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It is estimated that five hundred In the State of New York some eight thousand passengers are carried around million people are spending more than the Cape annually. When it is remem- one hundred million dollars for a canal bered that during a period of sixty to carry a tonnage which at its maxi
EAST FROM BOURNE ON THE COMPLETED SECTION The canal will be eight miles long and it is estimated that about five hundred thousand passengers will be carried through
years more than two thousand wrecks mum will probably never exceed occurred, and between seven and eight double the present tonnage of two milhundred lives were lost because of that lion. This New York State enterprise dangerous and frequently stormy and also is largely altruistic, as it will fog-bound route, the incalculable value greatly benefit all the States bordering of the canal as a safeguard to life and on the great lakes. Both the Panama craft will be apparent. This heavy toll and the Erie Canals are being financed in life and property will be vastly re and constructed by the Government, than fifty private citizens are engaged in Buzzard's Bay-where a remarkable the enterprise of constructing the Cape railway bridge was erected, with an Cod Canal.
opening of one hundred and sixty feet. Contrary to the expectation of some Here not merely ships of the present doubting ones, the construction of the may pass, but dreadnaughts of the canal has been found comparatively future, for the canal can, if necessary, easy from an engineering standpoint. be enlarged sufficiently to accommodate All sorts of difficulties were freely pre- such giant craft. dicted, such as huge boulders below In addition to safety and the exthe surface, quicksands, etc., but for- pediting of commerce, the Cape Cod tunately for those engaged in the work Canal long has been recognized as a these fears were largely imaginary. matter of military and naval imporHowever, since the New Haven Rail- tance. General Washington, in 1776, road crossed the valley three times, the saw this and ordered Thomas Machin construction company had to build and to survey the route which would "give pay for four miles of track in order to greater security to navigation and avoid all but one crossing—that at against the enemy."
MAKING THE DESERT SAFE
CHARLES A LMA BYERS
NLY a few years ago end to end by an automobile road, and
Death Valley, California, travel through it is quite common and
man or beast. Over this California has logged, or mapped, a barren parched
total of apexpanse are
proximately still strewn the
fifty-four hunbleached bones
dred miles of of numberless
roads in Southmen who, lured
western Neby the hope of
v a da and wealth, ven
Southern Calitured too far
fornia, and into its interior.
several hunIt unquestion
dred miles of it ably well de
is located in served its name
the desert —then. Today,
areas. Recenthowever, while
ly, this organstill more or
ization has less dangerous
been giving ELIMINATING UNRELIABLE SIGNS
The route and map service of the Southern California Automobile
Club is making the desert safe for the tourist
by careful work of this sort.
tion to making
the roads of the deserts safe, and there back to Barstow, the original starting is hardly a point of even minor impor- point, passing, respectively, through tance in any of these vast untamed ex- Searles, Randsburg, and Mojave. The panses but can be reached in an automo- total mileage of the loop is two hunbile with the
dred and sevuse of the
enty, a large club's maps.
part of which Several miles
penetrates of these desert
Death Valley, roads have
and all of even been post
which traverses ed with guides
desert country. to direct the
Another simitraveler from
lar road which point to point,
has just been and it is the in
posted is that tention of the
which extends organization to SETTING THE GUIDES
from Barstow continue its Men work in this di
distance of one rection until every road will possess these hundred and seventy miles. sign posts.
The old “Coleman-Borax Road”, about At present a total of four hundred one hundred and twelve miles in length, and forty miles of these desert roads used to freight borax out of Death Valley, has been posted. One of the most im- has been logged and is soon to be posted. portant stretches thus treated is that The "Daggett-Borax Road”, extending which extends from Barstow to Bal- from Daggett to Furnace Creek Ranch, larat, a distance of ninety-four miles. in Death Valley, a distance of eighty-nine From Ballarat the road, also posted, miles, is another of the important desert makes a'turn to the southwest and fin- roads that have been logged and will ally completes a broad gradual curve eventually be posted.
ROAD to CEYLON
By C. F. Carter
EA-GOING railroads are be
coming so common these days as almost to encourage faith in the ultimate materialization
of Lindenthal's theoretically possible bridge across the Atlantic. The latest of these seagoing railroads, constituting the so-called "Indo-Ceylon Connection”, unites the peninsula of India with the Island of Ceylon. There are certain facts in connection with this railway of peculiar interest:
The builders, a British corporation, had to come to America for the drawbridge by means of which navigation is kept open in the ship channel crossed by the sea-going railroad. This rolling lift bridge has the longest span of any similar structure yet built. The line was first proposed no less than thirty-eight years ago, long before Henry M. Flagler ever dreamed of building his famous salt water railroad to Key West. Finally, the new road follows a causewa y built a great many centuries ago, but subse
quently destroyed by the sea, according to Neville Priestly, Managing Director of the South Indian Railway.
A glance at a map of India will show that Ceylon lies some sixty miles southeast of the southern extremity of Hin
dustan, from which it is separated by the Gulf of Manar and Palk Strait. These waters are studded with small rocky islands, some of them overgrown with palms and presenting a singularly beautiful appearance. Between the Island of Manar on the northwest coast of Ceylon and the Island of Rameswaram on the coast of India is the ridge of sand banks called “Adam's Bridge”, which almost connects the Island of Ceylon with the continent, being intersected only by three shallow passages, the remainder being covered with two to six feet of water. These channels admit only very small vessels; but between Rameswaram and the mainland is Pamban Pass, a fourteen-foot channel dredged some fifty years ago for the benefit of the coasting
THE GREAT VIADUCT OF THE SEA-GOING RAILROAD TO CEYLON
THE LIFT BRIDGE IS THE AMERICAN CONTRIBUTION TO BRITISH ENTERPRISE
trade. This is the only navigable chan- was taken in the matter until 1894, nel between India and Ceylon.
when an estimate was prepared which Although so near to each other showed the cost of bridging the geographically, India and Ceylon were twenty-two miles of sea known as so far apart in practicable transporta- Adam's Bridge, as likely to be $8,750,tion routes that formerly the traveler 000. As this was more than the proshad to endure a voyage of two hundred pective traffic seemed to warrant, the miles in a small vessel across the rough idea was abandoned until 1906 when waters of the Gulf of Manar between Neville Priestly, then agent of the Tuticorin, the southernmost railroad South Indian Railway Company, proterminus on the mainland, and Co- posed a return to the Adam's Bridge lombo, Ceylon. This voyage magni- route on a compromise basis. That is, fied the horrors of the English Channel he proposed to build a sea-going railten-fold; and any man who wants to road part of the distance, leaving a gap be ten times as seasick as he can get of twenty miles to be covered by ferry on the passage between Dover and till the growth of traffic warranted the Calais is unreasonable. No wonder completion of the bridge for the entire the poor coolies used to think twice distance across the shallow waters bebefore venturing on such a trip, even tween India and the Island of Ceylon. when tempted by the comparatively This was such an obviously practical big wages offered in Ceylon.
solution that the company took it up. Whereas American railroad men are The work consisted of an extension of wont to build lines first and figure out the South Indian Railway, which runs where traffic is to come from after- south from Madras on the eastern ward, Englishmen demand to see the coast of the peninsula, from Mandacolor of the dividends before paying pam, on the mainland, to Dhanushkodi out money in construction. Although on the Island of Rameswaram; an exthe Indo-Ceylon connection was first tension from Madawachi on the main proposed in 1876, no definite action line of the Ceylon Government Rail