1,500 each. track has made it impossible to test the When completed, the car will have a car for speed, it is believed it will be propeller at each end and will be furcapable of one hundred miles an hour nished with a removable cover or sheaf and as work is progressing on a large of aluminum, with celluloid windows. circular track the speed capacity of the In experimental runs, about forty people new invention will soon be known. have been carried at one time without

By an ingenious device for raising and any accident. The carrying capacity is lowering the car, the inventor expects

estimated at ten tons. to take on passengers or freight from It has been suggested that the aerial any level, thus doing away with the trolley be thoroughly tried out at some necessity of elevated stations. He pleasure resort, and with the practical claims that there are many advantages in knowledge thus gained, it could be perthis system of transportation. It would fected for transportation purposes on an do · away with grade crossings, as the extensive scale. cars could run through the country fifteen or twenty feet above the ground. If used in the cities, it would not disfigure the streets as does an ordinary elevated road; in fact, its appearance would not differ greatly from the ordinary trolley poles and wires and would not shut out sunlight nor drop oil or clinkers on the street, as do elevated steam roads.

The danger from collisions would be minimized, and yet it would be possible to attain greater speed than on an ordinary surface road. As the inventor's theory is, that the great momentum would lessen the weight of the car as it flew through space, a system of tilting planes under the car is arranged for. These planes would be adjusted by the


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ALIFORNIA boasts of pos- Mountains, is the famous Sylmar Olive sessing the largest olive Ranch, comprising 2,000 acres, planted groves in all the world, and to over 150,000 trees. This beautiful this immense property be- little valley is sheltered by the lofty

longs to the Los Angeles range-serving as a climate barrier, and Olive Growers' Association whose head- also as a picturesque background. quarters are located in Los Angeles.

The Sicily olive trees obtain the height One so associates the growth of the that elms usually do in England, and olive with the south of Europe and Ori- there are many quite one hundred feet ental lands, that it comes as a curious high, and measuring twenty feet in cirsurprise to find the greatest olive grove cumference at the base.

. However, the in the world is located at Sylmar in the trees at the Sylmar grove do not present Golden State.

such formidable dimensions and the vast Out in the San Fernando Valley, groves of the Los Angeles Olive Growtwenty-three miles north from Los An- ers' Association, through scientific prungeles, stretching over a broad expanse at ing and careful cultivation, are of the the base of the towering Sierra Madre convenient and uniform height of about WORLD'S LARGEST OLIVE ORCHARD



twenty feet. Thus science makes con- quickly reduce the fruit to a purple venient the harvesting of the olives.

The olives are plucked at the Sylmar The pulp thus obtained is next subgroves late in the summer and early in jected to the power of hydraulic presses. the fall months—weeks being required to Passing through the canvas-covered laycomplete the work of harvesting. The ers of pulp, the oil, mixed with the water gathering is done in a very systematic of the olives, runs down from the press manner—the many gangs of pickers in dark-colored, sluggish streams; the being under the personal supervision of water and sediment settle, leaving the bosses—and so the work progresses rap

turbid oil to be drawn off and filtered idly.

through cotton and gravel, after which Much care is observed in gathering it is turned into glass-lined cement tanks, the fruit from which the oil is to be ex- where it is left to settle and mature. tracted. A canvas is placed beneath a A final filtering leaves the oil clear and tree and with two pickers to a tree, one brilliant for bottling. Within two months mounted on a ladder, and one standing from the time the olives are gathered, the on the ground, the fruit is stripped from oil extracted therefrom is fit for table the branches, being allowed to drop from use; however, the oil improves, like wine, the hands of the pickers to the canvas. with age, and may be kept for almost any

In boxes the olives are carried to the reasonable length of time, if hermetically factory, and, after being weighed and sealed and stored in a very cool place. run through a fanning machine, to free From three hundred to five hundred them from leaves and dust that are al- gallons of pure olive oil, per day, are ways necessarily present, they are extracted at the great Sylmar Ranch dumped into crushers where huge wheels factory during the active harvest season. As to irrigation, these immense San olive trees are not thirsty souls, as, durFernando Valley groves receive no other ing some seasons, rains do not fall once irrigation than the winter rains since they in three months. Yet the thrifty conwere planted some years ago. The soil dition of the trees and the yield of fruit of the ranch is composed of the wash of are not noticeably affected by dry the Sierra Madres, and is of exhaustless weather. The climatic and soil conrichness and fertility. Evidently the ditions of San Fernando Valley are





The oil and preserving factory may be seen in the distance.

peculiarly favorable to success of the olive industry.

San Fernando is the center of the great olive industry of California, though there are many large olive orchards in other sections of the state. There are the oldest olive trees in California, having been planted by the Spanish padres more than a century ago.

The olive industry has been, and is constantly increasing in California since its first introduction by the early Spanish mission fathers; and the olive culture can never be overdone in that state since the olive

can be produced only in OLIVE TREE LADEN With Fruit, SHOWING A PICKER AT Work.

central and southern Cali

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