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tical exercises designed to assist the learner in the
extremely important work of building a vocabulary.
Other means of attaining the same end will sug-
gest themselves to the teacher.

Part Five treats of synonyms, homonyms, idioms,
and phrases, which are in frequent misuse. Many
actual and some apparent synonyms are discrimi-
nated. Common improprieties of diction are pointed
out and their corrections indicated. A somewhat
long list of exercises is added, which will exact of
the learner original investigation, and vigorous, in-
dependent thinking.

To the contents of the original edition of this book,
Part Six has been added in the present edition, with
a view to furnishing material for much-needed re-
view, and further practice in oral and written com-
position. The teacher will find it easy to supplement
the exercises given under the added chapter.

Some teachers may not like the sequence govern-
ing the succession of the several parts of this work.
Teachers must not get the impression, however, that
it is necessary to study the parts consecutively.
Each part is measurably complete in itself, and, to
a considerable degree, independent of the other
parts. It is not necessary that the study of Part One
be finished before lessons are assigned in Part Two.
It is evident that the art of punctuation should be
well mastered before the study of the "Principles
of Effective Composition" is begun. The work pre-
scribed in Part Five should, in my judgment, be dis-
tributed over the entire time required to complete
the study of the book.

It should never be forgotten that in the arduous
process of attaining skill in speaking and writing
English, nothing else succeeds like speaking and
writing. "We learn by doing."


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Applied Grammar

FAULTLESS grammar is the first requisite of good English. It is a degree of perfection of speech to which all can attain. It is, however, only by extended observation and practice that grammatical accuracy can be crystallized into habita habit indispensable to those who appeal to their fellows through voice or pen.

The only phase of grammar with which we are here concerned is the application of its laws. The standard of grammatical correctness is the usage of scholarly writers and speakers of the present time. Like all other living tongues, the English language is a growing language, and is therefore subject to change from time to time. What was faultless English in the time of Shakespeare, contains not a few expressions that are now solecisms.

DEFINITION.- A solecism is a construction at variance with the laws of grammar.

DEFINITION.-Syntax is the art of correctly applying the laws of grammar in the construction of sentences.

Hence solecisms, taken collectively, are usually called false syntax. The few solecisms found in the King James Version of the Bible were not solecisms at the time that version was made (1611).


The fundamental principles of grammar, established by good usage, will now be stated and illustrated.


RULE. The possessive of nearly all singular nouns, and of all plural nouns not ending in s, is formed by adding an apostrophe and s ('s) to the nominative form. The possessive of all plural nouns that end in s is formed by adding an apostrophe alone.

a. The possessive case of a few proper nouns, for examples, Jesus, Moses, Xerxes, Achilles, Hercules, Demosthenes, etc., and of some abstract nouns, as goodness and conscience, is formed by adding an apostrophe alone, thus: Jesus' disciples; Xerxes' army; Achilles' wrath; for conscience' sake; for goodness' sake.

b. Words having the same form in the singular and the plural number form the plural possessive by adding an s and an apostrophe (s'); as, sheeps' eyes; deers' horns. As a rule, proper nouns of the singular number, whether they end in s or not, take the possessive form regularly; that is, by the adding of the apostrophe and s; as, Dr. Brooks's sermons; Burns's poems; Charles's bicycle. The adding or the omitting of the s in such cases is chiefly a matter of taste. The practice of newspaper publishers varies greatly. Whenever there is doubt, it is safe

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