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WHERE CORNWALLIS SURRENDERED. Nelson House at Yorktown, Va., where the Governor of the state lived during the Revolutionary War.

Wireless Station in Henhouse

By M. W. Hall

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T890937 HILE, to the layman, deep The boys are not inventors, perhaps,

mystery surrounds wire- but they show inventive genius in ma-
less telegraphy a dozen nipulating such defective equipment as
Newport, R. I., lads are they are able to secure, either by manu-
running practical plants of facture or purchase.
their own manufacture. Their crude plants have been inspected

Some of the boys are and reported upon by Commander Alhigh school students, but the more in- bert C. Gleaves, U. S. N., of the Torpedo genious electricians do not boast such station. His report to Washington extensive learning. The two showing speaks of the boys as most ingenious in the best working plants, in fact, are but their work. They have proved conclusixteen years of age and belong to fami- sively that fairly effective wireless outlies that can ill afford to spend money for fits may be made to sell for not more whims. Hence equipment that had to be than $50, with good profit to manufactpurchased at market prices is a rarity, urers; that small, as well as larger veswith them.

sels, may have wireless outfits, if they Still, with this difficulty facing them, can afford operators; that, on shore, the their plants have been developed and army and civilians may make use of the proved to be of such practical value that wireless means of communication, where the attention of the Navy Department the cost of the construction of pole lines has been attracted to them, because of has been considered too great for the their ability to cause serious interference service desired. with the powerful plant at the U. S. Aside from the fact that the boys have Torpedo Station, which has cost thou- set up plants which send, as well as resands of dollars to install and is costing ceive, the ingenuity which they have hundreds of dollars each month to op shown is, perhaps, the most interesting erate.

part of their work.

For tuning coils, glass jars, mailing tubes or even curtain rollers, wound with wire, with a sliding contact, have been made to serve.

For receivers, bits of arc-light carbons, witli ordinary sewing needles laid across them, have rendered effective seryice, though a more sensitive one and one less troublesome when constructed, is the acid receiver, which they have now introduced.

They take an incandescent electric lamp socket, fix it to a table and con

nect with the outer pole, LLOYD MANUEL AND HIS STATION.

then take a lamp, prefat no distant day, to have plants as powerful as those operated on the Fall River steamers.

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The two boys who lead the others in the eyes of the professional operators are Charles Fielding, Jr., a Postal Telegraph messenger boy, and Lloyd Manuel, who spends most of his time in his station, which was, until recently, a hen house. It is to these two that the other boys go, when in need of technical advice. They read all the wireless literature that they can lay their hands on and are well versed in the history and construction of the several systems.

For some time the families of the young experimenters looked askance at the work they were doing. But when the attention of the government experts was

attracted, their elder relatives decided Charles FIELDING, JR.

that possibly, after all, the boys were not erably of the long finger type, cut

entirely wasting their time. Both young off the upper end and remove the carbon,

Fielding and Manuel are devoting their but leave the platinum wires. Then they best energies to the attempt to discover pour in nitric acid, adjust another plat- improvements on the present apparatus. inum wire from the top, and scal up Neither of them has any desire to work the tube. This done, they have only to as a wireless operator for more than a make their connections, listen at their telephone receiver and catch the wireless talk, provided that the wave detector is properly adjusted and the rest of the apparatus in proper order.

While most of the boys are obliged to hold the instrument to their ears while receiving, one of them has arrived at the stage where his receiver is audible in all parts of the room.

An old telegraph key connected with a spark coil, sometimes with a

Charles FIELDING'S WIRELESS TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. spark thrown between two nails driven into a board, serves as a few months. Their ambition is more sending apparatus in lieu of something soaring than that. By making some inmore elaborate.

vention of importance to the art, each This far the boys have not been able of them expects to reach not only fame, to send more than two or three miles, but wealth. Their future careers will be but they have received messages sent at watched with great interest by many peoa distance of forty miles. They are in- ple who like to see boys display energy, creasing their sending powers and hope, enthusiasm and ingenuity.

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Fast Mail in Belgium

By Fritz Morris

IN Brussels, the capital of Bel- the Palais de la Bourse. Here, four mes

gium, a unique system of rapid sengers are employed—and the work is mail distribution is in successful finely conducted in spite of the fact that operation.

this is the terminal point of, at least, This system is simple to a degree. fifteen tram and omnibus lines. A turn Various lines of tramways traverse of the key, a glance at the addresses, anBrussels in all directions; to the cars are other turn of the key—that is all. Celerattached small iron boxes which are ity and precision are the basis of the painted blue, lettered “Telegrams" and system. · indicate the hours of service—from 7 Though these boxes bear the word

“Telegrams” they serve largely for "special" post correspondence. Anybody can drop his telegram, or special delivery letter, —properly stamped-in the box and feel confident of its prompt delivery. Here is an example. You live at Uccle, an extreme southeastern portion of Brussels, and there is pressing need of a letter to your friend at Laeken, in the extreme northeastern portion of the district; you write your letter, drop it in the box of the first tram car that passes, and in one hour and a quarter at the latest the communication is in your friend's hands. So much for local correspondence.

For "special interurban” the same facilities are provided. Special post cards, and letters, are sent out by the first train that starts to wherever they are directed. The special "pink" envelopes are entrusted to the conductors who stamp them and pass them on, if necessary, to the conductor of a second train and he, in turn, to a third and so on. At the

proper destination they are taken to the Belgium STREET Cars CarryING P. O. Boxes. nearest telegraph office and sent out at

once by special messenger. And this is A. M. till 9 P. M. Into these re done for a cost of seven cents for a ceptacles "special" mail is placed by post card, of less than ten cents for a carriers or messengers. Where the lines letter, provided it is not over-weight, or cross, and near those offices whence is not beyond the fixed limit of two kilomessages are distributed, other agents meters. A special letter, mailed in Brusverify the contents. These agents open sels at 7:30 o'clock will be delivered in all boxes attached to the cars which Comines, about 85 miles distant, at 11:30 stop at their respective stations, examine o'clock. A letter sent from Ostende will the contents and put it back to continue be delivered in Verviers 150 miles dison its way, or take it out for prompt tant in about six hours. The "special" delivery, or to be transferred from one mail distributed in Belgium by telegraph box to another.

messengers reached, during 1905, 2,200,The most important station is opposite 000 pieces.

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Never Hits the Bottom

By J. M. Bulkley

THE Whiting shaft of the Calu- a heavy wrench into the hole—but it met & Hecla Mining Company, never reached the bottom. It was found at Calumet, Mich., is approxi- clinging to the smooth east side of the

mately 5,700 feet deep-some- shaft wall, about 500 feet down. Rething over a mile—making it the deepest peated experiments with objects of difmining shaft in the world.

ferent sizes and shapes came to the same The workmen who delve at the bottom end. of this tremendous hole in the ground, Some careful tests were made by the

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THE GREAT ENGINE “SUPERIOR," CALUMET AND HECLA MINE.

are lowered and raised and the copper- Michigan School of Mines and a great bearing rock is lifted to the surface by many theories have been advanced to exelevators, which are operated by engines plain these phenomena, the most generdeveloping 7,500 horse-power.

ally accepted being that the objects dropOne day a workman, entering the ele- ped are attracted and held in place by vator at the mouth of the shaft, dropped the force of magnetism.

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