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Such sciences as botany and zoology may be studied by a prospective farmer, independent of their particular applications in agriculture (therefore general education). As opposed to this, the student of agriculture may undertake to raise an acre of potatoes, and in conjunction with this problem study those phases of plant and animal life which are essential to the success of his enterprise.

A girl may study the mechanical principles of movement of air currents as a matter of physics (general). As opposed to this, she may be instructed in the practical problems of making various types of stoves burn effectively, and in conjunction with this problem such matters relating to the circulation of air currents in stoves as will reinforce her practical experience.

In view of academic traditions, it is not difficult to teach various sciences, as well as mathematics and drawing, as separate abstract subjects. It is now generally believed that for most pupils, at least, the learning of these subjects in the abstract does not contribute to efficient vocational training. On the other hand, the integral correlation of phases of these technical studies with practical work presents obvious pedagogical difficulties, but its vocational value is unquestioned.


1. Vocational schools classified.-Vocational education in schools, like other forms of education, may be carried on in day schools (in which the student is under the control of the school for substantially all of his working time); evening schools. (in which the student is regularly employed, and is under direction of the school only for his evening hours); or continuation schools (in which the student is regularly employed, and is under control of the school only for a limited number of hours taken from his working day). These schools may be further classified as follows:

Day vocational schools:

(a) Unified, or combined.
(b) Dual, or cooperative-

(1) Full responsibility.
(2) Part responsibility.

Evening vocational schools:

(a) Preparatory.

(b) Extension.

Continuation vocational schools:

(a) Preparatory.

(b) Extension.

2 (Definition). A day school for vocational education is one which requires that the pupil be under the direction of the school for substantially the greater part of each working day, for at least five days in each week, for the major portion of each year.

Day vocational schools are of several types, according as the practical or productive work in them is done under the same roof and in

direct relation to the technical instruction, or separately from it. Among these are the "unified" or "combined" type, and the "dual" or "cooperative" type.

3 (Definition). A day vocational school of the unified or combined type is one in which all phases of a complete program of vocational education are carried on under one roof, or general building, under the immediate control and direction of the school.

The following are examples of unified, or combined, day vocational schools: A medical college immediately controlling its own hospital, and opportunities for clinical and practical work; an engineering college possessing its own shops, summer camps, mines, etc., for experimental and practical work; an agricultural school owning its own farms, gardens, and live stock; a commercial. school with differentiated opportunities for various forms of practical work in accounting, typewriting, salesmanship, etc.; an industrial school having its own productive shops and other facilities for constructive work; a home-making school owning a house or apartment in which practical housekeeping is carried on, including such branches as cooking, sewing, laundering, care of rooms, nursing, etc.

It is a present tendency in vocational education to insist that the practical work given in training shall be of a productive, commercially profitable, and marketable character. Hence, we have instances of medical colleges managing serviceable hospitals; normal schools using as practice schools public schools in the community; schools of carpentry leasing or buying land, erecting buildings, and selling the same; dressmaking schools marketing their product ; electrical workers' schools doing necessary labor about school buildings; printing schools taking orders on a commercial scale; homemaking schools supplying meals and other products for sale or use outside; etc.

A few instances exist where day vocational schools have complete control of practical work carried on within the confines of an industrial or other establishment at some little distance, but which is, nevertheless, completely under the control of the instructing force of the school.

4 (Definition). A day vocational school is of the dual or cooperative type when the complete program of vocational training involves the cooperation or other relationship of two agencies, one, more specifically the school, giving technical and related instruction, and the other an institution or agency having commercial or practical ends in view, but placed in a cooperative relationship as a means of furnishing opportunities for practical experience to properly prepare pupils.

The dual, or cooperative, day vocational school is of two distinct types, according as (a) the authorities in control of the school also

control the adjustment and assignment of the practical and productive work as this may be used for educational purposes, or (b) the control of the practical work for learners is independent of the school authorities.

5 (Definition). A day vocational school of the dual or cooperative type is a full-responsibility school when it has the direction of the arrangement of practical work for learners when this is carried on in independent establishments.

The following are examples of day vocational schools of the cooperative type having full responsibility: A medical college sending its students into hospital practice in a hospital under other management, but with arrangements whereby the work done by the students shall be completely under the direction of the college authorities; a normal school sending its students into the public schools of a local community, the students remaining completely under the direction of the normal school authorities; a group of engineering students taking a job of practical work, to be carried out wholly under the direction of the college authorities; an industrial school sending a group of boys into an industrial establishment, where equipment and space are placed at their disposal for carrying out productive work, the actual program of such work being under the direction of the school authorities; an agricultural school, the pupils in which carry on, on their home farms, practical productive work under the complete direction of the school.

6 (Definition). A day vocational school of the dual or cooperative type is a part-responsibility school when the actual work of students sent into other establishments for purposes of practical training is controlled by, and largely under, the direction of the industrial establishment itself.

The following are examples of the dual or cooperative type having part responsibility: A normal school sending its students into public schools where these students are not under the control of the normal school, for the sake of practical experience; an engineering school arranging that its students shall have opportunities for practical work on railroads, in mines, and elsewhere, in the capacity of assistants or laborers; a commercial school sending its students into offices or mercantile establishments during busy seasons or at other times, for practical experience; an industrial school arranging the group of its students who shall, during alternate weeks, or at other regular intervals, work as apprentices, assistants, or laborers in industrial establishments; an agricultural school sending its pupils out on farms for practical experience, or in cooperation with parents or others in carrying out practical processes on the farm; a homemaking school sending its pupils into their own homes to carry on the home processes, subject to the requirements of the home itself.

(a) The day vocational school of the cooperative "part responsibility" type must not be confused with the "part-time" school, which receives pupils from industrial establishments where they are already employed. (This type of school will later be defined as a modified form of continuation school.) At times the actual distinctions in character between the operations of the two schools. may be difficult to define; but the essential difference is determined by the fact that in one type the pupils go from the school to the employing establishment with a view to obtaining practical experience, whereas in the other type the pupils go from the employing establishment to the schools for the purpose of obtaining supplemental training. The latter is properly "trade-extension training," discussed under continuation education.

(b) The efficiency of any form of dual or cooperative vocational education depends upon the degree to which the practical experience obtained in the shop and the technical instruction obtained in the school are coordinated, correlated, and integrated. In some existing so-called part-time plans the practical work of the pupil is only remotely related to the technical instruction. Such an arrangement results in poor vocational education. An agricultural student spending his summers on a farm will obtain valuable practical experience, but much of it, being unrelated to his school work, will not constitute a valuable part of vocational education. Technical instruction in homemaking, without practical experience under the direction of the school, is but poorly supplemented by the miscellaneous practical experience obtained at home. To send a commercial pupil into an office or mercantile establishment during a busy season is much better than no practical experience during the course of school training; but such practical experience will be related only remotely to the concrete teaching. Normal schools find the practice of sending students into schools not under their direct control of doubtful value, and in any case helpful only in the last stages of their vocational training.

(c) Theoretically, vocational training under cooperative or dual arrangements should ultimately prove the most effective, if proper coordination of the separate agencies can be procured, because then the required practical experience is obtained under genuinely commercial conditions, a situation most difficult to develop in a unified day vocational school. Satisfactory coordination of effort between school and commercial establishment for dual or cooperative vocational training is now difficult to obtain, partly (a) because commercial and industrial establishments conducted for profit are indisposed to advance learners through successive stages of practical work, and (b) because teachers of technical studies are indisposed or unable to adjust technical instruction to the requirements of practical

experience, preferring to teach technical studies on some purely logical basis. In time the following two methods of meeting these difficulties may be developed:

(1) Vocational schools having groups of pupils in need of, and ready for, practical experience may offer the services of these to industrial establishments on suitable terms, on condition that these pupils, under the supervision of instructors, be allowed to fit into practical work at such places and to such degrees as will be educationally profitable, while at the same time involving no economic loss on the part of the employer. (This arrangement would be especially suited to pupils from 14 to 18 years of age.)

(2) Teachers of technical subjects will be required to adjust their instruction so that, as their students who are regularly employed in establishments are advanced from stage to stage of work, the technical teacher will adjust his training to the requirements of the practical work. This will usually require that subjects of study based upon purely logical foundations in technical subjects be replaced by short unit courses and exercises based upon the practical work of the student.

7 (Definition).

Evening vocational schools are schools in which the hours of instruction lie outside of the customary working day. Evening vocational schools are of two types, extension and preparatory.

8 (Definition). The extension evening vocational school is a school in which a young person already employed in some occupation receives, during evening hours, vocational education in subjects closely correlated with the work which he follows during the day, and calculated to assist him toward greater efficiency or more advanced work in that calling.

The following are examples: A young man following the trade of machinist, receiving an evening-school training in mechanical drawing and calculations related to his work, or practical instruction on machines closely related to those he operates during the day, or calculated to give him more technical knowledge of them; a man already engaged in raising poultry, obtaining in night classes technical instruction in the more scientific phases of poultry raising; a man engaged during the day in the practice of medicine, law, or engineering, studying in an appropriate evening school subjects related to his professional work; a domestic employed in a home, studying more advanced phases of cooking and sewing, in evening classes.

9 (Definition). Preparatory evening vocational schools are those in which is offered vocational training unrelated to the occupation followed by the student during the day.

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