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is, I suppose, to distinguish you forward, as the herald of the from Sir JAMES GRAHAM, the designs of the Land-owners, to old Attorney, and the famous plunder the rest of the nation. agent of the Lowthers. In the You have promulgated a project, Baronetage Book I find you re- which, if it could be carried into presented, or rather, representing effect, would make England a yourself, as a prime aristocrat, country of the vilest slavery upon descended from the EARLS of the face of the whole earth. MONTEITH, in Scotland," and Before I go any further, let me having for ancestor, in the reign call upon you, or, rather, let me of Henry the Fourth of England, call upon my readers, in general; JOHN, surnamed "John with the let me call upon the public, in bright sword." I hope that John's short, to look well at the Motto to sword was brighter than your pen, this letter. You have got a motto or it must have been very much to your pamphlet. Yours is a like the sword of Hudibras. You Latin motto; and, it is just as apgo on, from "John with a bright plicable to the subjects of your sword," down to the present time, pamphlet; just as applicable or at least, to the date of your to a discussion relative to the Pedigree, tracing yourself along effects of a depreciated curthrough a wonderful parcel of rency, as it would be, to the Lords and Baronets and Parsons, matter contained in a treatise on till you come down to your own music or dancing. You are about precious self, who, as you tell us, to write on the ruin brought upon was born in 1761, married (1785) Landlords by peace and paperto "Lady CATHERINE STEWART, money. You are about to pro"eldest daughter of John, seventh mulgate a project for sponging off "Earl of GALLOWAY, K.T." Aye, the National Debt, and for laying, do not forget the K. T. for God's at the same time, a heavy permasake! You tell us that you had, nent tax upon bread: this is what in 1819, thirteen children. Four you were going to write about; sons and nine daughters, one and you take the following pasdaughter married to a Parson, sage of VIRGIL for a Motto, and another to a Major. These circumstances would be of no more importance to the public Tam multæ scelerum facies: non ullus aratro than the pedigree of those infer- Dignus honos; squalent abductis arva colonis. nal caterpillars, that I left at Now, the English of this is: Kensington devouring my Indian" When right and wrong are so corn, and the destruction of which" confounded; when War so reptiles I left an order to accom- "much prevails, and when there plish with all possible despatch." are so many kinds of crime, the These circumstances relating to plough cannot receive due hoyou and your family, would be "nour, and the fields, deprived of of no more importance to my "their cultivators, must lie fallow readers than the pedigree, I say, "and fall into decay." of those nasty voracious caterpil lars; but you have been thrusted forward, or have poked yourself

Quippe ubi fas versum atque nefas, tot bella


..per orbem,

Now, "Sir James Graham, Baronet, of Netherby," do tell us, man, what this Motto about


was agreed to by that public-spirited County, in St. Andrew's Hall, in the City of Norwich, on the third of January, 1823; let it be borne in mind, that this Petition now stands on the Journals of the House of Commons.

wars, about crimes of Soldiers, | Petition; and, let it be borne in about pressing Farmers to go to mind, that this Petition, which the wars; do tell us, thou Son-inlaw of the seventh Earl of Galloway, K. T. (never forgetting the K. T.); do tell us, thou descendant of "John with the bright sword;" do tell us, or I shall go crazy, what the devil this Motto has to do with the affairs After this preface, I come to the of a Country, which has been subject matter of your pamphlet, twelve years at Peace, and which which I pronounce to be a base knows of no torments, except production; an insult to the mothose of National Debts and rals of the Nation, an attack on per-money; and the high state of its character for justice and coucultivation of the lands of which rage; a literary crime which calls is known to the whole world, and for immediate punishment, which is an everlasting boast amongst punishment, it is my duty as well all the Land-owners in the coun- as my inclination to inflict; and, try! Do tell us, then, what in order to discharge that duty, Í could induce thee to choose this shall, first of all, describe the obMotto. I will tell thee what it ject which you have in view, and was, then. The Motto arose out which you have the profligacy to of thy stupid aristocratical inso- avow. lence. You thought that even You first speak of the dangers these Latin words would tend to which threaten the Land-owners. inspire the vulgar, as you call You say that one part of the them, with reverence for you.-Land-owners clings to the GoYou, therefore, must have some vernment of "the day, and blindly Latin; and not having judgment" supports its prodigal expendisufficient to select a passage that" ture, in the hope of sharing its was applicable, you took one that patronage, and of making that was inapplicable. Latin was La-provision out of the public tin; and you did not expect that "purse for dependants, which the any one would expose your igno-" hereditary family estates can rance. Your habitual insolence, no longer bear; "-This, then, together with the habitual subser- is a very pretty crew to be previency of the poor wretches about served, at the expense of Fundyou, made you believe that you holders, or any body else. might say any thing without being is a very pretty crew, who are to laughed at. be kept up in all their splendour, even at the risk of ruin, starvation and open rebellion! be upon earth a more despicable crew than this? Yet, it is to preserve a crew like this, in all their splendour; it is to preserve tó them their power of still living upon the sweat of the people, that

My Motto is of a different description. It is applicable to my subject: it shortly expresses the point to which I shall come before I have done; and that point is precisely opposite to that at which you aim. This Motto of mine is taken from the Norfolk


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you would commit the monstrous" bestow lasting benefit on the robbery that you propose! You" community!"

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pose of keeping up, in all their ill-gotten splendour, from six to ten thousand families of lazy and insolent aristocrats, who have had, who have put, according to the words of my motto, a large part of the public loans into their own pockets.

say, in another place, "I protest What a surprisingly impudent "that the number of proprietors, assertion! What! It would assist "with estates unencumbered form the labouring poor, would it; it "so small a minority as to make would bestow lasting benefit on "the description of Mr. HUSKIS- the community, to rob three hunSON applicable for all prac-dred thousand families, in the "tical purposes, to the whole middle rank of life, for the "body; that is to say, that the "whole body have their lands so "deeply mortgaged, as to be, in "fact, hardly the owners of the "estates which they call theirs." This is the state, in which you say the Land-owners are. Your object is, to save these Land-owners, and the Parsons along with them. The Parsons are, indeed, a part of the aristocracy; and so is the army, and the same is the navy. The aristocracy have all the livings, and all the high offices. Church, army, navy, colonies; all appear to be made for them, and forthem only; and as we shall see, by and by, you would take the fortune of the Fundholder away, while you would leave all these in the hands of the aristocracy. You acknowledge, that the scheme which you propose must produce considerable injustice; but that it would save the aristo

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cracy. Let us have your words there, for " ey are most impudent and most profligate :-" I will not, "therefore, attempt to deny, that "the course which I shall presume to recommend to the Land"owners is open to grave ob"jections, and that it must pro"duce considerable injustice; but if it save the aristocracy-if it 66 the landed interest, it will "also restore vigour to our com

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merce and plenty to our labour"ing poor; it will inflict partial injury on a few, but it will

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I shall speak, by and by, of the MEANS that you propose to employ for the purpose of effecting this object; but, let me first state the case of the Land-owners; let me state this case to you truly; and, when that is done, we shall better understand the nature of your proposition; we shall see more clearly the impudence and the wickedness of that proposition. I state their case, then, thus, in distinct propositions:

1. That the land-owners, according to your own account, in pages six and seven, are the makers of the laws; that the House of Lords, "(notwithstanding the recent infusion of less noble blood),” contains an immense majority of ancient Land-owners; and that, "in the House of Commons, the landed proprietors form a phalanx, that no Minister can resist ;" that, therefore, according to your own account, the Land-owners had and have, the making of all the laws; and that, accordingly, they have made what laws they pleased.

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2. That they have pleased to make laws to make a national funded debt, an unfunded debt, and a dead - weight debt, amounting altogether to more than a thousand millions of pounds sterling, and demanding, directly and indirectly, more than fifty millions of taxes to be raised annually, the bare collection of which taxes costs more than four millions of pounds sterling a year; that is to say, more than the gross amount of the taxes raised in the United States of America, for debt, for army, for every thing, including the expenses of building a most powerful navy, which building is constantly going on! 3. That, the Land-owners (that is to say, the aristocracy and the clergy), caused these enormous debts to be contracted, for the purpose of carrying on wars and of paying pensions, sinecures and grants; that the first of these expensive wars was, that which was carried on against the Americans, to compel them to bear taxes, without choosing their Members of Parliament; and that the other of these expensive wars was for the purpose of keeping, what were called French principles out of England; namely,principles which were at war with tithes and with aristocratical title and power. 4. That, the aristocracy and clergy did not succeed in compelling the Americans to be taxed without having mem! bers to serve them in Parliament; that they did succeed

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in keeping, what were called French principles out of England; that they preserved the tithes, and the aristocratical distinctions in England; and that, by means of war, and measures of a warlike. nature, they, at last, succeeded, in preventing a reform of the House of Commons, which great part of the nation had loudly called for, and which was prevented by various measures of force of an expensive nature.

5. That, however, the Landowners; or, in other words, the lords, the baronets, the big 'squires and the established clergy, did finally succeed in preserving the titles of nobility, the pensions, the sinecures, the grants, the tithes and the MODE OF FILLING THE SEATS IN PARLIAMENT. 6. That they succeeded in preserving it all; that their measures were crowned with complete success; that they gained a "glorious victory;" that they shouted and clapped their hands with joy, while hundreds of thousands of pounds, and even millions, were voted out of the taxes for the keeping of a jubilee, and for the building of triumphal arches and monuments to commemorate the valiant deeds, by which had been preserved the titles, the church lands, the tithes, the pensions, the sinecures, the grants, and particularly the inestimable mode of filling the seats in Parliament. 7. That persons, so happy as these Land-owners, would not have

been found upon the face of the earth; that they would now have been ready, after vomitting forth their stomachfull of insolence, to die overpowered with joy and exultation, but that, alas! They had BORROWED THE MONEY, wherewith to effect the preservation of these valuable things. They had had the assistance of nearly a million of Austrians, Russians, Prussians, Bavarians, Italians, Hessians, Hanoverians, Danes, Swedes, Switzers, Dutch, Westphalians, Belgians, Genevese, Genoese, Maltese, Spaniards, Portuguese, Algerines, Tripolitans, Africans, and God knows who besides; Calmeres, Hungarians, Bohemians, Transylvanians, Polonese; whether they had any Japanese, I cannot say; but they had, at one time, nearly a million of men in arms, to assist them in preserving the tithes, the seats, and the other precious things. 8. That, however, alas!

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sistance is seldom to be had, without MONEY, and particularly of this valuable kind; that the Land-owners did not choose to go without rents to their estates during the wars, and without places, pensions, sinecures, and grants; that, nevertheless, it was impossible to have rents and all these other good things to live upon in splendour, and to pay upon the nail, the money necessary for the Austrians, Russians, Prussians, Switzers, Hanoverians, Dutch, and so forth! that it was im


possible to pay these good people upon the nail, out of the rents and sinecures, and so forth, and still to have the same rents and so forth, to spend upon themselves; that, therefore, the Land-owners borrowed the money to give to the Austrians, Switzers, Hanoverians, and so forth, to buy them victuals and clothes, and muskets and powder and ball, and hairy caps.

9. That, thus it was that the Land-owners contracted the debts, mentioned in the second proposition; and that their estates became, in fact, by laws, MADE BY THEMSELVES, even according to your own account, mortgaged for the amount of these debts, to the mortgagees, or annuitants, or fundholders (call them which you please,) who hold the mortgage deeds and bands. 10. That, those who lent the

money have a right to receive the interest in full, according to Acts of Parliament made, as you yourself say, by the Land-owners themselves; that the Landowners, before they had advanced very far in their borrowing, found it necessary to pay in paper, instead of gold and silver; that they have now made attempts to return to gold and silver; that they find it extremely difficult to get along; that they perceive their inability to continue to pay in full; and that, they begin to perceive, that it they continue to pay in full, agreeably to the laws which they have passed themselves,

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