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structed especially for the purpose. This quettes made of coke dust and fire clay, furnace is worth describing. It consisted also charcoal as a substitute. The fluxof an iron casing bolted to a bottom plate ing agents were limestone and quartz. of cast iron forty-eight inches in diam- As less than half a ton of iron was eter. The casing was made in two cylin- made at a run, the furnace was kept drical sections to facilitate repairs. To almost continuously in operation until render the inductance as small as possi- one hundred and fifty casts had been ble the lines of magnetic force in the iron drawn off, giving fifty-five tons of metal. case were prevented from closing by the This was secured entirely from Canadian replacement of a vertical strip of ten ores noted for the high percentages of inches width of the casing by a copper sulphur and phosphorus they contained. plate. Carbon paste was rammed into They included varieties of magnetite, the lower part of the furnace up to the titaniferous ore and roasted pyrrhotite. bottom of the crucible. The lining con- Dr. Haanel states that such ores, high in sisted of common fire brick, which from sulphur and not used in the blast furthe bottom of the crucible up for a dis- nace, on account of the high percentage tance of a little above the slag level was of this element, could be smelted eleccovered with carbon paste to a thickness trically with perfect success, yielding a of a few inches. The crucible, there- pig-iron equal in value to and lower in fore, consisted entirely of carbon.
sulphur than the metal obtained in the The electrodes, imported from Swe- blast furnaces from ores free from sulden, were prisms of square cross-section, phur and costing three dollars and sixteen by sixteen inches by six feet long. seventy-five cents per ton in Canada. The contact with the cables carrying the The resulting metal was not only nearly electric current to the electrode consisted free from phosphorus, but contained only of a steel shoe riveted to four copper a trace of sulphur, while the titaniferous plates which ended in a support for a iron contained only sufficient titanium pulley. The electrode with its contact to increase its quality. was supported by a chain passing under The conclusions reached by the exthe pulley, one end of the chain being perts were that magnetite can be as ecofastened to the wall, the other end pass- nomically smelted by the electric process ing over a winch operated by a worm as hematite. Ores of high sulphur conand worm-wheel. This formed a con- tent not containing manganese can be venient arrangement for regulating the made into pig iron containing only a few electrode by hand. The electrical energy thousandths of a per cent of sulphur. was furnished by one phase of a three The silicon content can be varied as rephase, 2.400 volt, alternating current gen- . quired for the class of pig to be produced. erator coupled to a 300 H. P., 500 volt, Charcoal which can be cheaply produced direct current motor. A current of 2,200 from mill refuse or wood which could volts was delivered to transformer of 225 not otherwise be utilized, can be substiK. W, capacity, designed to furnish cur- tuted for coke as a reducing agent, withrent to the furnace at fifty volts. The out being briquetted with the ore. A transformer was placed in a separate ferro-nickel pig can be produced pracroom in the furnace building, close to tically free from sulphur and of fine the furnace. From the transformer the quality from roasted nickeliferous pyrcurrent was led to the bottom plate con- rhotite. The experiment made with a tact of the furnace and to the electrode titaniferous iron ore containing 17.82 per contact by conductors consisting each of cent of titanic acid permits the conclusion thirty aluminum cables, five-eighths inch that titaniferous iron ores up to perhaps in diameter. To determine the exact five per cent titanic acid can be successamount of current needed for the elec- fully treated by the electric process. In trodes used in smelting the plant was short the electric current makes availprovided with voltmeters, an ammeter able an enormous supply of ore which and a recording watt meter. The ques- cannot be successfully reduced to iron by tion of material for reducing the ores the ordinary blast furnace method. was important, as coking coal was not The question of what it costs, however, available. It was decided to use bri- is a most important one. In answering this we must take into consideration the it can be smelted for about six dollars. quality of the metal which comes from The Northern furnaces using range ore the electrical furnace. Less porous and from Superior cannot produce iron for more compact, it is far more durable and probably less than seven dollars and fifty has such tensile strength yet hardness cents a ton. Consequently the cost of that it is especially suitable for car this electrically made metal was not much wheels, crushing rolls and other ma- higher than the No. 1 blast furnace chinery where a very high quality of grade, remembering that it averages metal is essential. Those who examined twenty per cent better in quality. But the product of the Sault Ste. Marie fur- the expense of generating the electric nace agree that it is fully twenty per cent current differs greatly. It is supplied better than the high grade pig usually in some parts of the country as low as sold in the great cities of the East, seven dollars and fifty cents per horse though made from ore considered little power per year. The invention of more better than worthless in comparison with economical water wheels, generators and the favored hematite.
other apparatus is steadily decreasing The cost of one electrical horse power the expense of producing the current. It per year at Sault Ste. Marie is calculated is worth noting that near the great ore to be ten dollars, or two and three-quar- bodies in the Adirondacks are numerous ters cents per day. In reducing one ton of water powers of such extent that they ore, electrical energy equalling ninety- could undoubtedly be employed to create three and one-half horse power was used electrical energy at a low cost and in at a cost of two dollars and fifty-seven quantities sufficient to establish the smeltcents. The total expense of making a ing industry on a large scale. Eastern ton of iron, including ore at one dollar Tennessee and other parts of the South and fifty cents per ton, and all other also have abundant water power near items, was ten dollars and sixty-nine beds of ores which cannot be successcents. The cost of making pig iron in fully treated by the ordinary blast furthe modern blast furnace varies consider- nace. Therefore the prediction that we ably. While the figures are kept secret may be on the verge of another industrial by most manufacturers, it is claimed that revolution with the aid of electricity, is ore in Alabama is so cheap that a ton of by no means imaginary.
THE RUINED FOREST IS AS DESOLATE A PLACE AS ONE WOULD CARE TO SEEK.
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NE of the greatest ing the greatest forests of the world. stories ever written, as True, human beings are not the victims those who have read it of the attacks with fire and the axe, but well know, is the tale woodlands containing trees which are which gives a true but among the most valuable known to man terrible picture of the and which may well be called monarchs desolation wrought in of the forest, since they are actually
Europe's greatest em- equal in dimensions to any which spring pire by fire and the sword. And this is from the earth, and for human use are the title of the book—a fitting title, be- more valuable than any others that grow cause in every chapter, the work done by in America. these weapons of war is thrillingly de- We have heard so much about the scribed.
"show trees" of California that the great Some time the American novelist will firs, or Oregon pines as they are called write a book which will be entitled "With in the state of Oregon, are but little Fire and Axe.” It will also be a true known to people who live east of the title, for it will describe the havoc and Rocky Mountains. The enterprising addesolation which are being wrought in vertising agents have flooded the country the Northwest by the timbermen in fell- with pictures of the famous sequoias
until every one is familiar with the tree sin, for example, but they make up in which has a hole cut through its trunk capacity to a certain extent what they so that a wagon can be driven through, lack in numbers while a company of cavalry have posed Individual mills on Puget Sound, on for their photographs on one of the fallen the Columbia River and other inlets conspecimens, such is its length and thick- necting with the Pacific Ocean are reness. But the Big Trees, as the Califor- markable for their size. At Port Blakenia people call them, are so few in num- ly, on one of the islands of Puget Sound, ber compared with those in the vast fir is the largest saw mill in capacity under and cedar forests in Washington and one roof in the world. In a year it conOregon that their importance is insig- verts one hundred million feet of logs nificant compared with the latter, for it into square timber, planking, boards and is a fact that the larger firs are as high smaller sizes, much of the output being as any of the trees in the Mariposa loaded on shipboard at the mill for South Grove, and when cut down for lumber and Central America, Mexico, and Euwill supply far more board feet to a tree rope. The largest group of sawing than the others. Today, firs are being plants owned by one company is situated felled in the country adjacent to Puget on Tacoma harbor, in Washington, and Sound which measure over three hun- is owned by the St. Paul & Tacoma Lumdred feet from the topmost branch merely ber Company, while the largest shingle to the edge of the cut, not counting the mill in the world is in the town of Balstumpage. The traveler who goes into lard, a suburb of Seattle, producing the country a few miles north of the solely cedar shingles. city of Seattle, one of the first places To supply the requirements of a saw where the timbermen began their in- mill industry of such dimensions it is roads into these forests, will see ruins evident that an enormous quantity of of woods giants looming up twelve, standing timber must be cut annually. fifteen and twenty feet from the ground, Consequently logging, as conducted in some of them so large around that two the Pacific Northwest, is of very large horsemen would find room on the top for proportions, giving employment in the themselves and their animals. Not far states named to fully 15,000 men. It from the town of Sedro-Woolley, the may be needless to say that it is entirely farmers in a clearing sometimes have a distinct from the milling industry proper, dance on the stump of a tree which actu- although the two are frequently conally measures fifteen feet through at the founded and the work of the logger is base. The top of this stump is so large placed in the same category with that of that four couples can move around upon the millman. But this is an error, for it, and then leave room for the fiddler. the service of the logman ceases when
Mere figures do not give an idea of the logs are made up into the raft to be the immensity of this woodland of the towed to the mill or are loaded
railPacific Northwest, but it is necessary to way cars and started for the same desinclude a few statistics in order to prove tination. how this enormous source of wealth to These figures show that although lumAmerica is being wasted. Fifty thou- bering has only just begun in these sand square miles of Oregon and 45,000 states, the forests are being attacked by square miles of Washington, or over half men aided by powerful machinery at the area of these states, are yet covered such a rate that already a large area truly with forests of the first growth of fir, presents a scene of desolation. This is cedar, and other species, the fir and cedar on account of the methods employed in representing the greatest percentage. getting out the timber. Any man in the The four hundred and fifty saw mills in lumber business is well aware that the fir the state of Washington turn out over is one of the most valuable woods that is two thousand million feet yearly, while to be found in the New World. It is the output of the five hundred Oregon not only very strong, but extremely light. mills is fifteen hundred million feet. The You can leave a piece of it in water for number of mills is small contrasted with months before it becomes water logged. similar plants in Michigan and Wiscon- Most of the mills have ponds adjacent to