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make these concepts clear. (It would be fitting at this point to study how the workers of the imperialist countries gradually lose their international class spirit under the influence of a certain complicity in the exploitation of the dependent countries and how this fact at the same time wears away the militant spirit of the masses within their own national context, but this topic is outside the framework of the present note).
In any case we can see the obstacle course which may apparently be overcome by an individual with the necessary qualities to arrive at the finish line. The reward is glimpsed in the distance and the road is solitary. Furthermore, it is a race of wolves: he who arrives does so only at the expense of the failure of others.
| shall now attempt to define the individual, the actor in this strange and moving drama that is the building of socialism, in his two-fold existence as a unique being and a member of the community.
I believe that the simplest approach is to recognize his un-made quality: he is an unfinished product. The flaws of the past are translated into the present in the individual consciousness and constant efforts must be made to eradicate them. The process is two-fold: on the one hand society acts upon the individual by means of direct and indirect education, while on the other hand, the individual undergoes a conscious phase of self-education.
COMPETE FIERCELY WITH THE PAST
The new society in process of formation has to compete very hard with the past. This makes itself felt not only in the individual consciousness, weighed down by the residues of an education and an upbringing systematically oriented towards the isolation of the
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individual, but also by the very nature of this transition period, with the persistance of commodity relations. The commodity is the economic cell of capitalist society; as long as it exists, its effects will make themselves felt in the organization of production and therefore in man's consciousness,
Marx's scheme conceived of the transition period as the result of the explosive transformation of the capitalist system torn apart by its inner contradictions; subsequent reality has shown how some countries, the weak limbs, detach themselves from the imperialist tree, a phenomenon foreseen by Lenin. in those countries, capitalism has developed sufficiently to make its effects feit upon the people in one way or another, but it is not its own inner contradictions that explode the system after exhausting all of it's possibilities. The struggle for liber. ation against an external oppressor, the misery which has its origin in foreign causes such as war whose consequences make the pri. vileged classes fall upon the exploited, the liberation movements aimed at overthrowing neocolonial regimes, are the customary factors in this process. Conscious action does the rest.
A RAPID CHANGE WITHOUT
In these countries there still has not been achieved a complete education for the work of society, and wealth is far from being within the reach of the masses through the simple process of appropriation, Underdevelopment and the customary flight of capital to "civilized" countries make impossible a rapid change without sacrifices. There still remains a long stretch to be covered in the building of the economic base and the temptation to follow the beaten paths of material interest as the lever of speedy
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development, is very great.
There is a danger of not seeing the forest because of the trees. Pursuing the chi mera of achieving socialism with the aid of the blunted weapons left to us by capitalism (the commodity as the economic cell, profito ability and individual material interest as levers, etc.), it is possible to come to a blind alley. And the arrival there cores about after covering a long distance where there are many crossroads and where it is difficult to realize just when the wrong turn was taken. Meanwhile, the adapted economic base has undermined the development of consciousness. To build comunism, a new man must be created simultaneously with the material base.
That is why it is so important to choose correctly the instrument of mass mobilization. That instrument must be fundamentally of a moral character, without forgetting the correct use of material incentives, especially those of a social nature.
SOCIETY MUST BE A HUGE SCHOOL
As I already said, in moments of extreme danger it is easy to activate moral incenlives; to maintain their effectiveness, it is necessary to develop a consciousness in which values acquire new categories. Society as a whole must become a huge school.
The broad characteristics of the phenomenon are similar to the process of formation of capitalist consciousness in the system's first stage. Capitalism resort's to force but is also educates people in the system,
Direct propaganda is carried out by those who are entrusted with the task of explaining the inevitability of a class regime, whether it be of divine origin or due to the imposition of nature as a mechanical entity. This olacates the masses, who see themselves op
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pressed by an evil against which it is not possible to struggle.
This is followed by hope, which differentiates capital i sm from the previous caste regimes that offered no way out.
For some, the caste formula continues in force: the obedient are rewarded by the post mortem arrival in other wonderful world where the good are requited, and the old tradition is continued. For others, innovation: the division in classes is a matter of fate, bui individuals can leave the class to which they belong through work, initiative, etc. This process, and that of self-education for success, must be deeply hypocritical; it is the interested demonstration that a lie is true.
in our case, direct education acquires much greater importance. Explanations are convenient because they are genuine; subterfuges are not needed. It is carried out through the State's educational apparatus in the form of general, technical and ideologia cal culture, by means of bodies such as the Ministry of Education and the Party's infor -mation apparatus. Education takes among the masses and the new attitude that is praised tends to become habit; the mass gradually takes it over and exerts pressure on those who have still not become educated, This is the indirect way of educating the masses, a's powerful as the other structured one.
THE PROCESS OF INDIVIDUAL
But the process is a conscious one; the individual receives the inpact of the nel? social power and perceives that he is not completely adequate to it Under the influence of the pressure implied in indirecteducation, he tries to adjust to a situation that he feels to be just and whose lack o:
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development has kept him from doing so thus far.
He is educating himself.
We can see the new man who begins to emerge in this period of the building of socialism. His image is as yet unfinished; in fact it will never be finished, since the process advances parallel to the development of new economic forms. Discounting those whose lack of education makes them tend towards the solitary road, towards the satisfaction of their ambitions, there are others who, even within this new picture of overall advances, tend to march in isolation from the accompanying mass.
What is important is that people become more aware every day of the need to incorporate themselves into society and of their own importance as motors of that society.
They no longer march in complete solitude along lost roads towards far-off longings. They follow their vanguard, composed of the Party, of the most advanced workers, of the advanced men who move along bound to the masses and in close communion with them, The vanguards have their eyes on the future and its recompenses, but the latter are not envisioned as some thing individual; the reward is the new society where human beings will have different characteristics: the society of communist man.
A LONG AND DIFFICULT ROAD
The road is long and full of difficulties. At times, the route strays off course and it is necessary to retreat; at times, a too rapid pace separates us from the masses and on occasions the pace is slow and we feel upon our necks the breath of those who follow upon our heels. Our ambition as revolutionaries makes us try to move forward as far as possible, opening up the way before us, but we know that we must be reinforced