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In Huddersfield, cne of the great woollen manufacturing Our excellent contenporary, London, November 22, towns of Yorkshire, about twenty-five miles from Manchester, published a report of the working of Leeds tramway

the street-car lines have been both owned and operated by the under its new municipal management. Leeds has city for some years. Huddersfield has a population of about municipalised her street railways since February 2, with

131,000. The tramway system was built and equipped by the a result that she has reduced the hours of the con

city at a cost of £86,000. On this sum, which was borrowed ductors, raised their wages, added to these numbers the

for the purpose, the city pays an interest of three and one-half

per cent., but charges its railway department six and onenumber of the passengers, paid the interest upon the

quarter per cent. to cover depreciation, etc. In 1889 the net money sunk, and made a profit of £1,550. They ought to

earnings were $1,300. The employés work only eight hours a have made a profit of £400 more if they had been able to day, or forty-eight hours in the week, and are uniformed at the carry out their determination to put by £2,000 a year as expense of the city. a sinking fund with which to defray the whole cost of the In Paris, the omnibus and tramway company pays to the tran ways and plant. The experience of Leeds supple- city £40,000 a year, and, in addition, £80 annually for every ments that of other towns; some particulars concerning

omnibus and £60 for every street-car. As there were 639 whose tramways are given in an interesting article in the

omnibuses in use in 1889, and 300 street-cars, the receipts Cosmopolitan for November, from which the following

from this source must have been very nearly £70,000, making

a total revenue from this company of something like £110,000. extracts are taken :

There are two other street-railway companies, from one of In many cities and towns of Great Britain the local

which the city receives £60 a year for each car, and from the authorities have the free use of the tramways between other £30. midnight and six o'clock in the morning, for transporting

In Berlin, the surface transit is in the hands of a street-car garbage, road-material, etc. This often saves the trouble and and an omnibus company. The Berlin company, notwithespense of much heavy trucking through the streets.

standing its heavy obligations to the municipality, to which it Among the leading cities of Great Britain which own their

pays £50,000 per annum, pays annual dividends of twelve and street-tracks are Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, Edin one-half per cent., besides accumulating a sinking-fund, burgh, and Glasgow. The county council of London has

which, when the concession expires, will result in paying the recently decided to take possession of the tramway systems of shareholders double the par value of their shares. North and South London.

The writer of the article then goes on to describe the LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER.

working of the tramway system in Australia. In Sydney Liverpool, some years ago, purchased and reconstructed its tramway lines, and has a system which, for thoroughness of

the street railways were laid down by the colonial govern

ment. construction, is regarded as a model of its kind. The city now

In Victoria, twelve municipalities, including owns about fifty miles of track, which are leased to a private

Melbourne, made their own tramways and leased them to corporation at about £600 a mile, the municipality keeping the private companies for terms of thirty-two years, at the tracks in order. The company is unpopular, and there is a end of which time the entire property reverts to the strong publio demand that the city shall assume the operation public. The company pays the interest and creates a of the lines.

sinking fund, which will in time pay off the money which Manchester has about fifty miles of track all constructed by the municipality sunk in constructing the lines. A full the city, the company operating the lines leased them in 1877

account is also given of the experiment in Toronto, which for a term of twenty-one years. The city receives about

is described as the most important instance of public £20,000 a year for its fifty miles of single track; this, however,

control thus far known in America. It is rather cruel is not net revenue, for it is obliged to maintain the tracks and remove snow and ice in winter. A notable feature of the publishing all these details in an American magazine, Manchester system is the treatment of employés. While they

where, as the writer admits, the street railıvays 'furnish have to work twelve hours a day, they are pairl 5s. a day for

the most notorious and monumental example of corrupt seven days in the week, but have to work only five days of the municipal government, and steadily augment the woek,

responsible power of the plutocracy over the possessions,

the liberty and the lives of the people. Birmingham owns about forty miles of single track, partly built by the city and partly purchased and reconstructed. The various lines are leased to several companies for twenty

Music Hall License. one years. For the first fourteen years the companies pay, Mr. R. H. DAVIES, writing in Harper's Magazine on beside their ordinary taxes, four per cent. annually on the

“The Show Places of Paris,” refers incidentally to the gross cost of construction, including repairs, an for the

license which is allowed in Paris at the open-air concerts, remaining seven years five per cent. annually. The example of Glasgow promises to be of particular

and contrasts it with the different response accorded 10 interest, for the reason that the city has the privilege of

similar songs in New York:operating its lines. The company's lease expired on July 1, Yvette Guilbert's songs are beyond anything that one finds in 1894, and the city council decided, by the overwhelming the most impossible of French novels or among the legends of the vote of fifty to sis, to assume the management of the lines. Vienpese illustrated papers. These latter may treat of certain

The Glasgow tramway system has a length of thirty-one subjects in a too realistic or in a stoffing but amusing manner, miles. It was built by the city at a cost of about £350,000. but Guilbert talks of things which are limited generally to the The accumulation of the sinking-fund will, at the expiration clinique of a hospital and the blague of medical students; things of the lease, leave the city burdened with ouly about one-third which are neither funny, witty, nor quaint, but simply pasty the cost, and the total receipts in rentals have been nearly and offensive. The French audiences of the open-air concerts, £500,000. There is a demand for shorter working hours on however, enjoy these, and encore her six times nightly. At the part of the employes and for lower fares. It is probable Pastor's Theatre last year a French girl sang a song which that both will be conceded under municipal management. probably not one out of three hundred in the audience under

In Edinburgh, where the lines were also built by the city, stood, but which she delivered with such appropriateness of the lease to the company expires in 1891. . It appears likely gesture as to make her meaning plain. When she left the that municipal management will also be assumed there. Out stage there was absolute silence in the house, and in the wings of 155 tramways in Great Britain, twenty-seven are owned by the horrified manager seized her by the arms, and in spite of the local authorities.

her protests refused to allow her to reappear.


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THEIR PLACE IN LITERATURE. MR. FREDERIC HARRISON is entertaining the readers of the Forum with a series of studies on the great Victorian writers. The first treats of Carlyle. In the September issue his subject is Macaulay, who, he says, has had the greatest body of readers, and is the most admired prose writer of the Victorian era. Mr. Harrison doubts whether his work has given him a foremost place in British literature; still, his verdict on the whole is favourable.

For my part, I am slow to believe that the judgment of the whole English-speaking race, a judgment maintained over more than half a century, can be altogether wrong. .. No one denies that Macaulay had a prodigious knowledge of books; that in literary fecundity and in varied improvisation he has never been surpassed ; that his good sense is unfailing, his spirit manly, just, and generous; and lastly, that his command over language had unequal qualities of precision, energy, and brilliance.

Mr. Harrison then procce ls to criticise in detail the well-known passage in Macaulay's essay upon Von Ranke, in which he describes the Papacy. He says :

It is declamation-fine declamation—but we miss the musical undertones, the subtle involutions, the unexpected bursts, and mysterious cadences of really great written prose. Now Macaulay was a rhetorician, a consummate rhetorician, who wrote powerful invectives or panegyrics in massive rhetoric which differed from speeches mainly in their very close fibre, in their chiselled phrasing, and above all in their dazzling profusion of literary illustration.

A GLORIFIED JOURNALIST." Passing on to criticise Macaulay's History, Mı. Harrison points out that the habit of false emphasis and the love of superlatives are defects from which he cannot be acquitted. But although his superlatives are frequent, it should not be forgotten that his praise and blame aro usually just and true. His style, with all its defects, has had a solid effect, and has done great things. He stands between philosophies and histories very much as the journal and the periodical stand between the masses and great libraries. Macaulay was a gloritied journalist and reviewer :

There cannot be a doubt that Gibbon's “ Decline and Fall is immeasurably superior to Macaulay's fragment, in thought, in imagination, in form, in all the qualities of permanent history; it stands on a far higher plane; it will long outlast and overshadow it. Compared with this, Macaulay's delightful and brilliant pictures are mere glorified journalism.

Even this does not content Mr. Harrison, who proceeds to dismiss Micaulay's History as not so much journalism as an historical novel drawn from authentic documents. It is interesting, but it is not history. Mr. Harrison concludes his essay by a lament that Macaulay was not a great historian as well as a magnificent literary artist.

DISRAELI A POLITICAL SATIRIST. Mr. Harrison's October study is a vivid and brilliant sketch of Disraeli's place in literature. He regrets that Disraeli's political leadership has obscured his literary reputation, but looks forward to the Jingo Premier being some day forgotten in the Man of Letters.

Disraeli, he holds, “ belongs to that very small group of real political satirists of whom Swift is the type." His satires “bring him into the company of Swift, Voltaire, and Montesquieu.” He has “touches of their lightning-flash irradiating society." Yet

His romances as well as his satires are wholly unlike anything English; and though he had brilliant literary powers, he never acquired any serious literary education. Much as he had read, he had no learning, and no systematic

knowledge of any kind. He was never, strictly speaking, even an accurate master of literary English, . . . But since Swift we have had no Englishman who could give us a vivid and amusing picture of our social and political life, as laid bure to the eyeof a consummate political genius.

WIT, PARTY-MAKEL AND PROPHET. Passing to consider his works in order, Mr. Harrison premises that

He did not produce immortal romances-he knew nothing of an ingenious plot, or a striking situation, or a creative character--but he did give us iniinitable political satires and some delicious social pantomimes; and le presented these with an original wit in which the French excel, which is very rare indeed in England.

Vivian Grey is a lump of impudence; “ The Young Duke” is a lump of affectation; " Alroy” is ambitious balderdash. The books on which Disraeli's reputation alone can be founded are Coningsby," “ Sybil," and “Lothair.” As a sketch of the inner life of the Parliamentary system of fifty years ago “ Coningsby” is perfect and has never been approached. No novel before or since ever created a political party and provided them with a new programme. Coningsby” and “Sybil” really did this.

It shows astonishing prescience to have seen exactly fifty years ago that the Church of England might yet become a considerable political power, and could be converted, by a revival of Mediæval traditions, into a potent instrument of the new_Tory Democracy. When we consider all the phases. of Tory Democracy, Socialistic Toryism, and the current type of Christian Socialism, we may come to regard the ideas propounded in “Sybil” as not quite so visionary as they appeared to the Whigs, Radicals, Free Traders, and Benthamites of fifty years ago.

THACKERAY'S “ COXEDY OF MANNERS." The November number gives Mr. Harrison's estimate of Thackeray. He specially insists on “his consummate mastery of style,”—a style "at once simple, pure, nervous, flexible, pathetic and graceful.” This “ places Thackeray amongst the very greatest masters of English prose, and undoubtedly as the most certain and faultless. of all the prose writers of the Victorian age.” And it was "perfectly formed from the beginning” and maintained throughout: a "prodigious precocity in style and “uniform perfection of exact composition " which are "perhaps without parallel in English literature." His “ force lay in the comedy of manners.

It is hardly extravagant to say of Thackeray that, of all the Englishmen of this century, he has written the best comedy of manners, the best extravaganza, the best burlesque, the best parody, and the best comic song.

Thackeray's masterpiece beyond question is “Vanity Fair" —which as a comedy of the manners of contemporary life is quite the greatest achievement in English literature since “ Tom Jones.” ... The great triumph of “ Vanity Fair"—the great triumph of modern fiction-is Becky Sharp: a character which will ever stand in the very foremost rank of English literature.

WAS HE A CYNIC ? Repelling the charge of misanthropy, Mr. Harrison feels obliged to admit-. that in all these twenty-six volumes and hundreds of mer and women portrayed, there is not one man or one woman having at once a noble character, perfect generosity, powerful mind, and lovable nature; or one man or one woman of tender heart and perfect honour but has some trait that tends to make him or her either laughable or tedious. It is not so with the supreme masters of the human heart. Thackeray, with a fine and sympathetic soul, had a creative imagination that was far stronger on the darker and fouler side of life than it was on the brighter and purer side of life. He saw the bright and pure side ; he loved it, he felt with it, he made us love it. But his artistic genius worked with more free and consummate zest when he painted the dark and the foul.

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their peers.

CROMWELL AND THE HOUSE OF LORDS. its own members from the operation of that law. In similar "THE LORD PROTECTOR AND THE SECOND CHAMBER. fashion peers who were officers of justice or ministers of State MR. Firth in Macmillan's Magazine has an interesting

were to be accountable to the judgment of the House of

Commons for any mal-administration, but those who held no paper which has very direct bearing upon present con official position were to retain the right of being judged by troversies. In the December number he publishes the first part of an essay in which he attempts to set forth Events, however, marched too rapidly for this committce. Cromwell's opinions as to the Pcers and Second Chambers The Rump Parliament beheaded the King and abolished generally. As Lord Rosebery quoted Cromwell as a pre the House of Lords, and was in its turn turned out into cedent for his racehorses, so he may invoke the Lord

the streets by Cromwell and his men. The government of Protector in defence of his plea for a Second Chamber.

the Commonwealth was then placed in the hands of the Cromwell, as every one has learned to recognise by this

Lord Protector and a single Chamber. Under this instru

ment two Parliaments were held. The first was dismissed time, although the leading figure in a great revolution,

because it would insist on meddling with fundamentals was one of the most conservative and the most which Cromwell held to be beyond its power, the second opportunist of politicians. At the beginning of his by getting into a wrangle with the Lord Protector about military career he earned for himself the reputation of James Naylor, a blasphemous Quaker. being a violent anti-lordliog, which his subsequent actions HOW HE WAS CONVERTED TO A SECOND CHAMBER, in no way justified.

This convinced him of the necessity of a Second HIS EARLY ATTACKS ON THE LORDS.

Chamber. Mr. Firth says: The cause for this was in the attack which he made upon The quarrel between the army and the Parliament in 1647, the lethargy of Manchester. Mr. Firth says :

followed by the breach between the two powers which ended in Manchester was, according to Robert Baillie, “ a sweet meek the rupture of 1653, had produced in the minds of the officers man," but his meekness now deserted him, and he retorted a deep distrust of omnipotent Parliaments. They bad learned, with the greatest acerbity. Not contenting himself with as they said in one of their declarations in 1647, “ that Parliadenying the charges of military misconduct or political luke ment privileges as well as Royal prerogative may be perverted warmness, he accused Cronwell of attacking the House of and abused to the destruction of those greater ends for whose Lords and the peerage in general. He had once trusted protection and preservation they were intended, viz., the rights Cromwell, he said, but of late he had been obliged to withdraw and liberties of the people.” A House of Commons of unlimited his confidence. “ I grew jealous that his designs were not us powers, always in session, not content with its proper business he made his professions to me; for liis expressions were some of legislating but taking upon itself by its committees to supertimes against the nubility; that he hoped to live to see never sede the ordinary courts of law, uniting in itself the legislative, å nobleman in England, and that he loved such better than judicial, and executive powers, seemed to Cromwell and his others because they did not love lords." Cromwell, added one officers " the horridest urbitrariness that ever was exercised in of Manchester's witnesses, had rejoiced when Royalist peers the world." were slain, saying “ that God fought against them, for God But no incident had more effect in convincing him of the would have no lording over His people." He was necessity of a Second Chamber. “Here,” said a member, reported to have told Manchester to liis face that “things summing up the dispute about Naylor's case, “ here is your would never be well till he was but plain Mr. Montague.” power asserted on the one hand; the supreme magistrate on Cromwell carried lis point. The self-cnying ordinance

the other, desiring an account nf your judgment. Where

shall there be tertius arbiter? It is a hard case. No judge was passed, and the New Model made short work of Charles Stuart and his friends. Two years after Naseby

upon earth.” It was evidently necessary that there should be

some power established to judge between the Protector and the army met to decide what should be done in the way

the Parliament when they differed as to the interpretation of of constitutional revision. There were two parties : one the Constitution, and to support the Protector in defending for demolishing the House of Lords, and the other for a against the encroachments of the legislative authority the less drastic method of dealing with them.

sights guaranteed to all Englishmen by its clauses. Such THE COMPROMISE OF 1647.

was the view which Cromwell expressed to a deputation of a Cromwell sided against the more advanced party.

hundred officers who came to him in February, 1657, to protest Ultimately, at his instance largely,

against the proposed revival of the monarchy and the House

of Lords. By its proceedings of this Parliament, you see a committee was appointed to consider by what constitutional they stand in need of a check, or balancing power, for the case changes its continued existence could be reconciled with the of James Naylor might happen to be your own case. By their safety of the nation and with the practical supremacy of the judicial power they fall upon life and member, and doth the representatives of the people. One plan suggested was that Instrument enable me to control it?” the Lords and Commons should sit as one House, in which case the thirty or forty lords qualified to sit would be permanently

By way of providing a check, or balancing power, it was outvoted and made powerless. Another was to give the House

decided to constitute a Second Chamber, the nomination of Lords merely a suspensive veto on the laws presented by the

for the members of which was left entirely in the hands Commons. But the solution finally adopted was much more

of the Lord Protector. Mr. Firth here breaks off his complicated than either. It was to be declared that the power narrative, which will be continued next month. of the House of Commons extended “to the enacting, altering, and repealing of laws, to the conclusive exposition and declara A WRITER in Blackwood's Magazine maintains that the tion of law, and to final judgment without further appeal, and New Woman, or rather the movement from which she generally to all things concerning the Commonwealthi." While

springs, has at its bottom an economic cause. The real the supremacy of the House of Commons was thus to be

trouble of the woman of the moment is not that men are established, the House of Lords was still to exist, though its legislative and judicial rights were to be reduced to a minimum.

wicked, but that men will not marry her. And the real For the future, as in the past, laws would be presented to the

reason why men do not marry her is because they cannot Lords for their assent. But whether they assented or not, any

afford it. It is not because they would not marry if they law enacted by the House of Commons would be binding on all could; but, says the writer : the Commons of England. If the House of Lords dissented, all The real reason must be sought in the bad times, in the that it could do would be to exempt the persons and estates of gloom and nncertainty of the present business outlook,


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By R. H. SHERARD. IN McClure's Magazine, Mr. R. H. Sherard bas recently given a description of the home life of Alphonse Daudet, his method of work and opinions. The novelist lives, it appears, in the fashionable Faubourg St. Germain quarter, on the fourth floor of a house " which is reputed to possess the most elegant staircase of any apartment house in Paris !” but Mr. Sherard happily devotes only a page to upholstery, and gets rapidly to the more important facts of his existencc.

A native of Provence--his name indicates a descent from Moorish settlers-Daudet's “childhood was miserable a one as can be fancied,” its most vivid recollection a terrible fear of mad dogs. Once he nearly met such an animal:

Since then I have an absolute horror of dogs, and, by extension, indeed, of all animals. People have reproached me for this, and say that a poet cannot disliko animals. I can't help it. I hate them all. I think that they are what is ugly and vile in nature. They are caricatures of all that is most loathsome and base in man; they are the latrines of humanity. And, curiously enough, all my children have inherited this same horror for dogs.

The nervousness which these confessions of childhood disclose shows itself again and again through the novelist's life: it is the one note which makes itself apparent in everything that he told Mr. Sherard. As a child he longed for the sea. “How I devoured the first novels that I read, Midshipman Easy, by Marryat, “Robinson Crusoe,' and The Pilot,” he says. Daudet's first poem appeared in the Gazette de Lyons in 1855, when he was only fifteen, and soon after that, he says, “I entered upon a period of tho blackest misery, of the darkest Bohemianism”:

I have suffered in the way of privation all that a man could suffer. I have known days without bread; I have spent days in bed because I had no boots to go out in. I have had boots which made a squashy sound each step that I took. But what made me suffer most was, that I often had to wear dirty linen, because I could not pay a washerwoman. Often I had to fail to keep appointments given me by the fair-I was a handsome lad and liked by ladies--because I was too dirty and shabby to go. I spent three years of my life in this way-from the age of eighteen to twenty-one.

And even when this terrible period of poverty had passed, Daudet's life was by no means a bed of roses :

As to my success: About, writing for the Athenæum, came to see me in 1872, to ask me what I was earning.

He was writing something about the incomes of various meri of letters, and, making up my accounts, I found that the amount of my average earnings at that time from literature was five thousand francs a year. Two years later, that is to say in 1874, I published“ Froment jemme et Risler nine,” which brought me a great reputation, and greatly increased my income. Since 1878 I never made less than a hundred thousancl frånce a year, including my plays and novels.

Daudet does not resemble his friend and confrère, the author of " Nana,” in being a regular worker :

My way of working is irregularity itself. Sometimes I work for eighteen hours a day, and day after day. At other times I

pass months without touching a pen. I write very slowly, ana revise and revise. I am never satisfied with my work. My novels I always write myself. I never could dictate a novel. As to my plays, I used formerly to dictate them. That was when I could walk. I had a certain talent in my legs. Since my illness I have had to abandon that mode of work, and I regret it. I am au improvisator, and in this respect differ from Zola.

The illness to which he here refers has left him, Mr. Sherard says, in the saddest state:

He cannot move about the room but with the help of his stick; he has many nights when, racked with pain, he is unable to sleep; and it is consequently with surprise that those who know him see that he never lets an impatient word or gesture escape him, even under circumstances when one or the other would be perfectly justitiable. The consequence is, that Daulet has not a single enemy in the world. There are many who do not admire his work; but none who do not love the man for his sweetness, just as all are fascinated with his brilliant wit.

Of his memories and of the war M. Daudet has a good deal to say; but it is his literary tastes which are

the most interesting to English readers :

As to my literary creed, it is one of absolute independence for the writer. I have always rebelled against the three classic traditions of French literature ; that is to say, the French Academy, the Théâtre Français, and the Revue des Deux Mondes. I consider the Academy a collection of mediocrities, and would hold myself dishonoured to be one of them. And he goes on to say that it is in his son, Léon Daudet, in Maurice Barrés, and in some other young men, lies the future of French literature.

I must quote one more passage from this interesting article, which has a particular importance at the present moment. He was speaking of the Panama scandals :

“If the people haven't revolted," he said, " and if there has been no revolution caused by abominations which

only a few years ago would have caused barricades to rise in every street of Paris, it is because, as I have noticed, a complete transformation has been effected in the character of the French people, during the last ten or fifteen years, by the militarism to which the country has been subjected sinco tho enforcement of the new army laws. The fear of the corporal is upon every Frenchman, and it is discipline that keeps quiet the men who, fifteen years ago, would have protested at the point of the bayonet against the abominable scoundrels who are plundering France."



The Teaching of Housewifery. WRITING in the North American Review for November, Miss Elizabeth Bisland pleads for giving women more technical training in the work to which they have for the most part to devote their lives. She says:-

The old practical rule-of-thumb apprenticeship of the household having passed away, something should replace it. Why should not schools for girls give courses of instruction in housewifery—not the mere cooking of chops or lusting of chairs, but instruction as to how houses should be made and furnished and their sanitation assured; in the chemistry of cooking, of foods, and of assimilation; in the laws of physiology and hygiene, und something about fundamental economics, of which the average woman is totally ignorant, though she is the spender and distributor of the money the men accumulate ?

own of a



made towards its construction : and doubtless the study of BY PROFESSOR HENRY SIDGWICK.

biology would be a valuable preparation for any thinker who

may attempt to further its progress. But I think that the “ POLITICAL Prophecy and Sociology” is the title of a biologist who is to succeed in this attempt will have to kuow suggestive study by Professor Henry Sidgwick in the

a little more history than Mr. Kidd. National Review. He runs full tilt against George Eliot's

MORE GOSSIP BY SIR EVELYN WOOD. saying that prophecy is the most gratuitous mistake that men commit. He boldly affirms that “all rational action

SIR EVELYN Wood's charming reminiscences of his is based on belief of what is going to happen; all experts

boyhood in the trenches before Sebastopol are continued

in the Fortnightly, but not concluded. When they are in all practical callings are always prophesying." He reprinted, as I presume they will be, they will form a very goes on to remark on the increase in the importance of delightful volume of stories about our last great European prophecy owing to the increased prevalence of the war, which will be a universal favourite especially with “ historical method” of dealing with Social questions, but boys. His pages teem with adventures personal and he suggests the limits within which forecasts have value. otherwise. Take, for instance, this story of how he was The late Mr. Pearson, he says, failed in scientific grasp of

frozen tight in a battery :the laws of social evolution. His empirical forecasts

In the second week of December, I went to sleep in the proceeded too boldly on the assumption that what is will

21-gun battery about 8 p.m., when it was freezing, and I was

more anxious to get out of the wind than into a dry spot. The continue to be, or that what has happenel will happen

wind dropped and it rained about 2 a.m., when, although I again. Mr. Sidgwick reminds us that Individualism felt I was getting wet, I was too tired to rise. When I tried once seemed as inevitably the coming millennium as to do so just before daylight, I could not move, the water Collectivism does to many now; and remarks “how having frozen around me, for with the coming day the impossible it would practically have been to prophesy on temperature had fallen. My comrades carried me back, and empirical grounds any one of the revivals of religious putting hot bottles to my feet and around my body, with sentiment that have taken place during the history of

loving care and attention saved me from frost-bite. Christianity.” He points out that Comte's

Notwithstanding this experience he maintains that:-criterion of the effective establishment

The climate of the Crimea, though more variable, is but science-the test of

of experts


little more inclement than that of the North of England. continuity of scientific work—is not satisfied by the

The frightful destruction of life was due, not to the present progress of social dynamics. Mr. Kidd's Social Evolution is adduced as proof. While sympathising with

exceptional ferocity of the elements, but to the scandalons

lack of provision on the part of our own Government. Mr. Kidd's complaint of historians' lack of guiding

He says: generalisation, Mr. Sidgwick thinks Mr. Kidd's book is likely to confirm the historians in their distrust of the

England gave its little army, however, neither enough foort, generalisations of the professional sociologist whose

clothing, nor even medicines. We did not understand foeding

men, and animals fared still worse. knowledge is apt to be distinguished by range rather than depth or accuracy. He cites Mr. Kidd's assertion In proof of this assertion his pages literally bristle that“ the freemen of Rome could hardly be said to work; with ghastly stories of cruel privations heroically borne, they fought and lived on the produce of fighting"; and which no patriot can read without mingled pride and contrasts the story of Cincinnatus and the system of

shame. Speaking of the failure of the Commissariat colonisation. He sets the political evolution of Attica

Department, he says :against Mr. Kidd's remark that in all the Greek City Supply by contract failed in two great wars during the last States the ruling classes had a military origin. In thirty-tive years, and it is unlikely we shall during war trust Mr. Kidd's survey there. is much that is true

to such a system in future ; but unless our Commissariat and much that is

“ The difficulty is to

officers buy during peace they will not know their business in find anything that is both." Of the mediæval

Direct purchasers should, I think, be the rule at all Theocracy, tho Christian religion and the Teutonic

large military stations. invasions were equally essential factors; but " Mr. Kidd

His article abounds with homely pictures of the reality seems to treat the barbarian irruptions and their con of war; as for instance, take the following: sequences as a negligeable quantity.” Mr. Kidd speaks Few men till late in December had more than one shirt, of “the ultra-rational sanction” attaining in the Euro which they had worn incessantly day and night for weeks. pean Theocracy of the fourteenth century a strength and

During the last week of October, when the days were pleasantly influence never before known. Mr. Sidgwick contrasts

warm, our soldiers tried to wash their only shirt, and every the Avignon paper of this period with Plato and Aristotle,

afternoon iu the trenches the covering parties might be seen and suggests that the "narrow and egotistical morality"

sitting naked, and picking vermin of all kinds from their

garments. Now, their hair and bodies swarmed with lice: of Greece as shown in the latter is preferable to the

they had but one pair of lace boots, which when wet, they religion of altruism, the former exemplified. After

were afraid to take oft, lest they should fail to get them on further criticism, Mr. Sidgwick proceeds:

again. I do not deny that, in spite of the facts just mentioned-and many others of the same kind-there is still an important The Woman at Home's Christmas number has, besides element of truth in Mr. Kidd's arguments; but the truth, as he its fiction, a copiously illustrated account of the Queen of presents it, is distorted by exaggerations and omissions not only into error, but into absurdity. And there is similar

Italy, which will be found noticed elsewhere.

Archivo do Districto Federal is published by the muniexaggeration in what he says of the superior altruism of Protestant nations since the Reformation.

cipality of Rio de Janeiro. The last monthly number, But I have perhaps said enough to explain why I think that

just received, is well printed on good paper, contains one Mr. Kidd has left the science of society where he found it

plate, and has an ornamental cover. The object of this unconstructed, so far as the laws of social development are publication appears to be to form a collection of doc11concerned. It is permissible to hope that progress is being ments for a history of Rio de Janeiro.



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