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The advantages of this new system of heating over any other in use are many. It can be used wherever incandescent lights are in use. There is no smoke, no combustion; no gaseous by-products are thrown off ; it creates neither dust nor odor; requires neither fuel, reservoir, or special apparatus. It does not consume oxygen from the air and, spread out flat on the floor, one of the thermopile rugs, for instance, furnishes a mild, steady and permanent source of heat, evenly distributed over a very large surface. The feet of persons occupying a room heated in this way will always be warm and their heads cool.
For bedroom use the thermopile fabrics are made up into bed comforts, chair backs, foot warmers and even nightgowns.
The system is said not to be especially expensive when it is considered that it instantly transforms into heat all the elec
ELECTRIC HEATING BANDAGES. tricity it receives and that the instant the electric current is shut off the cost of threads and have been found to be very operation entirely ceases.
efficacious in cases of rheumatism and The electric carpets are made so as to other diseases in which a steady applicagive from 85 to 95 degrees of heat above tion of heat is prescribed. the surrounding atmosphere, while cover- The mean consumption of electricity lets and other articles for use in bed for the electric fabrics is as follows, derooms give but 70 to 80 degrees. They grees Fahrenheit above the surrounding can be made for any desired temperature, temperature being given in dry calm air but those stated have been found to be and by square meter of the fabric: the most generally desirable. For medi- Oriental Gobelin moquette carpets in cal use, coverings for the backs of chairs, offices
offices and private rooms give 45° shawls and bandages of any desired Fahrenheit per 1-10th kilowatt or 4-10ths shape are woven from the electro-thermic kilowatt for 85° to 95°F. The double thick
fabrics, such as carpets, incubators and filters, give heat of 50° F. per 1-10th kilowatt 3-10ths kilowatt for 75° to 85° when bare, and when covered 60° F. per 1-10th kilowatt 2-10ths kilowatt for 75° to 85o. The simple, light fabrics, such as coverlets and compresses, when bare, give heat 50° F. per
1-10th kilowattor 2-10ths kilowatt for 65° to 75° F, and, when covered, 70° F. per 1-10th kilowatt or 1-10th kilowatt for 65° to 75o.
Making My Lady's Ribbons
By De Witt B. Lucas
N these days of high pres- modern ribbon mill in that city in which sure work and large the complete evolution of the ribbon achievement in every line from the raw material to the finished of industry, it would be article could be intelligently followed. interesting to know how This particular mill produces forty
many shoppers give a sin- two thousand yards of ribbon a day-or gle second's thought to the many proc- more than twenty-five miles. It would esses through which an article of wear be interesting to go on and figure out or a piece of goods must go before it at the weekly, monthly and yearly output of last finds a temporary resting place on the this one mill, and those mathematically shelves and counters of the retail shop- inclined are at liberty to do so. keeper. Take the ribbon, for example. In order to achieve this enormous pro
Just how the weaving of ribbons orig- duction, nothing has been lost sight of. inated is not recorded. Like all other The windows are constructed so as to great industries of to-day, it probably throw no shadows upon the work. Even first had a beginning in very humble, un- the very air itself is filtered and washed pretentious environment, and steadily free from all impurities, and the temgrew in magnitude with the other de
perature is kept absolutely stationary all partments of the textile industry.
the year round. Electricity is the power Philadelphia is a great textile center, used to operate the looms and other maand it was not a difficult matter to find chines, each loom being driven by an in
dividual motor under instant control of the operator.
There are two operations which the raw silk must undergo before it is ready for the weaver. . It must first be "thrown, which consists in unwinding the delicate filiments from the cocoon, freeing them from
the natural gum in which they are incased and spinning or twisting these filiments into "singles," three or four of which are “thrown" together to form the silk thread. These ond of the preliminary operations before threads are then twisted together in op- weaving, and the thrown silk is usually posite directions to form the "end" of purchased in bulk and dyed to order.
" proper weight for the warp and filling. After the skeins are received from the
Some idea of the delicate fineness of dyer, they are opened up and placed upon these silk ends, which go to form the revolving reels from which the silk is warp and filling can be gained from the wound upon spools situated directly fact that one pound of this silk will reach above the reel. a distance of 146,286 yards.
When the silk is wound upon the Dyeing the thrown silk forms the sec- spools, it is ready for the second step in the manufacture of ribbons. “Laying moment upon the third step, namely,warp" it is called. The spools are placed the winding of "quills” for the shuttles. upon large racks or frames, each spool This operation is known to the ribbon setting loosely upon a pin around which weaver as "quilling" or "doubling. it revolves, the thread or "end" as it is This process is somewhat similar to now known, passes through one slit in winding the silk upon the spools, except a fine comb-like gauge together with that the thread is wound from the spools from eighty to seven hundred other ends, upon the small bobbins or quills, that, according to the width the ribbon is to contained in the shuttles are destined to be. The
proper assembling of these ends play between the warp-threads. by means of the above mentioned gauge, The ribbon loom itself is a marvel of forms the warp, which is passed smooth- mechanical ingenuity and simplified conly around the periphery of the largestruction. The principle of ribbonwheel shown in the picture. This wheel weaving. is exactly the same as in the slowly revolves and collects the warp. weaving of broad silk, piece goods or It is then ready to be placed in the loom. carpets,-only it is reproduced in mul
Before proceeding to a description of tiple. Instead of weaving one ribbon at the looms it is necessary to dwell for a a time, as is the case with the piece goods
or carpet loom, the ribbon loom weaves simultaneously from thirty-six to seventy pieces of ribbon, according to the width, of course.
The two looms shown in the illustration are twenty feet in length, and were weaving thirty-six ribbons each, of varying widths and colors at one time. It will not be difficult to discern the small, handle - like shuttles, each one containing its "quill” wound filling. These shuttles move in unison back and forth between the warp-threads.
The "harness" of ti: loom on the right can be plainly seen. Each one of the warp-ends passes through an eyelet in the center of the harness and is thus controlled individually, being raised or lowered automatically by the operation of the loom. "The woven ribbon is automatically
wound around a re“QUILLING" OR DOUBLING."
volving beam, each One of the many operations in the weaving of silk ribbon.
ribbon being provided
with a guide or drum with high thin finished in various ways, principally by flanges so constructed that each piece of ironing to secure crispness and luster. ribbon may be readily pulled out for in- After this it is ready for the blocking spection by the weaver or the foreman. machines, where the ribbons are wound Each loom has a capacity of from fifteen in ten-yard lengths from large cree!s to twenty yards of ribbon per day,--that upon the small cardboard drums or bolts is, of course, for each individual piece that are so familiar to every one who has being woven in the loom.
ever purchased or handled a piece of After a warp is nearly exhausted, a new ribbon. one takes the place of the old. The There yet remains to cover the ends of ends of the old warp are twisted to the the bolt with the manufacturer's label and ends of the new warp in opposite direc- mark thereon the style, color and number tions, and the operation of the loom of the ribbon, when it is ready to be gradually draws the new warp through boxed and shipped to the jobber, who, in the harness, and thus the weaving is con- turn, sells it to the retailer, from whom tinued,—becoming practically endless in my lady obtains this indispensable mateits application.
rial for her bows, and other milliner; After a piece of ribbon is woven, it embellishments. So slight a thing as a must be inspected for imperfections and ribbon requires much labor.